We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Fehrbellin jangi, 18/28 iyun 1675 yil
Ferbellin jangi Brandenburg saylovchisi va Prussiya gersogi Frederik Uilyamni 1674 yilning oxirida Brandenburgga bostirib kirgan Karl Gustav Wrangel boshchiligidagi shved qo'shinini mag'lubiyatga uchratdi (Skaniya urushi). Frederik Uilyam bosqinga erning kuydirilgan siyosati bilan javob berdi, shvedlar yurgan joylardan barcha oziq -ovqatlarni olib tashladi va o'z xalqiga bosqinchilar bilan aloqa qilmaslikni buyurdi. Bu siyosat o'z samarasini berdi va 1676 yil may oyiga kelib Wrangel o'z odamlari non etishmasligidan shikoyat qilishayotganini xabar qildi. Bu uni qo'shinni bo'linishga majbur qildi, bosqinning boshida atigi 13000 kishidan iborat edi. 1675 yil iyun oyida u Berlindan g'arbda edi, qo'shinining ko'p qismi Havel daryosi bo'yidagi Alt-Brandenburgda va Havelsbergda shimolda akasi Volmar qo'li ostida.
Frederik Uilyam bu bo'shliqni payqadi va Gavel ustidan buzilmagan ko'prikni to'sib, armiyasini Rathenovga ko'chirdi. Wrangel Volmarga sharqqa aylanib, Fehrbellindagi ko'prikdan o'tishni buyurdi, lekin bu ko'prik vayron bo'lgan. Shvedlar ko'prikni ta'mirlayotganda, Brandenburgerlar g'arbdan kelishdi va Shvetsiya pozitsiyasiga qaragan baland joylarda mustahkam o'rnini egallashdi. Bu kuchli pozitsiyaga qaramay, Brandenburgliklar shvedlarga og'ir mag'lubiyat keltira olishmadi. Shved o'ng qanoti Brandenburg hujumini to'xtatib turganda, qolgan qo'shinlar qo'pol ko'prikdan o'tib ketishdi, keyin o'ng tomon orqaga chekinishni yopdilar. Shvedlar jangda 600 kishini yo'qotdi, lekin armiyaning ikki qismi birlashishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.
Frederik Uilyam Fehrbellindagi kichik nisbiy g'alabani katta reklama g'alabasiga aylantirdi. Bu Shvetsiya uchun halokatli natijalarga olib keldi, bu imperator Leopoldni, gollandiyaliklarni va daniyaliklarni janglarga qo'shilishga undadi. Biroq, bu ba'zida tasvirlanganidek hal qiluvchi emas edi - Pomeraniyadagi shved pozitsiyasi darhol qulab tushmadi va ularning Germaniyadagi so'nggi nuqtasi, Grifsvaldda, Berlindan 100 kilometr shimolda, 1678 yil noyabrgacha tushmadi. Sent -Jermen tinchligida Shvetsiyaga qaytdi (29 iyun 1679).
Fehrbellin Olmoniyaning janubi -g'arbiy qismida, Germaniyaning 60 km shimoli -g'arbiy qismida joylashgan munisipalitetdir. 2005 yilgi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, bu erda 9310 aholi istiqomat qilar edi, ammo 2012 yildan beri ular 8606 nafarga kamaydi.
Fehrbellin jangi, 1675 yil 18/28 iyun - Tarix
Lui Ciotola tomonidan
Taxminan ikki yarim asr davomida Prussiya 28 -iyunni turli xil tug'ilgan kun sifatida nishonladi. 1675 yil o'sha kuni prussiyaliklar mag'rur harbiy an'analarini boshlashdi. Shtat o'sha paytda Brandenburg nomi bilan tanilgan, uni Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi saylovchisi Frederik Uilyam boshqargan. O'ttiz yillik kataklizm urushidan qutulib qolgan Evropa qit'asidagi kichik o'yinchi, Brandenburg va uning saylovchilari tarixni o'zgartirmoqchi edi.
Shvedning bosqinchi armiyasi bilan yuzma -yuz uchrashgan Brandenburgerlar, Berlindan shimoli -g'arbda joylashgan kichik Fehrbellin shahrida jangga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi. Ular o'z davlatlarining kelajagini hal qilish uchun o'sha erda edilar. G'alaba misli ko'rilmagan o'sishni va'da qildi, biroq mag'lubiyat deyarli Brandenburgning Germaniya bo'ylab tarqalgan ko'pchilikdan kichik bo'lmagan kichik tashkilot bo'lib qolishini ta'minladi. Chiziqning narigi tomonida shvedlar ham chorrahada edilar. Ularning qudratli imperiyasi uning resurslari himoyalana olmaydigan darajada kengaytirildi va ular shimoliy Evropada ustunlikni saqlab qolish uchun kurashdilar. Ikkala tomonga ham ayon bo'ldiki, Fehrbellindagi tutun tozalanishi bilan Evropadagi kuchlar muvozanatida katta o'zgarish yuz beradi.
