Superfortress bombardimonchisi uchib ketadi

Superfortress bombardimonchisi uchib ketadi


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1942 yil 21 sentyabrda AQShning B-29 Superfortress debyut parvozi Vashington shtatining Sietl shahrida bo'lib o'tdi. Bu har qanday xalq tomonidan urushda ishlatilgan eng katta bombardimonchi edi.

B-29 1939 yilda general Xap Arnold tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, u Germaniyaning Evropadagi g'alabasi Qo'shma Shtatlar Atlantika okeanining sharqiy qismidagi qarshi hujumga ega bo'lgan bazalardan mahrum bo'lishidan qo'rqardi. Boeing to'rt dvigatelli og'ir bombardimonchi samolyot yaratishga qaror qildi. Samolyot g'ayrioddiy edi, 30-40 ming fut balandliklarda deyarli o'z vazniga teng yuklarni ko'tarishga qodir edi. Unda samolyotning orqa qismidagi uchuvchi konsoli bor edi, agar oldingi uchuvchi ishdan bo'shatilgan bo'lsa. Shuningdek, u AQShning har qanday bombardimonchi radar bombardimon qilish tizimiga ega edi.

Superfortress 21-sentabr kuni AQShning qit'a bo'ylab sinovini o'tkazdi, lekin 1944 yil 5-iyungacha Bangkokga qarshi ittifoqchilarning Birmani yaponiyaliklar qo'lidan ozod qilishiga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun o'zining birinchi portlashini o'tkazmadi. Bir haftadan ko'proq vaqt o'tgach, B-29 birinchi marta Yaponiya materikiga qarshi uchdi. 14-iyun kuni Xitoyning Chengtu shahrida joylashgan 60 ta B-29 samolyotlari Xonshu orolidagi temir-po'lat zavodlarini portlatdi. Bu reyd unchalik muvaffaqiyatli bo'lmagan bo'lsa -da, hozir hujumda bo'lgan amerikaliklar uchun ma'naviy qo'llab -quvvatlovchi bo'lib xizmat qildi.

Shu bilan birga, Tinch okeanining janubidagi Marianas orollari Qo'shma Shtatlar tomonidan qaytarib olindi, birinchi navbatda, ularning yangi B-29 samolyotlari uchun havo bazalarini ta'minlash uchun-bu Yaponiya materikiga doimiy ravishda zarba berish uchun ideal joy. Bazalar tayyor bo'lgach, B-29 samolyotlari Tokioga qarshi uzoq muddatli bombardimon operatsiyalarida ishlatilgan. Yuqori balandliklarda aniq bombardimon qilishga qodir bo'lsa -da, Superfortresslar Axis kuchining irodasini buzish maqsadida Yaponiya poytaxtiga o't qo'yib, faqat 5000 futdan o't o'chirish moslamalarini tashlay boshladilar. 1945 yil mart oyida o'tkazilgan bitta hujum 80 mingdan ortiq odamni o'ldirdi. Ammo B-29 samolyotining eng halokatli missiyasi avgust oyida keladi, chunki u 10 ming funtlik bomba-atom bombasini etkazib bera oladigan yagona samolyot edi. The Enola Gey va Bok avtomobili mos ravishda 6 va 9 avgustda Marianadan uchib, tarixga parvoz qildi.

KO'PROQ O'QING: Atom bombalari tarixi


"B-29" ning asosli faktlari

Amerikaning B-29 Superfortress og'ir bombardimonchi samolyoti 1944 yilda ishga kirgan va materik Yaponiyaning ommaviy portlash kampaniyasini boshqargan. Keyinchalik Koreyada cheklangan darajada ishlatilgan, 1960 yilda xizmat ko'rsatish to'xtatilgan.

Bu Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng qimmat loyihasi bo'lib, uning qiymati 2018 yilda 41 milliard dollarni tashkil etdi. Kontekst bo'yicha, bu Belgiya qurolli kuchlarining keyingi o'n yillik byudjeti.

Nemislar uni G'arbiy Evropa teatriga joylashtirilishidan qo'rqishdi, lekin ular Focke-Wulf Ta 152 balandlikdagi jangchi/tutqichni u bilan shug'ullanish uchun hech qachon ishlab chiqmaganlar.

Parvozda B-29 superfortress.

U faqat 3 yil ishlab chiqarildi (1943-1946) va Ikkinchi Jahon urushi tugashi bilan ularning katta soniga bo'lgan ehtiyoj tezda yo'qoldi. Ko'pchilik to'g'ridan -to'g'ri ishlab chiqarish liniyasidan omborga ketishdi va oxir -oqibat yo'q qilindi.

Bundan tashqari, u tezda eskirgan. Birinchidan, u og'ir bombardimonchidan o'rta bombardimonchiga qayta tasniflandi.

Keyin uning o'rnini kattaroq va tezroq Convair B-36 tinchlik o'rnatuvchisi egalladi. Bu tezda reaktiv bombardimonchilar bilan almashtirildi va texnologiyaning jadal rivojlanishi.

B-36 tinchlikparvar.

Mana, qudratli Boeing B-29 Superfortress haqidagi qiziqarli ma'lumotlar.

Ishlash va atributlar

Boshqa samolyotlar bilan taqqoslaganda

Boeing XB-29 Superfortress 41-002 "Uchayotgan gvineya cho'chqasi" 1942 yil Saypandagi XXI bombardimonchilar qo'mondonligidan B-29 Superfortress-da ishlaydigan quruqlik ekipaji.

Boshqa faktlar

  • To'liq bosimli kabinaga ega bo'lgan birinchi bombardimonchi edi.
  • Yong'inni boshqarishning markaziy tizimi bor edi, u uzoqdan qo'mondon qurollarini boshqarardi, unga dastlabki analog kompyuter yordam berdi.
  • Katta inqirozga olib keladigan inqilobiy yangi yuqori ko'taruvchi qanotli dizayni bor edi.
  • Ekipajning 11 a'zosi bor edi: uchuvchi, ikkinchi uchuvchi, bombardimon, bort injener, navigator, radio operatori, radar kuzatuvchisi, markaziy o't o'chirish boshqaruvchisi, o'ng o'qchi, chap o'qchi va quyruqchi.

Pul qiymati

B-29 narxi bugungi kunda (2018 yil) 9 million dollardan oshadi va uni ham sotib olish mumkin.

  • Yarim BAE Hawk Advance murabbiy.
  • F/A 18E Super Hornet ko'p funktsiyali jangchining 1/8 qismi.
  • 1/200 B-2 yashirin bombardimonchi.
  • Britaniyaning Vulkan strategik bombardimonchi samolyotining 85 foizi savdolashadi, chunki u xuddi shu bomba yukini bir xil diapazonda tashiy oladi, lekin B-29dan ikki baravar tezlikda va 4 mil balandlikda.
  • 450 ta yangi Ford Focus xetchbek mashinasi, bepul xizmat ko'rsatiladi!

B-29 uchun ishlatiladi

  • Strategik bombardimonchi bo'lishdan tashqari, u havo-dengizda qutqarish, elektron razvedka yig'ish va ob-havo razvedkasi uchun ham ishlatilgan.
  • 1949 yilda sun'iy yo'ldosh orqali emas, balki samolyotlar orqali televidenie tarqatish g'oyasini sinab ko'rish uchun B-29 tasmasi ishlatilgan. Tizim Stratovision deb nomlangan va yillar davomida uni ishlab chiqishga urinishlar bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, oxir-oqibat muvaffaqiyat qozonmagan.
  • U McDonnell XF-85 Goblin parazit jangchilarini tashuvchi ona kema bo'lishning muvaffaqiyatsiz kontseptsiyasi bilan tajriba o'tkazish uchun ishlatilgan.
  • KB-29-lar deb nomlangan konvertatsiya qilingan superforesslar o'sha paytdagi radikal havodan yonilg'i quyish g'oyasini o'rganish uchun ishlatilgan. Keyinchalik 282 samolyotni yonilg'i quyish uchun strategik tankerlarga muvaffaqiyatli aylantirildi.

Yaqin qarindoshlar

Dvigatellari kuchliroq va samolyotlari kuchliroq bo'lgan B-50 Superfortress 1948 yilda taqdim etilgan. Bu butun dunyo bo'ylab uzluksiz parvoz qilgan birinchi samolyot edi. Vashington deb nomlangan B-50 versiyasi, 1950 -yillarda inglizlar tomonidan qisqa vaqt ichida to'xtatuvchi samolyot sifatida ishlatilgan.

Boeing B-50D. Rasm: RuthAS / CC BY 3.0

Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida bir nechta B-29 samolyotlari Sovet hududiga favqulodda qo'nishga majbur bo'lgan. Sovetlar teskari muhandislik orqali o'z B-29 versiyasini ishlab chiqish imkoniyatidan foydalanishdi.

U Tu-4 Tupolev deb nomlangan va Sovet qurol-yarog'idagi muhim bo'shliqni to'ldirgan, chunki u o'sha paytda hech qanday strategik bombardimonchi yo'q edi. Hammasi bo'lib 847 ta bino qurilgan va oz qismi kommunistik Xitoyga berilgan.

Tu-4 Tupolev, Rossiya Harbiy-havo kuchlarining markaziy muzeyida, Monino. Surat: Maarten / CC BY 2.0

Sovetlarning Tu-4 variantlarini ishlab chiqish urinishlari muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. Har biri atigi 1 ta samolyot Tu-70 yo'lovchi tashuvchi Tupolev va uzoqroq masofaga ega bo'lgan Tu-80dan qurilgan. Na seriyali ishlab chiqarishga o'tdi.

Xitoyliklar KJ-1AEWC Project 926 deb nomlangan havodan erta ogohlantirish radarlari bilan jihozlangan TU-4 ni ishlab chiqishga harakat qilishdi. 1969 yil faqat 1 tasi qurilgan. Xitoy hukumati tomonidan 40 ta erga asoslangan radarga teng degan ba'zi noto'g'ri dalillarga qaramay. , Xalqlar ozodlik armiyasi havo kuchlari tomonidan tezda eskirgan deb hisoblandi va loyiha bekor qilindi.

KJ-1 AEWC Xitoy aviatsiya muzeyida. Rasm: allen watkin – CC BY-SA 2.0

B-29 va atom bombasi

“Endi men dunyoni vayron qiluvchi o'limga aylandim. ” –J.Robert Oppenxaymer, AQShning atom bombasini yaratish loyihasi rahbari.

Atom bombasi urushda atigi ikki marta ishlatilgan va har ikkisi ham B-29 tomonidan etkazib berilgan. Natijada, B-29 ko'pincha o'z faoliyati davomida atom bombasi bilan bog'liq edi.

1945 yil 6 -avgust Enola Gey, B-29 uchuvchining onasi nomidan, Xirosimaga birinchi atom bombasini tashladi. Portlash oqibatida 75 ming yapon halok bo‘ldi, 70 ming kishi jarohatlandi va shaharning 69 foizi vayron bo‘ldi.

B-29 superforessi Enola Gay 82

B-29 qo'ng'irog'i Vokzal uch kundan keyin Nagasakiga ikkinchi atom bombasini tashladi. Portlash oqibatida 35 ming yapon halok bo‘ldi, 60 ming kishi yaralandi va shaharning 44 foizi vayron bo‘ldi. Samolyot o'zining oddiy uchuvchisi kapitan Frederik Bok sharafiga nomlangan, ammo o'sha kuni uni mayor Charlz Suini boshqargan.

Boing B-29 "Bockscar" burun san'ati

1950 yilda B-29 Nyu-Meksiko shtatida portlovchi qurilmalari o'rnatilgan atom bombalarini tashiyotganida tog'ga quladi. Hech qanday radioaktiv ifloslanish yo'q edi va AQSh harbiylariga ko'ra, hech qachon bomba portlash ehtimoli yo'q edi, chunki ular tayyorlanmagan edi.

Sovet samolyotlari tashlagan birinchi atom bombasini Tu-4 Tupolev Bull, B-29 ning teskari muhandislik nusxasi olib keldi.


HistoryLink.org

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining yutuqlari bilan mashhur bo'lgan Boeing Superfortress urushdan oldin o'ylab topilgan. B-29 urushning o'rta nuqtasi yaqinida tug'ilgan, 1942 yil 21 sentyabrda uchgan, mojaro paytida ko'p miqdorda qurilgan va ishlagan. U 15 oylik jang davomida bombardimonchi, minerayyor, fotoreknosans, qidiruv -qutqaruv va elektron urush kabi bir qancha rollarni muvaffaqiyatli bajardi. B-29 samolyotlari Tinch okeani teatrida jang qilishdi, ular asosan dunyodagi eng yirik aviabazalari bo'lgan kichik orollardan, okeanning ulkan qismlari bo'ylab, 2000 kilometrdan uzoqroq masofada joylashgan dushman nishonlariga uchishdi. Urushda atom bombasini tashlagan yagona samolyot sifatida tanilgan B-29, Ittifoqchilarning Yaponiya ustidan qozongan g'alabasiga katta hissa qo'shdi.

Tengsiz superfarzand

Superforress urush paytida pervanelli bombardimonchilar orasida tengdoshi bo'lmagan. U Germaniyaning ta'sirchan Arado Ar 234 Blitz (Lightning) turbojet bombardimonchi samolyotini balandlikdagi tezligi bilan solishtirganda, xizmat ko'rsatish tavanida (samolyot gorizontal uchayotganda ko'tarilishi mumkin bo'lgan eng yuqori balandlikda) va parom oralig'ida (eng uzoq masofada) ustun bo'lgan. yuklamagan to'liq jihozlangan samolyot ucha oladi).

B-29 bortidagi kuzatuvchiga u har tomondan "amerikalik" deb baqiradi, chunki taassurot katta hajm, katta kuch, to'lib toshgan texnologiya va bu jangovar samolyot har qanday dushmanni mag'lub etishi va g'alaba qozonishiga kafolat beradi. B-29 ekipaji (agar jangovar sharoitda to'g'ri bo'lsa), hamma uchun tik turgan xonasi bo'lgan nisbatan keng ish muhitidan bahramand bo'ldi, faqat dumg'azachidan tashqari, ayniqsa, ukasi singlisi, tiqilib qolgan B-17 uchuvchi qal'asi. Idishning bosimi, isitish va konditsionerlik ekipaj farovonligini oshirdi.

Yuqori samarali bombardimonchi uchun talablar

1930 -yillarning oxirida Armiya havo korpusi (AAK) samolyot dizayni san'atining holatini kengaytiradigan yangi yuqori samarali bombardimonchi qidirishni boshladi. 1940 yil yanvar oyida AAC bu talablarga javob beradigan juda og'ir bombardimonchi uchun spetsifikatsiyani e'lon qildi: 400 mil / soat tezlik, yuqori bosimli ekipaj bo'linmasi, 5000 dan ortiq mil masofa, bomba yuki, mudofaa qurollari va uch g'ildirakli velosiped.

AAC kerakli yuqori tezlikka erishish uchun, Boeing aerodinamik jihatdan toza, qurolsiz bombardimonchi samolyotni taklif qildi, u dushman jangchilaridan himoya sifatida yuqori tezlik va balandlik qobiliyatiga tayanadi. AAC to'liq qurollangan bosimli bombardimonchi bo'lishni talab qildi, bu esa masofadan boshqariladigan qurol minoralariga olib keldi, chunki ochiq eshiklar (B-17 samolyotiga o'xshash) bosimga mos kelmasdi. To'liq qurollangan B-29 samolyotlari tezlik talablariga javob bermadi, lekin keyinchalik Bell-qurilgan B-29B va Martin tomonidan qurilgan atom bombardimonchi samolyotlar, quyruq minorasi va uning qurollaridan tashqari, barcha minoralar va ko'rish pufakchalari parchalanib, 400 dan oshdi. mil / soat

Boeing va konsolidatsiyalangan yutuqli shartnomalar

Boeing 345 modeli 1940 yil 24 avgustda chiqarilgan ikkita XB-29 prototipini ishlab chiqish bo'yicha shartnoma tuzilgan eng istiqbolli dizayn sifatida tanlandi. AAC va uning qo'mondoni general Arnoldning Boingning qobiliyatiga ishonchi shunchalik yuqori edi. XB-29 parvoz qilganida, 1664 ta ishlab chiqarish samolyoti buyurtma qilingan.

Konsolidatsiyaning B-32 Dominatori Superfortress ishlamay qolganda zaxira sifatida xizmat qilgan. U bir xil dvigatellardan foydalangan B-29 samolyotidan bir necha hafta oldin uchib ketgan, pervanelli pervanelli birinchi samolyotlardan biri edi, lekin uning umumiy ko'rsatkichlari pastroq edi. Ishlab chiqarish samolyotlarida idishni bosimi bo'lmasa, barcha qurol minoralari boshqarilardi. Dominator kech jangovar missiyalarda uchdi, lekin Yaponiyaning strategik bombardimonida qatnashmadi. U atom bombalari tashlanganidan keyin Yaponiya ustidan bir nechta fotoreknosanslarni uchirdi. Barcha modellarning 118 ta samolyoti ishlab chiqarilgan.