Quyosh qiroli, Frederik Uilyam va yosh qirol Charlz XI
Shubhasiz, buyuk "Quyosh shohi" Lui XIV boshchiligidagi Frantsiya XVI asrning uchinchi choragida Evropada hukmron kuch edi. 1648 yilda o'ttiz yillik urush tugaganidan so'ng, Frantsiya qit'adagi eng kuchli qirollik sifatida paydo bo'ldi, shuning uchun shuhratparast Lui ko'p yillar davomida Evropa siyosatining pasayishi va oqimini boshqarishi muqarrar edi. Keyingi to'qnashuvlarda davlatlar Frantsiya bilan yoki unga qarshi kurashdilar. Lui XIV tarafidagi jang Evropaning eng qudratli monarxi bilan ittifoqdosh bo'lish farovonligini ta'minladi, shu bilan birga u shunchaki frantsuz yo'ldoshiga aylanish xavfini tug'dirdi. Aslida, Frantsiyaning qudratli qo'shinlariga qarshi chiqish halokatga uchradi. Ammo, agar qandaydir tarzda g'alabaga erishish mumkin bo'lsa, uning obro'si va ta'sirini oshirish istiqbollari juda katta edi. 1672 yilda Lui Gollandiya Respublikasiga qarshi bosib olish urushini boshlaganida, ikki xil davlat bu qiyin tanlovni qilishga majbur bo'ldi.
Bu shtatlarning eng kattasi - Shvetsiya allaqachon frantsuz ittifoqchisi sifatida kuchli an'anaga ega edi. O'ttiz yillik urush paytida Shvetsiya va Frantsiya ittifoqi Gapsburglarning kuchini tekshirdi. Natijada paydo bo'lgan Vestfaliya shartnomasi Shvetsiyaning Boltiqbo'yi ustidan nazoratini kengaytirdi, ayniqsa Germaniyada, Shvetsiya Pomeraniyaning katta qismini oldi. Shvetsiyaning qo'shnilariga qarshi keyingi harbiy muvaffaqiyati Shvetsiya qirolligining yanada kengayishiga imkon berdi. 1672 yilga kelib, imperiya kattaligi yosh qirol Charlz XIga dilemma taqdim etdi. Shvetsiyada resurslar va mablag'larning keskin etishmasligi uning so'nggi fathlarini o'ta himoyasiz qildi. Faqat doimiy kengayish orqali u o'zini himoya qila olardi, lekin tinch podshoh hukumati bilan yosh podshohni nazorat qilsa, zabt etishning iloji yo'q edi. Shvedlar o'z mulklarini saqlab qolish uchun ko'p harakat qilishlari kerak edi, ayniqsa Germaniyada, Pomeraniya va boshqa hududlar bo'lajak tajovuzkorlarga qarshi qo'shimcha front bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Moliyaviy inqirozni inobatga olgan holda, shvedlar o'z imperiyasining barcha qismlarini ushlab turishni xohlasalar, tashqi yordamga muhtoj bo'lishlari aniq edi.
Boshqa davlat spektrning qarama -qarshi tomonida edi. Brandenburg Muqaddas Rim imperiyasining shimoli -sharqiy burchagida kambag'al hudud edi. Uning tashqi mulki kam edi va imperiya elektorati maqomidan tashqari deyarli hech qanday ta'siri yo'q edi. Uning hozirgi hukmdori, saylovchi Frederik Uilyam, o'ttiz yillik urush paytida hokimiyatga kelgan, chet elliklarning yurishlariga va uning erlarini vayron qilishiga to'sqinlik qila olmasligidan xo'rlangan. U vaziyatni tuzatishga astoydil harakat qildi. Uning fikricha, yagona yechim - uni o'rab turgan yirik Evropa kuchlari bilan raqobatlasha oladigan dahshatli armiyani yaratish edi. Bundan bir necha yil oldin, 1667 yilda, u bu fikrni o'g'liga aniq qilib, davlatning "muhim" bo'lishining yagona yo'li kuchli armiyaga buyruq berish ekanligini ta'kidlagan edi.