B-29 dizayn xususiyatlari

Dvigatellari mahkam bog'langan, aerodinamik jihatdan yuqori yuqori nisbati (uzun, tor) qanoti katta vertikal quyruq bilan o'ralgan, konusli korpusga ulandi. O'n bitta ekipaj a'zosi uchta bosimli bo'linmada, burun, bel va dumli minorali bo'laklarga joylashtirilgan. Aloqa trubkasi (diametri taxminan 28 dyuym x 35 fut), u orqali ekipaj a'zolari burun va bel qismlariga birlasha oladilar. Ekipajning to'rtta bel to'shagi - bu dizayn elementi bo'lib, u navigatsiya/bombardimon radar uskunalari qo'shilganda radar operatorining stantsiyasi bilan almashtirildi.

Idishning bosimi B-29 ga Yaponiya mudofaasining ko'p qismini uchib o'tishga imkon berdi. Urushdan keyingi ba'zi Superfortress modellari 40,000 fut balandlikdan uchib o'tdi, u erda ular hujum qila olmasdi. B-29 avvalgi bosim tizimiga asoslangan Boeing o'zining 307 Stratoliner samolyoti uchun ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, bosimli (dizayn bo'yicha) birinchi samolyot va bombardimonchi bo'lib ishlab chiqarilgan. Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida AQSh tomonidan takomillashtirilgan ushbu asosiy texnologiya, Boeing va Amerikani urushdan keyingi avialaynerlar bumida, zarur bo'lganda, yaxshi o'rnini egallaydi. Boeingning reaktiv samolyot ishlab chiqaruvchisi sifatida bugungi kunda erishgan muvaffaqiyatining ko'p qismini uning bosim o'tkazuvchanligi bilan bog'lash mumkin.

Yog'och, ish stollari, zinapoyalar va pollar uchun ishlatilgan, shubhasiz, Superfortressning Tinch okeanining shimoli -g'arbiy qismidan kelib chiqqan.

Kuchli, muammoli dvigatellar

Wright Aeronautical B-29ga to'rtta R-3350 dupleksli siklonli radial dvigatellarni taqdim etdi, ular o'sha paytda eng kuchli bo'lgan, 2200 ot kuchiga ega edi. Har bir dvigatelda General-Electric egizak turbo-zaryadlovchi qurilmalari o'rnatildi, bu R-3350-ga maksimal quvvatni 30 000 fut balandlikda ushlab turishga imkon berdi, bu Superfortress-ga yuqori balandlikda ham, balandlikda ham yuqori tezlikda ishlash imkoniyatini berdi. Biroq, dvigatellar yong'inlari B-29ni erta xizmat paytida yoqib yubordi. Dvigatel va havo korpusi komponentlaridagi magniy (pirotexnikada oq yonuvchi olov bilan yonadi) muammoni yanada kuchaytirdi.

Elektro-mexanik kompyuterlar tomonidan boshqariladigan mudofaa qurollari

To'liq qurollangan B-29 versiyalarida beshta qurol minorasi-oldinga va orqaga, pastga va orqaga, quyruqli minora bor edi. Har bir minorada ikkita qurol o'rnatilgan, faqat oldinga to'rttasi bor edi. Hamma minoralar elektr quvvati bilan ta'minlangan (B-29-bu 100 dan ortiq elektr dvigatellari, shu jumladan qo'nish mexanizmini ishga tushiruvchi elektr samolyoti), masofadan turib ko'riladigan va boshqariladigan (uchuvchiga, shu jumladan dumli minoraga kirishga ruxsat berilmagan), elektr-mexanik kompyuter , qo'lda o'q otilgan qurollar bilan.

General Electric, yong'inni nazorat qilishning markaziy tizimini ishlab chiqdi, u beshta o'zaro bog'langan elektro-mexanik analog kompyuterdan iborat bo'lib, har bir qurol minorasida. Agar kompyuter tizimi ishlamay qolsa, har bir qurolchi o'z qurolini to'g'ridan -to'g'ri o'qqa tutishi mumkin edi. Hamma qurolchilar o'z minora va boshqalarni ikkinchi darajali nazorat qilishgan - interkom tizimi o'q otuvchilar o'rtasidagi aloqani ta'minlagan. Topchi boshqa ko'rish minorasidan o'q otishi mumkin, va o'ziga xos tarzda, birdaniga ikki yoki undan ortiq minora qurollarini o'qqa tutishi mumkin.

Minglab kompyuterlar B-29 uchun ishlab chiqarilgan va ishlatilgan. Shunday qilib, bu dastur elektron kompyuterlarning birinchi ommaviy ishlab chiqarilishi va ishlatilishini anglatadi, garchi ular mexanik komponentlarni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lsa -da, ular "elektron" emas edi.

Mudofaa qurollari tizimi jangda muvaffaqiyat qozondi va urush paytida jangchilar orasida alohida edi. 1945 yil 27 yanvarda "B-29 A 52-kvadrat" deb nomlangan B-29 Yaponiya poytaxti Tokioda 14 ta o'ldirdi: ikkita jangchi tomonidan o'qqa tutildi, keyin qurollanganlar yana 12 jangchini otib tashladilar, shikastlangan bombardimonchi 1500 milga uchib ketdi. uch dvigatel bilan Saypanga qaytib, halokatga uchradi, barcha ekipaj a'zolari tirik qoldi, lekin samolyot hisobdan chiqarildi. Bu, ehtimol, bitta missiya davomida bitta samolyot tomonidan havodan o'ldirilgan eng ko'p sondir.

B-29 jangovar missiyalari

B-29 ni jangga kiritish uchun Hindistonda bombardimonchilar Hindistonda Yaponiya nishonlariga zarba berishgan. Jangovar harakatlar 1944 yil 5 -iyunda Bangkok, Siam (Tailand) bombardimon qilinishi bilan boshlandi. Yaponiyaning o'zini bombardimon qilish uchun Xitoyning sahna bazalari tayyorlandi. Xitoydan missiya yuborish uchun B-29 samolyotlari Hindistondan etkazib beriladigan yuklarni "Hump" orqali Xitoyga olib borishi kerak edi. Etarli materiallar to'planganda, B-29 samolyotlari Yaponiyani Xitoy bazalaridan urdi. Bu hujumlar samarasiz va qimmatga tushdi.

Tinch okeanidagi Mariana orollari guruhi yaponlardan tortib olinishi bilan, Yaponiyaga qarshi B-29 reydlarini boshlash uchun yaxshiroq joy bor edi. Marianalar yaqinroq edi va dengiz floti zarur materiallarni olib keldi. Tinian, Saypan va Guam orollarida beshta yirik aviabaza qurildi.

Yaponiyaga birinchi reydlar B-29 aniq ishlab chiqilgan yuqori balandlikdagi doktrinalar, aniq bombardimon missiyalari edi. Ular Yaponiyaning urush ishlab chiqarish quvvatiga minimal ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Rahbariyatning o'zgarishi general Kertiss LeMayni qo'mondon qilib qo'ydi, u tez orada taktikani o'zgartirdi. Past balandlikda, qurolsiz B-29 samolyotlari bilan bombardimon qilish Yaponiya shaharlariga olov bombalarini tashladi. Bu hujumlar tarixdagi eng dahshatli hujum edi, shu jumladan atom bombasi, shaharlarni tekislash va ularning urush ishlab chiqarish harakatlarini buzish.

Atom bombalari

B-29 samolyotlari Yaponiyaga tashlagan ikkita atom bombasi urushda ishlatilgan yagona yadro bo'lib qolmoqda. 1945 yil 6-avgustda B-29 nomli Enola Gey Xirosimani bombardimon qildi. Uch kundan so'ng, Yaponiyaning taslim bo'lish taklifisiz, B-29 ismli Vokzal Nagasakini bombardimon qildi. Ommabop e'tiqodga qaramasdan, bu hujumlar urushni tugatmadi.

1945 yil 14 avgustda 828 bombardimonchi B-29 eng katta kuchlari bilan tinimsiz davom etdi. Yaponiya 15 avgustda o't o'chirishga rozi bo'lganidan keyin ham, jang 18 avgustgacha davom etdi, ehtimol oxirgi harakat sodir bo'ldi. Yaponiya qiruvchilari Tokio ustidan uchayotgan ikkita B-32 foto samolyotiga hujum qilishdi, ikki ekipaj a'zosi yaralandi, biri halok bo'ldi.

O'lik jangovar samolyotning gumanitar tomoni bor edi

B-29, dushmanlari uchun halokatli jangovar samolyot vazifasini bajarar ekan, o'z missiyalarining insonparvarlik jihatiga ega edi. Ehtimol, urush yilnomasida noyob bo'lgan Superfortressning Yaponiya bo'ylab tarqatib yuborilgan varaqalari, keyinchalik bombalanadigan shaharlarni sanab o'tdi, shuning uchun ba'zi aholi, shubhasiz, zararlardan qutulib qolishgan. Super Dumbos laqabli B-29 samolyotlari halok bo'lgan akalari uchun okeanda qidiruv va qutqaruv xizmatini ko'rsatdi. Urushdan so'ng, B-29 samolyot lagerlari mahbuslariga oziq-ovqat va kiyim-kechak tashladi.

Sovet Ittifoqi B-29 samolyoti

Urush tugashi bilan Sovet Ittifoqi ittifoqchi bombardimonchilar tomonidan Germaniya va Yaponiyaga qilingan katta halokatni kuzatdi. Ekvivalent samolyot yo'qligi sababli, SSSR eng yaxshi bombardimonchi, ya'ni B-29 ni ishlab chiqarishga kirishdi. Sovet qo'shinlari Germaniyaning eng yangi turbojet va raketa samolyotlariga kirish imkoniga ega edi, lekin B-29 nusxalangan yagona boshqariladigan samolyot edi (AQSh urush paytida Germaniyaning V-1 Buzz Bomb raketasini qayta ishlab chiqardi, lekin uni ishlatmadi).

Yaxshiyamki, ruslar uchun urush paytida uchta B-29 samolyotlari qo'liga o'tdi va sovet dizaynerlari Tu-4 Tupolev nomli nusxasini teskari tarzda ishlab chiqdilar. Samolyotsozlik sanoatining butun segmenti u uchun zarur bo'lgan eng ilg'or samolyot, dvigatel, elektr va elektron komponentlarni ishlab chiqarish uchun yaratilgan. 800 dan ortiq ishlab chiqarish samolyotlari qurildi.

B-29s Koreya urushida

B-29 Koreya urushi paytida yana jang qildi, bunda dushman portlovchi hujumlarini to'xtatish uchun pervanelli va juda tez turbojet qiruvchi samolyotlardan foydalangan. Bombardimonchi samolyotlar yanada kuchli dvigatellar, teskari burilish pervanellari va boshqa qo'shimcha qurilmalar bilan yangilandi. B-29 samolyotlari urush paytida 26 kundan boshqa kunlarda, 35 oy davom etgan janglarda, nisbatan kichik kuchda, 100 dan ortiq bombardimonchi samolyotlardan iborat edi. Shunga qaramay, Koreya nishonlariga bomba tonnasi tashlandi, bu avvalgi Tinch okeani kampaniyasi paytida bo'lgani kabi. Aqlli bombalar Koreya nishonlariga radioni boshqaradigan Razon va yirik Tarzon (12,000 lb.) qurollari tashlandi, ko'priklar muvaffaqiyatli qulab tushdi.

B-29 samolyotlari kechayu kunduz missiyalarini eskort jangchilari bilan birga uchar edilar, lekin Mig-15 turbojet qiruvchi samolyotlari (faqat) mudofaa qurolidan yo'qotib, ba'zi yirik bombardimonchilarni urib tushirdi. E'tiborli harakatda uchta Mig-15 samolyoti bitta bombardimonchi tomonidan urib tushirildi, u urushdan omon qoldi va keyinchalik yana ikkita Mig-15 samolyotiga to'g'ri keldi.

Supersonik samolyotga ona kema

Supero'tkazuvchi samolyotdan boshqariladigan birinchi muvaffaqiyatli uchuvchisiz samolyot parvozida muhim rol o'ynadi. 1947 yil 14 oktyabrda B-29 ona kemasi havo kuchlari Bell XS-1 raketa dvigatellarini tadqiq qilish samolyotini (Ikkinchi jahon urushi dizayni) balandlikka ko'tarish uchun olib ketdi. B-29dan chiqqandan so'ng, kapitan Chak Yeager XS-1 ni soatiga 700 mil/soat tezlikka uchirdi. Qizig'i shundaki, Sovetlar xuddi shunday tadqiqot dasturida Tu-4 va B-29 samolyotlarini ona kema sifatida qo'lga kiritishgan.

Faol xizmatning tugashi

1960 yil 21-iyunda B-29 Harbiy havo kuchlari uchun so'nggi missiyasini amalga oshirdi, ammo dizayn bugungi kunda Rossiyaning Tupolev Tu-20 bombardimonchisida yashaydi, uning mudofaa qurol tizimi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida qo'lga kiritilgan B-29lardan olingan. . Ko'rinib turibdiki, kommunistik Xitoy hali ham turboprop dvigatellari va radar rotodomlari bilan o'zgartirilgan Tu-4 samolyotlarini havodan erta ogohlantirish vazifasini bajaradi.

Uchta ishlab chiqaruvchi beshta fabrikada 3960 ta Superfortress qurdi. Boeing -ning Sietl, Renton va Vichitadagi zavodlari 2766 ta samolyotni tayyorladi, bu umumiy hajmning 70 foizini tashkil qiladi. Ringon, bugungi kunda Boeing yagona yo'lakli samolyotlarining uyi, oxirgi B-29 ni 1946 yil 28 mayda qurgan.


Superfortress bombardimonchisi parvoz qiladi - TARIX

1945 yil 14-fevralda, Kanzas osmonining moviy shamoli ostida issiq shamollar, Boing-Vichita reysi aproniga 1000-B-29 samolyotini etkazib berish marosimida ko'pchilikni xush ko'rdi.
(Surat: Milliy arxiv va yozuvlar boshqarmasi)

    Birinchi muammo gigantni ko'tarish uchun qanot topish edi. "Tayyor bo'lmagan" qanotni qidirish mos keladigan narsani bermadi. Har qanday qanotda ko'tarilish etarli bo'ladi, lekin tezlikda juda ko'p tortishish bo'lishi mumkin. Boshqa birovning tortishish tezligi past, lekin yomon ahvoli bor edi. Yana birining past tortish kuchi, yaxshi to'xtash joyi xususiyatlari va 105,000 funtlik yirtqich hayvonni o'rtacha uzunlikdagi har qanday uchish -qo'nish yo'lagidan tushirish uchun etarli ko'tarish kuchi yo'q. Qarori? Boeing o'zining "117" qanotini o'z qanotini yaratdi. Qanot dizayni tugagach, uning uzunligi 141 futni tashkil etdi va 1736 kvadrat fut maydonga ega edi. U qanot maydonini 350 kvadrat futga oshiradigan, sekinroq tezlikda yaxshiroq boshqarish uchun qanotlar to'plamiga ega edi. Qopqog'i orqaga tortilganda, qanot juda past harakatlanishga ega edi, bu esa yuqori tezlikka ruxsat berdi. Boeing, eng uzun va eng og'ir Duralumin ekstruziyalari bo'lgan ikkita qanotli shpal ishlab chiqarish yo'lini o'ylab topishi kerak edi. Boing 117 qanotining vayronagarchilik sinovlari paytida qanotning qulashi uchun 300 ming funt bosim kerak bo'lgan.

    Erta, Boeing Superfortressda ekipaj farovonligi muammosi bilan kurashdi. Kichik bombardimonchilarda muammo kam edi, chunki ularning masofasi cheklangan edi. Superfortressning chidamliligi bilan ekipaj 18 soatgacha 32000 fut balandlikda havoga ko'tarilishi mumkin edi, bu erda harorat 50 darajadan pastgacha tushishi mumkin edi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, B-29 ekipajiga bosim o'tkazilishi kerak. Ammo, agar samolyotga bosim o'tkazilsa, bomba tashlab yuborish uchun 32 metr balandlikdagi korpusning 40 futini tashqi havo bosimiga qanday ochish mumkin? Eritma er -xotin bomba ko'rfazining old va orqa qismlariga bosim o'tkazadi va ikkala qismni bomba bo'laklari tepasiga qo'yilgan katta trubka bilan bog'laydi, shunda havo kemasi kemaning bir qismidan boshqasiga o'tishi mumkin.

    Keyin Hamilton standartidagi 16-sonli ulkan pervanellarda "harakatlanuvchi" dvigatellar, to'rtta masofadan boshqariladigan qurol "barbetta" va "o't pufakchalari" bilan bog'liq muammolar paydo bo'ldi. Bu erda qurollar barbektlarni nishonga olish uchun joylashtirilgan bo'lsa, ba'zida kemaga bosim o'tkazilganda va balandlikda uchishganda kabarcıklar puflab chiqib ketgan. rulni kuchaytiruvchi boshqaruv va radar bilan bog'liq muammolar.