Keyingi yillarda Frederik Uilyam bu yo'nalishda qadamlar qo'ydi. Tatarlarning sharqiy Prussiya hududiga qisqa bosqinidan so'ng, saylovchi tinchlik davridagi armiya uchun pul yig'ishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Keng ko'lamli burg'ulash va shafqatsiz intizomga ega bo'lgan bu armiya, Germaniyadagi ko'plab zamondoshlarining ko'ziga tushadigan darajada iqtidorli edi, garchi u hali juda kichik bo'lsa -da, Evropadagi yirik qo'shnilarining hurmatini qozonish uchun. Endi Brandenburgda o'z martaba va moliyaviy manfaatlari bilan band bo'lgan yollanma askarlar guruhi sifatida emas, balki davlat manfaatlari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan ofitserlar korpusi bor edi.
O'sha davrdagi yangilik, Frederik Uilyam har doim urush paytida o'z zobitlari bilan maslahatlashishni maqsad qilib qo'ygan. Brandenburg armiyani tuzish yo'lida yaxshi edi, natijada har qanday raqibga qiyinchilik tug'diradi. Biroq, u yolg'iz o'z maqsadlariga erisha olmadi. 1672 yilda Brandenburg tashqi kuchlar bilan ittifoq tuzishi muhim edi, ular kengaytirilgan harbiy kuchlar uchun zarur bo'lgan subsidiyalarni berishga tayyor edi. O'sha yili bunday subsidiyalar olish va yangi armiyani amalda sinab ko'rish imkoniyati Frederik Uilyamning qo'liga tushdi.
Lui XIVga qarshi Leopolddan foydalanish
Saylovchi Frantsiyaning do'sti emas edi. U Lui XIVni doimiy ravishda Germaniyaga tahdid sifatida ko'rdi. Frantsiya-Gollandiya urushini boshlagan frantsuz armiyasi Gollandiyaga hujum qilganda, Frederik Uilyam Gollandiya Respublikasini qo'llab-quvvatlashga va'da berdi. Biroq, uning xizmatlari qimmatga tushdi. Boy Gollandiya, ittifoqchilariga juda muhtoj, uni qabul qilishga tayyor edi va 20 ming kishilik Brandenburger armiyasining yarmini to'lashga rozi bo'ldi. Ammo yengilmas frantsuz jangovar mashinasi bilan yolg'iz to'qnash kelish istiqboli qo'rqinchli edi. Yaxshiyamki, Frederik Uilyam uchun avstriyalik gapsburglar shaklidagi kuchli ittifoqchi frantsuzlarga qarshi chiqish uchun paydo bo'ldi. Tanlovchi Muqaddas Rim imperatori Leopoldni Luisga qarshi kurashda unga qo'shilishga ko'ndirish uchun ish olib bordi va imperator iste'dodli qo'mondon va o'ttiz yillik urush qahramoni Raimondo Montekuccoli boshchiligida Reynga qo'shin yuborganidan juda xursand bo'ldi.
Saylovchidan farqli o'laroq, Leopold frantsuz qurollaridan qo'rqardi va qamalda qolgan gollandlarni qutqarishga unchalik qiziqmasdi. Imperator faqat Germaniyani himoya qilishni xohlardi va shu istagiga binoan u Montekuccoliga konservativ harakat qilishni va g'alaba qozonilgan taqdirdagina dushmanni jalb qilishni buyurdi. U hatto Luisga yashirincha Avstriya armiyasini Reyn ortida ushlab turishini ma'lum qilgan. Garchi u Leopoldning pozitsiyasini yaxshi bilsa -da, Frederik Uilyam Montekuccolini harakat qilishga ishontira olishiga ishongan. Bundan tashqari, agar u jang qilish imkoniyatini xohlasa, avstriyaliklar bilan birlashishdan boshqa chorasi yo'q edi - faqat frantsuzlar bilan jang qilishga urinish o'z joniga qasd qilishdan boshqa narsa emas edi.