Yakuniy parvoz sinovlarini kutib, marosim paytida Boeing-Witchita avtoturargohini boshqa ko'plab B-29 samolyotlari to'ldiradi.
(Surat: Milliy arxiv va yozuvlar boshqarmasi)

    Nihoyat, 1942 yil 21 sentyabr, dushanba kuni, Model 345 loyihasiga 1,300,000 soat ishlagan deyarli barcha Boeing xodimlari oldida, birinchi raqamli XB-29 Boeing maydonidagi uchish-qo'nish yo'lagiga qo'yildi. , Sietl. Dvigatellar isitildi, uchish quvvati ishga tushirildi va Boeings bosh sinov uchuvchisi Eddi Allen birinchi Superfortressni uchish -qo'nish yo'lagidan xuddi ko'p yillar davomida xuddi shunday qilib ko'targan. 52 tonnalik kema asta-sekin 6000 futga ko'tarildi, bu erda Allen pitch, yaw va roll uchun boshqaruv elementlarining dastlabki sinovlarini o'tkazdi. 1 soatlik parvozdan so'ng, u ulkan samolyotni tekis qo'nishga olib keldi. Ikkinchi prototip uch oydan keyin uchib ketdi. 2018-05-01 xoxlasa buladi 121 2

    Birinchi parvozdan keyingi 97 kun ichida hal qilinishi kerak bo'lmagan muammolarning o'lchovi sifatida, Allen 1 -sonda 27 soatlik parvoz vaqtini to'play oldi. samolyotning o'zi, ishlab chiqarish tarixi davomida, samolyot ramkasida hech qanday asosiy o'zgarish talab qilinmagan.

Cpl. 19 yoshli Jon J. Grin, Oregon shtatining Eugene shahridan mexanik, kuchli dvigatelga Cpl sifatida qaraydi. Missuri shtatining Joplin shahridagi 22 yoshli samolyot mexanigi Robert L. Cover tashqi tomondan yordam beradi, chunki ikki kishi Okinavadagi Ryukyu Retto havo kuchlari bazasida Boeing B-29 Superfortidagi turbo-zaryadlovchini almashtiradilar. 1950 yil 09/12/19 sanalari
(Surat: Milliy arxiv va yozuvlar boshqarmasi)

    Eng shafqatsiz muammo 2200 ot kuchiga ega Wright R-3350 dupleks siklonli dvigatel edi. U haddan tashqari qizib ketishga, klapanlarni yutib yuborishga va hatto uchishda olov yoqishga moyil edi. Yengilroq dvigateldan ko'proq ot kuchini ishlab chiqarish maqsadida, karter magniydan, juda engil, juda kuchli metalldan qilingan. Muammo shundaki, magniy ham yonuvchan metalldir. Yonilg'i quyish va magniyni yoqish uchun etarlicha uzoq vaqt yonib turadigan yoqilg'i indüksiyon tizimining qo'shimcha muammosi bilan birlashganda, bu juda jiddiy vaziyatga aylandi. "Band-Aid" muolajalari, masalan, havo silindrlarining orqa qatoriga ko'proq havo yo'naltirish uchun, havo silindrlari va pervanel qisqichlari dvigatel orqali ko'proq havo o'tkazishga yordam berdi, lekin muammo hal bo'lgunga qadar ko'p bo'ladi. Boeing yong'in tufayli qanot shpalini vayron qilgan B-29 parvoz sinov ekipajining kremi bilan birga bosh sinov uchuvchisini yo'qotdi. 1943 yil 18-fevral, payshanba kuni peshindan keyin Eddi Allen ikkita XB-29 rusumli samolyotni sinovdan o'tkazdi, dvigatelda yong'in paydo bo'ldi. Port qanotining uchi yonib ketdi va qulab tushdi, ulkan bombardimonchi Boeing maydonidan bir necha mil janubda joylashgan go'sht qadoqlash zavodiga borib urildi. Samolyot bortida bo'lgan 11 kishining barchasi va zavoddagi 18 kishi bir zumda halok bo'lgan.

    Oxir-oqibat, senator Garri S. Truman (keyinchalik prezident Truman bo'ladi) Rayt R-3350 dvigatelidagi muammolarni ko'rib chiqadigan qo'mitaga rahbarlik qildi. Qo'mita Rayt Aeronauticalni sifatni kengashlar tomonidan miqdor foydasiga o'tishiga aybdor deb topdi. Qo'mita hisobotida aytilishicha, USAAF Raytga R-3350 ishlab chiqarishni tezlashtirish uchun haddan tashqari bosim o'tkazgan.

Rassom Jon Young tomonidan "Bardoshli Eddi"

Boeing B-29 "Eddi Allen" Ikkinchi Jahon urushini tugatish uchun qilingan boshqa jangovar mashinadan ko'ra ko'proq edi. Mashhur Boeing sinov uchuvchisi Edmund T. "Eddi" Allen nomi bilan atalgan samolyot Boeing Vichita xodimlarining xayr -ehsonlari evaziga to'langan va USAAFga sovg'a sifatida berilgan. "Eddi Allen" o'z vataniga yaxshi xizmat qildi, 24 ta jangovar missiyani uchib o'tdi, shuning uchun ular Tinian orolidagi bazasiga deyarli qaytolmadi. Buzilgan samolyot boshqa hech qachon uchmasligi kerak edi va uning qoldiqlari Tinch okeanining kichik orolida qoldirilgan.

    Muammolar to'liq hal qilinmagan bo'lsa-da, 1943 yil oxiriga kelib ular Boeing-Renton va Bell-Marietta 2000-ga yaqin B-29 Superfortresslarining birinchisini chiqara boshlaguncha nazorat ostida edi. USAAFga etkazib berish uchun buyurtmalar.

    U General Electric avtokompyuterli yong'inga qarshi boshqaruv tizimi bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, ular sakkizta masofadan boshqariladigan 0,50 kalibrli pulemyotlardan tashkil topgan bo'lib, ular fyuzelyajning yuqori va pastki qismida joylashgan. Keyingi modellar frontal hujumlardan himoyalanishda yordam berish uchun oldinga ikki barettaga yana ikkita pulemyot qo'shdi. To'rt barbektni boshqarish bitta qurolga o'tkazilishi yoki old, o'ng, chap va yuqori to'pchilar o'rtasida bo'lishilishi mumkin edi. Quyruqchi yana ikkita .50s va 20 mmli to'pni boshqargan. Hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, superfress tomonidan yo'q qilingan dushman samolyotlarining 75 foizi dumaloq qurolga tegishli. Buning bir sababi 20 millimetrlik to'p edi. Yana biri, orqa tomondan yaqinlashayotgan dushmanning sekin yopilish tezligi edi, bu esa dumg'azachiga bosqinchini ko'rish uchun ko'proq vaqt berdi.

    Dastlab B-29 maksimal ruxsat etilgan vazni 105,000 funt atrofida edi, u tezda 138,000 funtgacha ko'tarildi. Yaponiya bilan urushning so'nggi bosqichlarida, 140,000 funtdan oshadigan umumiy og'irliklar Superfortress uchun odatiy hol edi.

    Korpusning 40% bomba tashishga bag'ishlangan. Ikkita bombali ko'rfaz 16000 funtni 2050 mil uzoqlikdagi nishonga olib borishi va bazaga qaytishi mumkin edi. Tanklarni to'ldirish uchun 6988 gallon 100 oktanli samolyot yoqilg'isi kerak bo'ldi. Maksimal quvvati bomba bo'linmalarida parom tanklari bo'lgan 9548 gallon edi, bu holda masofa 6000 milgacha uzaytirildi.

Yaponiyadagi bombardimon missiyasidan qaytgan Boeing B-29 Superfortress missiyasi davomida jangovar shikastlanganidan so'ng Ivo Jimaning 7-qiruvchi qo'mondonlik bazasiga favqulodda qo'ndi.

    Superfortress ikkita asosiy konfiguratsiyada jihozlangan. Yaponiya va Tinch okeani g'arbiy va sharqiy Osiyo mintaqasining fotosuratlarini olish uchun ishlatilgan "F13" foto versiyasi bor edi. Va B-29, B-29A va B-29B bor edi, ularning hammasi bir xil ko'rinardi, garchi ularning "ichkari" ba'zan juda farq qilar edi. Har bir Superfortress yig'ish chizig'idan pastga tushganda, unga USAAFning so'nggi modifikatsiyalari berildi, natijada 3974 ta B-29 samolyotlari paydo bo'ldi, ularning har biri keyingisidan biroz farq qilar edi. 3

    Superfortress Tinch okeani urushida mexanik va elektron muammolarga qaramay o'zini oqladi. Dastlab, missiya dushmannikidan ko'ra mexanik muammolarga ko'ra ko'proq samolyotni yo'qotishi g'ayrioddiy emas edi. 1945 yil 10-fevralda 73-chi va 313-chi jo'natilgan 118 B-29 samolyotlarining sakson to'rttasi Otadagi Nakajima samolyot zavodiga va 14 tasi boshqa nishonlarga hujum qildi. Missiyada yo'qolgan o'n ikkita B-29 samolyotining 11 tasi operatsion baxtsiz hodisalar va mexanik nosozliklar tufayli halok bo'ldi. But, as the Crew Chiefs became more adept at field modification, the numbers slowly began to improve.

    The major factor in creating an efficient bombing machine out of the Superfortress was an Air Forces Major General named Curtis E. LeMay. Nicknamed "Iron Ass", LeMay was put in command of the Marianas based B-29s and was responsible for solving several of the Superfortress and operational problems in one stroke: He ordered the B-29 crews to remove the guns (the tail guns were replaced with broom sticks so the enemy fighter pilots, hopefully, wouldn't become aware of the missing guns). Also the gunners and all the ammunition were to be removed. And he ordered the missions flown at 8,000 to 12,000 feet. Bombing accuracy had been miserable because of the high winds at the 28,000 to 34,000 foot level where previous mission had been flown. Aborts were common because of engines which overheated in the process of climbing to which altitude. With the new procedures, fuel could be saved, without the weight of guns, ammunition and gunners, more bombs could be carried, engines would run cooler and bombing would be done from below the fierce winds raging over Japan. 4

The Enola Gay was the world's first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb. The bomb was dropped from 31,600 feet on Hiroshima, Japan on August 8, 1945 at 8:15:17 a.m.

    LeMay faced a near-mutiny from his crews who were certain Japanese flak batteries would rip them to pieces at such a low altitude. And he knew his butt was on the line to his superiors if it turned into a massacre. But he stuck to his decision and it was a good one. Casualties went down, the number of targets destroyed rose dramatically and the number of aborts due to overheated engines dropped. The air war against the Japanese home islands entered a new and apocalyptic phase where city after city was nearly obliterated by firebombs. The city of Toyama was 99.5% destroyed in one raid by 173 B-29s on the night of August 1, 1945!

    At 2:45am, Monday, August 6, 1945 an ordinary looking B-29-45-MO, serial number 44-86292 sat at the end of the runway at North Field, Tinian, an obscure little island in the Marianas Group of the western Pacific. The engines were run up one at a time, a spot light illuminating each to check for undue smoke or other disorder. The only thing peculiar about the ship at all was the name no raucous female nude in a suggestive pose painted on the nose, just the rather unremarkable printing: "Enola Gay". Sitting in the left seat was Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group in the right seat was Captain Robert Lewis. The Group had been at Tinian since June and curiosity amongst the other Groups was mounting. The 509th didn't seem to have a particular mission, just a few "training" flights to Truk and other low priority targets in Japan itself. They kept their distance from the other Groups, didn't mingle at all. In another few hours, the whole world would know of the mission of the 509th Composite Group and this particular aircraft, the Enola Gay.

    Lifting 75 tons off the runway, she was on her way to Japan. At 8:15:17 a.m. the Enola Gay was over Hiroshima, Japan at 31,600 feet when the worlds first atomic bomb to be dropped from an aircraft, was toggled. Two minutes later it exploded over the city at an altitude of about 2,000 feet. The bomb wiped out a circle 4.5 miles in diameter in the middle of Hiroshima. On August 9, another atom bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Six days later, the Japanese unconditionally surrendered. Thus the end of World War II was brought about in no small measure by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress. 5

The "Enola Gay" forward fuselage undergoing restoration at the Garber Restoration Facility in 1989.
The "Enola Gay" aft fuselage undergoing restoration at the Garber Restoration Facility in 1999.

Xususiyatlar:
Boeing B-29A Superfortress
O'lchamlari:
Qanot oralig'i: 141 ft. 3 in (43.05 m)
Uzunlik: 99 ft. 0 in (30.17 m)
Balandligi: 29 ft. 7 in (9.02 m)
Qanot maydoni: 1,736 sq ft (529.13 sq m)
Og'irliklar:
Bo'sh: 72,208 lb (32,752 kg)
Maximum Take-Off: 140,000 lb (63,502 kg)
Ishlash:
Maksimal tezlik: 399 mph (642 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,144 m)
Xizmat tavan: 23,950 ft (7,299 m)
Combat Ceiling: 36,150 ft (11,018 m)
Normal Range: 4,200 miles (6,759 km)
(with 18,000 lbs. (8,164 kg) bombs)
Quvvat stansiyasi:
Four Wright R-3350-57 Duplex Cyclone twin-row radial
2,200 hp (1,640 kW) take-off, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW) WE, air-cooled
Qurollanish:
Eight or twelve 50-cal. machine-guns. One 20mm cannon.
Maximum bomb Load: 20,000 lbs. (9,0710 kg)

1. Chris Chant. From 1914 to the Present Day, The World's Great Bpmbers. Edison, New Jersey: Chartwell Books Inc., 2000. 136.
2. F. G. Swanborough. United States Military Aircraft Since 1909. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1963. 85.
3. Peter M. Bowers. Boeing Aircraft Since 1916. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1968. 281.
4. Dr. Alfred Price. Instruments of Darkness. London: Greenhill Books, 2005. 245.
5. David Mondey. The Concise Guide to American Aircraft of World War II. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1982. 32.

© Earl Swinhart. Aviatsiya tarixi onlayn muzeyi. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.
Created August 3, 2000. Updated April 23, 2014.


History in flight: Last operational B-29 Superfortress bomber visits Mesa

MESA – As an Air Force mechanic in the 1950s, Jim Mathews worked on the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the bomber that earlier rained destruction on Japan to end World War II.

On Thursday, he traveled back through the decades as he watched the world’s last operational B-29 bomber land here.

“It’s kind of nostalgic,” Mathews said. “I’d sure like to fly in it.”

The bomber, along with five other historic military planes operated by the Commemorative Air Force, will be at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport through Sunday for visitors to view or fly in.

A flight on the B-29 costs between $600 and $1,500, depending on the seat choice.

Mathews, who was stationed at Tucson’s Davis-Monthan Air Force Base from 1951 to 1955, said he visited just for the B-29.

He and his wife have seen B-29s in museums, but he said he needed the chance to watch a B-29 actually fly again.

“That airplane was kind of a challenge for us,” he said, adding that the construction was unique and difficult for mechanics and pilots to master.

The Commemorative Air Force’s history tour brings together an assortment of military aircraft to honor the men and women who built, maintained and flew in the planes in wartime. The planes move Monday to Deer Valley Airport, their last stop in Arizona, for two days.

Mike Selk, a pilot with the Commemorative Air Force’s Arizona wing, volunteered to fly a 1944 Navy SNJ trainer plane in the tour. He has worked for years with the Commemorative Air Force, a private organization that collects, restores and flies military planes.

“It’s just a privilege to be in this airplane,” he said. “It’s fun to clean it. It’s fun to take pictures of it. It’s just a nice piece of history.”

Tour visitor Thomas Moeller came from his retirement home to see a B-29 fly for the first time.

He said he has kept a model of the B-29 in his bedroom for nearly 60 years. When he was 14 and suffering from rheumatic fever, classmates gave him the model to build while home sick.

“When I put it together, I was so proud I took it to class and showed it to them,” he said. “I’ve kept it ever since.”

As the memory of World War II fades, the chance to experience history is important, said Patrick Oakley, the Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport community relations coordinator.

“It’s a win-win for us,” Oakley said. “People just love airplanes.”

Debbie King, the first female pilot to fly the B-29 since World War II, called the plane a flying museum.

“It’s a little overwhelming if you think, ‘Wow, this is the last one,’” she said. “We need to keep these airplanes out in front of the public.”

A B-29 Superfortress operated by the Commemorative Air Force was on display at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport after landing Thursday.

Jim Mathews, who maintained B-29s in the 1950s as an Air Force mechanic, watched a Superfortress operated by the Commemorative Air Force land in Mesa with his wife, Irene.


They were some of the most advanced and high performance military aircraft of their time.

During the Cold War, improvements in aviation technology were important in ensuring that each side could effectively [. ]

The B-29 Superfortress

The role of strategic bombing in war was heavily emphasized by airpower theorists during the time between [. ]

Aviation during the First World War

Were aircraft too primative to be useful? Or did they play an important role in the war?


How the B-50 Superfortress Bomber Became an Early Cold War Icon

Bu erda siz bilishingiz kerak bo'lgan narsalar: While the B-29 was responsible for the three deadliest bombing raids in history, its successor the B-50 never dropped a bomb in anger.

Quiz time! Which secret American military project during World War II proved even more expensive than the $2 billion Manhattan Project which developed U.S. atomic bombs?

That would be the $3 billion B-29 Superfortress—the huge four-engine bomber designed to fly across huge distances and drop those atomic bombs.

The silver-skinned B-29’s four huge turbo-supercharged R-3350 Duplex Cyclone radial engines allowed the 37-ton aircraft (when empty!) to fly relatively fast at 290 to 350 miles per hour and at altitudes exceeding 30,000 feet, making it extremely difficult for Japanese interceptors to catch up with them.

But even as World War II ground on to its conclusion, the Air Force appreciated that the Superfortress’s advantages would soon vanish due to the advent of turbojet-powered fighters. As the Cold War gathered momentum in the late 1940s, it further became vital for the Air Force to have a nuclear bomber that could strike Russia from U.S. bases.