Frederik Uilyam Gollandiyani uzoq vaqt ushlab turishini kutgan edi, lekin bir chaqmoqli kampaniya davomida respublikani Frantsiya deyarli butunlay o'zlashtirganida, qat'iyat bilan harakat qilish zarurati tobora kuchayib bordi. Saylovchi avstriyalik ittifoqchisidan Vestfaliyadagi dushman kuchlarini boshqarayotgan buyuk frantsuz generali Anri Turenga qarshi ilgarilashni iltimos qildi, lekin Montekukkoli turishdan bosh tortdi. Uning asabiylashuvi kuchayganida, Frederik Uilyam avstriyaliklarni urushga undashga harakat qilib, ularni imperiya saylovchisi bo'lganligi uchun umumiy qo'mondon ekanligiga ishontirdi. U armiyani Vestfaliyaga olib borishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, lekin Turen jang qilishni xohlamadi va tezda chekinishni to'xtatdi. Ko'p o'tmay, Montekuccoli o'z armiyasini nazorat qila boshladi va qisqa hujumni to'xtatdi. Ishsiz o'tirgan ittifoqchi armiya, oziq -ovqat etishmasligidan qattiq azob chekdi.
Tashqi ko'rinishidan farqli o'laroq, Montekuccoli uning buyrug'idan juda xafa bo'lgan. U, Frederik Uilyam singari, hujum qilishni afzal ko'rdi, lekin imperator qo'llarini bog'lab qo'ydi. Nihoyat, keksa faxriy o'z vijdonsiz vazifasini bajara olmadi va maydonni tark etdi. Uning o'rnini egallagan Aleksandr Graf von Bournonvill ittifoqchilarning mudofaa pozitsiyasini saqlab qolishga to'liq tayyor edi va hatto frantsuzlarning qisqa muddatli hujumidan keyin chiqib ketdi. Frederik Uilyam jirkanch edi. U Leopoldga g'azablanib shunday deb yozgan edi: "Men frantsuzlar bizni ergashadi, mening erlarim butunlay vayron bo'ladi va qal'alarim yo'qoladi deb qo'rqaman va men haqoratli tinchlik o'rnatishga majbur bo'laman". Bu bejiz tahdid emas edi. Avstriyalik ittifoqchilari deyarli butunlay rasmdan chiqib ketganida, baxtsiz saylovchi buzilib, Luisdan 1673 yil boshida tinchlik so'radi.
Avstriya qo'llab -quvvatlamaganiga va Gollandiya subsidiyalarining kamayib borayotganiga qaramay, qaror qabul qilish hali ham qiyin edi. Frederik Uilyam dahshatga tushdi. U Germaniya bo'ylab bir yil oldin ko'tarinki kayfiyatda yurgan edi, lekin endi yolg'iz o'zi urushni tark etishdan boshqa chorasi qolmadi. Lui, aksincha, dushmanlaridan birining frantsuz ustunligini qabul qilganini ko'rib, juda xursand bo'ldi va u tezda saylovchilarning tinchlik taklifiga rozi bo'ldi. Ikki tomon keyinchalik Vossem tinchligini o'rnatdilar, bunda Lui Brandenburgdan hech narsa so'ramadi va hatto elektoratga subsidiya berishni va'da qildi, bu uning mojaroga qayta kirmasligini aniq ko'rsatdi.
Vossem tinchligini buzish
Garchi u o'limga olib kelishi mumkin bo'lgan vaziyatdan unchalik zarar ko'rmagan bo'lsa -da, Frederik Uilyam Vossem tinchligiga imzo chekib, o'zini sharmandalikdan qutqara olmadi. Shartnoma tuzilganidan bir necha oy o'tgach, u uni buzish uchun bahona qidirdi. Allaqachon frantsuzlar va'da qilingan subsidiyalarni bera olmadilar va Montekuccoli Avstriya armiyasini nazoratini qaytarib olib, haqiqatan ham hujumga o'tganda, saylovchi Frantsiya bilan urushni qayta boshlashga qaror qildi. Lui, o'z navbatida, Germaniyani to'g'ri bosib oldi va undan ham katta tahdidga aylandi.
Shvetsiya tomonidan uning orqa eshigiga tahdidning kuchayishi Frederik Uilyamning urushga bo'lgan ishtiyoqini kamaytirmadi. 1672 yildan beri Lui shvedlarga faqat Brandenburgni qo'rqitish uchun Pomeraniyada 16000 kishilik qo'shinni ushlab turish uchun pul to'lab kelgan, lekin Frederik Uilyam ulardan tashvishlanadigan hech narsasi yo'qligini his qilgan. Hozircha bu taxminda u to'g'ri edi. Shimoliy Germaniya qirg'oqlari bo'ylab o'z hududlarini zaif ushlab qolish xavfidan qo'rqib, Shvetsiya Brandenburg bilan urushga kirishni xohlamadi. Darhaqiqat, shved elchilari Vossem tinchligi shartlari bo'yicha muzokaralarga yordam berishdi. Ishonch bilan aytish mumkinki, Frederik Uilyam yana Frantsiya bilan urushga kirishdan oldin shvedlar bilan tajovuz qilmaslik to'g'risida shartnoma tuzdi.
“Podshohlarga hurmat ko'rsatishni o'rgatish uchun ”
Yangi shartnomaga qaramay, saylovchilarning pozitsiyasi hali ham xavfli edi. Uning qaytishini avstriyaliklar va gollandlar kutib olishlariga kafolat yo'q edi. Avstriyaliklar saylovchilarning niyatlariga ishonchlari komil emas edi va Brandenburg yana bu ishdan voz kechishidan qo'rqishdi, Gollandiyada yangi hujum ularning mablag'lariga munosib deb hisoblash uchun asos yo'q edi. Oxir -oqibat, Gollandiyaliklar tavakkal qilishlari kerak edi va ular yana Brandenburg armiyasini qisman subsidiyalashga rozi bo'lishdi. 1674 yil 1 -iyulda Frederik Uilyam Frantsiyaga qarshi koalitsiyaga rasman qo'shildi va 16000 kishidan iborat Reyn tomon yurdi. Saylovchi ikkinchi marta urushga birinchi bo'lib bo'lgani kabi g'ayrat bilan kirib keldi va mag'rurlik bilan "imperatorlik saylovchilariga hurmatini qirollarga o'rgatish uchun kelganini" e'lon qildi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, saylovchi yana bir bor haddan tashqari optimistik fikr bildirgan. Birinchi bir necha oy davomida mustaqil ishlagan Brandenburgerlar Turenni urish uchun juda zaif edilar. Oktyabr oyida ular avstriyaliklar bilan birlashishga rozi bo'lishganda, Montekuccoli ko'p yillar davomida ikkinchi marta nafaqaga chiqqan edi, uning o'rnini yana letargik Bournonvill egalladi.
Oldingi kampaniyasida bo'lgani kabi, Bournonvill, Turenndan son jihatdan ustun bo'lishiga qaramay, hujumni rad etdi. Marlenxaymda hal qiluvchi g'alaba qozonish imkoniyati paydo bo'lganida ham, avstriyalik qo'mondon dovdirab qoldi. Frederik Uilyam, eng ishonchli generali avstriyalik Georg von Derfflinger bilan birga, Bournonvildan chora ko'rishni iltimos qildi, lekin natijasi bo'lmadi. Buning o'rniga, imperatorning tanlangan generali, qo'shinlari o'tgan haftalardagi armiyaning to'liq harakatsizligini hisobga olgan holda, juda charchagan, deb aytdi. G'azablangan Brandenburgliklar Turenga mustaqil ravishda hujum qilishni o'z zimmalariga olishdi, lekin ittifoqchilarining yordamisiz ular hech narsaga erisha olishmadi.
Xuddi shu narsa oktyabr oyida Strasburg yaqinida sodir bo'ldi, u erda Brandenburgerlar frantsuzlarga hujum qilishdi, lekin avstriyaliklar hujumni qo'llab -quvvatlay olmaganlarida, yana qisqa vaqt o'tdi. Bu safar Frederik Uilyamning o'z o'g'li Karl Emilning hayoti qimmatga tushdi. Ammo eng katta falokat o'sha yilning qishida Turkxaymda yuz berdi, u erda Turenne oziq -ovqat va ta'minot etishmasligidan qattiq azob chekayotgan ittifoqchi kuchlarga kutilmaganda hujum uyushtirdi. Garchi Brandenburgliklar kuchli qarshilik ko'rsatgan bo'lsalar -da, Bournonvilning jangni yangilashdan ko'ra, ertasi kuni chekinish haqidagi qarori saylovchilarning ajoyib yutug'iga putur etkazdi. Murakkab masalalarda avstriyaliklar doimiy ravishda kampaniyaning nojo'ya natijasini Frederik Uilyamda ayblashdi. 1674 yil oxirida qishlog'larga joylashib, Brandenburgerlar va ularning hukmdorlarining ruhlari ezildi. Ularni jonlantirish uchun mo''jizadan boshqa narsa yo'q.