These needs culminated in a new B-29D model with engine power cranked up nearly 60 percent using a 3,500 horsepower R-4360 Wasp Major engine and a skin made of stronger but lighter 75-S aluminum alloy. Together, this lowered the weight of the wings by 600 pounds and increased speed to nearly 400 miles per hour. Other trimmings included a taller tail fin, hydraulically assisted controls, and wing and window de-icing systems.

The end of World War II saw the cancellation of B-29 orders. To rescue the program, the military redesignated the B-29D as the B-50 to imply the aircraft incorporated more original design features than was actually the case—hardly the first nor the last time misleading aircraft designations have been adopted for political purposes.

Only a small run of sixty B-50As were produced in Washington, and these went onto become the tip of the newly-formed Strategic Air Command’s nuclear deterrence fleet in 1948 until huge B-36 Peacemaker and B-47 Stratojet jet bombers could enter service.

A small number of B-50Bs were then built with lighter-weight fuel cells, until the Air Force settled on the B-50D to commit to larger-scale manufacture of 222 bombers. The last model downsized the crew from eleven to eight, had provisions for external fuel tanks, featured a simplified nose cone, and included a built-in inflight-refueling boom.

The B-50 fleet suffered its share of teething issues too due to defective pressure regulators, engine problems, and cracking of its aluminum skin which took several years to iron out. Furthermore, as the Pentagon kept on rapidly deploying new types of nuclear bombs, the B-50 bombers had to be repeatedly converted to fit them in their bomb bays.

When the Korean War broke out in the 1950s, only the older B-29s were called into perform non-nuclear strikes—where they suffered unexpected losses to Soviet MiG-15 jet fighters. With speeds approaching 680 miles per hour and high climb rates, the MiG-15 demonstrated that even the B-50’s higher speeds and altitudes were of little advantage due to advancing jet technology. This led to the cancellation in 1949 of an experimentally re-engined model first called the YB-50C with 4,500-horsepower engines.

However, the B-29 and B-50 by then were at the forefront of pioneering air-to-air refueling technology, which would allow the kind of extended range bombing raids the SAC was aiming for. Initially, this involved converting B-29s into KB-29s tankers, that would use a long hose to refuel nuclear-armed B-50s.

In 1949, the B-50A Baxtli xonim II became the first aircraft to fly around the world in an epic ninety-four-hour flight between February 26 and March 2. (An earlier attempt by B-50 Global Queen, had to be aborted due to engine failures.) She was refueled by no less than four pairs of KB-29M tankers flying out of the Azores, Saudi Arabia, the Philippines and Hawaii along its 23,452 mile-long journey. This record would finally be beaten in 1956 in less than half the time by a brand-new B-52 jet bomber.

Before that, in 1953 jet-powered B-47s began entering service while B-29s came to be retired, so it naturally fell to B-50s to take on the support duties. Ironically, the B-50 would go on to see far more action in these support roles than as a bomber.

Altogether 136 B-50s were converted into KB-50 tankers. Starting in 1956, 112 were further modified into the KB-50J model by adding J-47 turbojet engines from the B-47 bomber to help them sustain higher speeds and altitudes to keep up with the bombers they were refueling. The add-on turbojets boosted the KB-50J’s maximum speed to 444 miles per hour—slightly faster than a World War II-era Mustang fighter.

The RB-50B and RB-50E were photo-reconnaissance planes dispatched on increasingly dangerous overflights over Soviet and North Korean airspace. Some of these “ferret” missions were even intended to provoke Soviet intercepts, allowing U.S. spies to listen in on the resulting radio chatter and radar activity, studying what kind of defenses were in place.

The RB-50G was an electronic spy plane full of special consuls, with an expanded crew of sixteen. This too proved a risky mission: in 1953 the RB-50G Little Red Ass was shot down over the near Vladivostok by two MiG-17 fighters. Of aircraft’s eighteen crew that managed to bail out, only the co-pilot survived the freezing waters of the Sea of Japan to be rescued by a U.S. destroyer.

There was even the WB-50D, a “hurricane hunter” plane operated by the National Weather Service to track violent weather events—and also sample radiation levels in the to monitor Soviet nuclear tests during the early 1950s. These saw so much rough duty that six WB-50s were lost with the total loss of their crew. Weather reconnaissance reports from WB-50s were instrumental in planning the U-2 spy plane flights that discovered Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, triggering the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The various B-50 variants were finally retired in the 1950s, their aluminum airframe aging poorly after seeing much hard use. A half-century later, the C-135 family of planes based on the 707 airliner continue to perform the numerous support roles the B-50 had pioneered—especially the air-to-air refueling technology which continues to undergird U.S. airpower into the twenty-first century.

While the B-29 was responsible for the three deadliest bombing raids in history—the firebombing of Tokyo and the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki—its successor the B-50 never dropped a bomb in anger.

However, it would not be entirely accurate to say it never fired a otish jangda. The RB-53G that was shot down near Vladivostok fired back ineffectively at its pursuers. And in March 15, 1953 a WB-50 flying in international airspace near the Kamchatka peninsula was intercepted by two MiG-15 fighters. These tailed weather-recon plane for a while before one opened fire, and the WB-50’s tail gunner shot back. Fortunately, this time everyone returned to base.

Sebastyan Roblin Jorjtaun universitetida nizolarni hal qilish bo'yicha magistrlik darajasini olgan va Xitoyda Tinchlik korpusi uchun universitet o'qituvchisi bo'lib ishlagan. Shuningdek, u Frantsiya va AQShda ta'lim, tahrir va qochqinlarni joylashtirishda ishlagan. U hozirda "Urush zerikarli" filmining xavfsizlik va harbiy tarixi haqida yozadi.


T Square 45: A B-29 Bomber Returns to its Former Glory

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress T Square 54 shines on static display at Seattle’s Museum of Flight.

The Seattle Museum of Flight’s meticulous B-29 restoration has returned most of the veteran bomber’s controls to working order.

Given its location on historic Boeing Field, it’s not surprising that Seattle’s Museum of Flight exhibits a wide variety of Boeing aircraft. Among its latest restorations is another Boeing product, a combat-veteran B-29 Superfortress. The shiny new bomber, serial no. 44-69729, rolled out of the Boeing plant in Wichita, Kan., on New Year’s Day 1945. Accepted by the U.S. Army Air Forces on January 4, the new Superfortress had its “address” prominently displayed on the broad, tall vertical stabilizer: a black “T” for the 498th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) above a square for the 73rd Bomb Wing and the number 54 as the 54th aircraft assigned to the 875th Squadron.

T Square 54’s first mission, on the night of March 9-10, was a low-level incendiary raid on Tokyo that burned 16 square miles of the city and marked a change in tactics for the Twentieth Air Force bombers. Over the next several weeks T54 flew missions over Osaka, Kobe and Nagoya to mark targets in advance of the main bomber stream and participated in attacks. During a May 23 night raid, an anti-aircraft shell set the no. 1 engine on fire, but the B-29 made it back on the other three. On August 8, while the radioactive fires were still burning in Hiroshima, T54 flew its 37th and final mission to industrial targets in Yawata.


T Square 54 drops its payload during one of 37 combat missions it flew over Japan in 1945. (The Museum of Flight)

During the Cold War the veteran bomber was sent back to Boeing’s Wichita plant for conversion as a KB-29 aerial tanker. At Biggs Air Force Base in Texas, no. 729 was part of Strategic Air Command’s 95th Bomb Wing, flying missions to the UK. In 1956, after 11 years of service, it was finally retired from the Air Force and given to the Navy.

Transported to the Weap­ons Testing Center at Naval Air Station China Lake, high in the California desert, 729 joined several other B-29s as bombing targets for naval aviators. They had little luck in hitting the old veteran. In the 1970s the Air Force, realizing there were few Superfortresses left, ordered a stop to using them as targets. By the early 1980s 729 was among the last salvageable wartime B-29s left. In 1986 the dilapidated bomber was trucked in pieces to Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado, where it underwent its first restoration.

In 1993, with Lowry designated for closure, the Museum of Flight began negotiations aimed at restoring 729 to its original appearance. Retired AT&T engineer Dale Thompson eventually oversaw the project.

Thompson said the bomber was in bad shape when Lowry first received it. “The aluminum skin was very weathered, some of the windows were broken, so the desert dust had blown in and covered everything,” he noted. “The tires were all flat and cracked. The engines were frozen, with pools of solid oil in the nacelles. All the wiring and cabling was gone or degraded. The wartime bombing equipment was gone, replaced by the air tanker gear. The control surfaces are fabric over an aluminum frame, and after all those years sitting in the sun at China Lake they were nothing more than shreds.”


A view of the command pilot’s position and working Norden bombsight. (The Museum of Flight)

Lowry restored the exterior and repaired the damage, but what Thompson and his team faced was far more daunting. The Superfortress was in effect a huge metal jigsaw puzzle with dozens of missing pieces, some of which no longer existed. Rare wartime armament, radar, navigation, communications and bombing equipment had to be found or machined from original 1944 specifications. All four engines had to be stripped down and rebuilt, along with the hydraulics, instruments, flight controls, and oxygen and interphone systems.

Several hundred volunteers gave their time to the old bomber. “We had ex-USAF personnel, people who worked at Boeing and a lot of folks who just offered their time and effort,” reported Thompson. Boeing opened their archives to the project, allowing the team to copy any drawings, diagrams and photos they needed.

“The cockpit is about 90 percent complete,” said Thompson. “During the war the inner skin was just bare aluminum, but at all the crew stations it was insulated and covered with cotton fabric. All the cotton fabric is in place now. The tunnel through the bomb bay is lined too. We have the Norden bombsight and it actually works. We had it running and even an hour after it was turned off, the gyros were still spinning. Beautiful machinery. It looks brand-new.


A look at the flight engineer’s station, which is situated just aft of the copilot facing backward. (The Museum of Flight)

“We had machinists who custom-made parts from original Boeing drawings. Syd Baker built bomb racks from scratch in his garage. All the instrument panels and labels are there, and their surfaces have been done with the proper black finish. It looks absolutely new.

“The control cabling has been replaced,” continued Thompson. “The pulleys and guides are perfect and they operate the control surfaces. The command radios do work. Some licensed ham operators were on the team. We had two wartime pilots in the B-17 and B-29 and told them to talk and simulate a mission. They were so happy to use those radios again.”

Thompson said the team worked a deal with Travis Air Force Base to wrangle up some critical parts. “It’s the only B-29 in the world where all five turrets work,” he proudly noted. “We invited a B-29 gunner to come on board. He settled into his old seat at the gunsight and said, ‘I wish I could fire these babies again.’ So I told him, ‘Go ahead. It works.’ This guy takes the handgrips and twists it around. The turret turns and the guns elevate. He was overjoyed, just like a kid. Then I told him to fire the guns. He did, and this chattering roar made him jump,” Thompson laughed. “We had this recorded sound of the .50s firing when he pulled the trigger. He was smiling from ear to ear.”

Today the revitalized veteran bomber is on display in the museum’s Aviation Pavilion. You can take a 360-degree virtual tour of the B-29’s immaculate interior at museumofflight.org.

This article appeared in the January 2021 issue of Aviatsiya tarixi. To subscribe click here!


Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bomber Tour

Gayle Anderson was live in Camarillo for the tour of the world’s only flying B-29 Superfortress at Camarillo Airport now through Sunday, March 8 th .

Southern California residents and tourists will experience “hands on” history when FIFI, the Commemorative Air Force’s iconic Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, flies into Camarillo Airport. FIFI and other World War II military aircraft will be on display at the Commemorative Air Force Southern California (SoCal) wing’s facility at 455 Aviation Drive in Camarillo, the first stop of three Southern California stops planned for the CAF AirPower History Tour.

Accompanying aircraft include the CAF SoCal wing’s P-51 Mustang Man O’ War two very rare fighters—a Supermarine Spitfire and Mitsubishi Japanese Zero a C-45 Expeditor and several other vintage military airplanes. Visitors may tour the B-29 cockpit and purchase rides in many of the airplanes.

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress, first flown in 1942, began active service in 1944 and is best known as the airplane whose missions over Japan helped bring about the end of World War II. It was designed as a

replacement for the older B-17s and B-24s, with longer range and greater bomb loads. The B-29 was also

used in the Korean War in the early 1950s and was a staple of the U.S. Air Force until the late 1950s.

Entry contribution is $15 for adults and $8 for children age 10 through 17. Children under age 10 are free. The airplanes will be on static display when they are not flying. B-29 cockpit tours are included in the contribution. Ride prices range from $75 to $1895. Ride reservations may be made HERE where additional information about the tour stop may also be found.

CAF AirPower History Tour schedule for Camarillo:

Wednesday, March 4 th , 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

Thursday, March 5 th , 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

  • B-29 flies at 9:00 m.
  • Aircraft tours available after 12:00 m.
  • Supporting aircraft available all day

Friday, March 6 th , 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

Saturday, March 7 th , 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

  • B-29 flies at 9:00 m.
  • Aircraft tours available after 12:00 m.
  • Supporting aircraft available all day

Sunday, March 8 th , 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

  • B-29 flies at 9:00 m.
  • Aircraft tours available after 12:00 m.
  • Supporting aircraft available all day

The CAF So Cal Wing and Air Museum address is 455 Aviation Drive, Camarillo, CA 93010. Camarillo Airport is located near 101 Freeway and Las Posas Road. For more information call the museum at (805) 482-0064.

The non-profit, 501c3 all volunteer organization honors American Military Aviation by educating young people about WWII aircraft history, keeping the memory of those who served our country alive. More information about the So Cal Wing may be found HERE.

The Wing, normally closed on Mondays, will be open Monday March 2 at 9:00 a.m. Aircraft arrival time is planned for noon.

About the CAF AirPower History Tour:

FIFI, celebrating her 41st year of flight with the Commemorative Air Force (CAF) in 2015, is visiting local air- ports in Southwest United States this spring as the feature aircraft in the CAF AirPower History Tour. The tour brings aircraft, pilots and crews from over 60 CAF units located throughout the country together to create an ever changing assortment of touring military aircraft. These aircraft are powerful “hands on” history lessons bringing the sights, smells and sounds of World War II aviation history to audiences across the United States.

About the CAF’s B-29 Superfortress, FIFI:

FIFI was acquired by the CAF in the early 1970s when a group of CAF members found her at the U.S. Navy Proving Ground at China Lake, California where she was being used as a missile target. The airplane was res- cued and restored and flew for over thirty years until 2006 when the chief pilot made the decision to ground her pending a complete power plant re-fit. What followed was an extensive four year restoration that included re- placing all four engines with new custom built hybrid engines. FIFI returned to the sky in 2010 and since that time has traveled coast to coast attracting large crowds at every tour stop. Learn more about FIFI and her tour schedule HERE.

About the Commemorative Air Force:

The Commemorative Air Force honors the men and women who built, maintained and flew in these airplanes during World War II. The organization believes that is best accomplished by maintaining the airplanes in flying condition taking the airplanes to the people allowing them to experience the sight and sound of the aircraft in flight.

Collecting, restoring and flying vintage historical aircraft for more than half a century, the Commemorative Air Force ranks as one of the largest private air forces in the world. The CAF is dedicated to Honoring American Military Aviation through flight, exhibition and remembrance. A non-profit educational association, the CAF has more than 10,000 members and a fleet of over 150 airplanes distributed throughout the country to 67 units located in 27 states for care and operation. For more information, click HERE.


Historical Snapshot

Boeing submitted the proposal for the B-29 long-range heavy bomber to the Army in 1940, before the United States entered World War II.

One of the most technologically advanced airplanes of World War II, the B-29 had many new features, including guns that could be fired by remote control. Two crew areas, fore and aft, were pressurized and connected by a long tube over the bomb bays, allowing crew members to crawl between them. The tail gunner had a separate pressurized area that could only be entered or left at altitudes that did not require pressurization.

The B-29 was also the world&rsquos heaviest production plane because of increases in range, bomb load and defensive requirements.

The B-29 used the high-speed Boeing 117 airfoil, and its larger Fowler flaps added to the wing area as they increased lift. Modifications led to the B-29D, upgraded to the B-50, and the RB-29 photoreconnaissance aircraft. The Soviet-built copy of the B-29 was called the Tupolev Tu-4.

The earliest B-29s were built before testing was finished, so the Army established modification centers where last-minute changes could be made without slowing expanding assembly lines.

Boeing built a total of 2,766 B-29s at plants in Wichita, Kan., (previously the Stearman Aircraft Co., merged with Boeing in 1934) and in Renton, Wash. The Bell Aircraft Co. built 668 of the giant bombers in Georgia, and the Glenn L. Martin Co. built 536 in Nebraska. Production ended in 1946.

B-29s were primarily used in the Pacific theater during World War II. As many as 1,000 Superfortresses at a time bombed Tokyo, destroying large parts of the city. Finally, on Aug. 6, 1945, the B-29 Enola Gay dropped the world's first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later a second B-29, Vokzal, dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Shortly thereafter, Japan surrendered.

After the war, B-29s were adapted for several functions, including in-flight refueling, antisubmarine patrol, weather reconnaissance and rescue duty. The B-29 saw military service again in Korea between 1950 and 1953, battling new adversaries: jet fighters and electronic weapons. The last B-29 in squadron use retired from service in September 1960.