Shvetsiya tajovuz qilmaslik shartnomasini buzadi
Bu mo''jiza sodir bo'layotgan edi. Ikki yil oldin, Shvetsiya kantsleri Magnus de la Gardie imperiyani Frantsiya bilan ittifoq tuzishga undadi. U Shvetsiya naqd pulga juda muhtoj ekanligini va agar Frantsiya bilan o'zini e'lon qilmasa va mablag 'yig'a olmasa, uning nafratli raqibi Daniya o'z o'rnida shunday qilishini ishonarli tarzda isbotlagan. Shu bilan birga, yosh va taassurot qoldiradigan qirol Charlz XI qonuniylik yoshiga yaqinlashdi va hokimiyatni regensiya hukumatidan oldi. Xor bo'lgan Daniyaliklar uchun hech narsani qurbon qilishni istamagan Charlz o'z kanslerining maslahatini qabul qildi, lekin Pomeraniyada kuchli garnizonni saqlab qolish bilan shvedlarning ishtirokini chekladi. Shvetsiyada hech kim keraksiz tavakkal qilishni xohlamagan. Ammo 1674 yilning ikkinchi yarmiga kelib, logistika qiyinchiliklari va frantsuz tazyiqining kombinatsiyasi Brandenburg bilan istalmagan urushni kuchaytirdi.
Lui haqiqatan ham shimoliy ittifoqchisiga sabrsiz bo'lib, shvedlar o'z yordamini ko'rsatish uchun barmog'ini ko'tarmasdan, o'z xazinasini o'zboshimchalik bilan to'kib tashlashdan mamnun deb gumon qilardi. Frantsuz monarxi Turkxaymdagi Brandenburger g'azabining hikoyalarini eshitgan va saylovchining ikkinchi marta urushdan o'z xohishi bilan chiqib ketishiga shubha qilgan. Lui shvedlarni Frederik Uilyamni Reyndan uzoqlashtirish uchun Brandenburgga bostirib kirishga majbur qildi.
Urushni sevuvchi bo'lishiga qaramay, Charlz XI frantsuz talabini bajarishni xohlamadi. Afsuski, yosh podshoh uchun, yerdagi haqiqat uning qo'lini chaqirdi. Uning haddan tashqari kengayib borayotgan hududining og'ir ahvoli hisobga olinsa, ko'proq frantsuz subsidiyalari zarur edi. Vaziyat, ayniqsa, Germaniyada juda og'ir edi, u erda Pomeraniyadagi garnizonlangan shved qo'shinlarini etkazib berish xarajatlari ko'tarilmay qoldi. Tez orada ma'lum bo'ldiki, omon qolish uchun armiya Brandenburgga kirib, o'z ehtiyojlarini kuch bilan olishni boshlashi kerak edi. Iloji boricha kechiktirgandan so'ng, Charlz nihoyat hujumga o'tish to'g'risida buyruq berdi. Bu 1674 yil Rojdestvo kuni edi.
O'ttiz yillik urushning taniqli qahramoni Karl Gustav Vrangel Shom armiyasining 20 ming askarini Pomeraniyadan Brandenburgga olib bordi. Shvedlar Brandenburg bilan tajovuz qilmaslik to'g'risidagi shartnomani harbiy zarurat deb hisoblab, buzganliklari haqida deyarli o'ylamadilar. Urush vaqti ideal edi. Frederik Uilyam Frantsiyaga qarshi kampaniya o'tkazish uchun o'z resurslarini maksimal darajada kengaytirdi va Brandenburg deyarli himoyasiz edi. Faqat saylovchining qayini, Anhalt-Dessau shahzodasi Jon Jorj shvedlarning kutilmagan bosqini bilan kurashish uchun qoldi. U kamtarlik bilan Wrangelning orqaga qaytishini so'rashdan boshqa hech narsa qila olmadi. Tabiiyki, na Wrangel, na oqsoqoli podagra kasalligi tufayli armiyani boshqargan ukasi Valdemar hatto so'rovni bajarishni o'ylamagan. Buning o'rniga, shvedlar hech qanday jiddiy qarshilik ko'rsatmasdan, Brandenburg bo'ylab yurishdi va qishloqlarni talashdi va qo'shinlarini to'ldirishdi.
Keyingi vayronagarchilik Berlin darvozalariga to'g'ri keldi. Asta -sekin, shved armiyasi Elba tomon yo'l oldi. Yanvar oyining boshlarida Shved bosqini haqida xabar kelganida Frederik Uilyam o'z qo'shini bilan Frantsiyaning tubida joylashdi. U ilgari Shvetsiya o'z hukumatidagi bo'linishlar va Gollandiya flotining kuchi tufayli bunday harakatlardan tiyiladi, deb taxmin qilgan edi. U xato qildi. Uning istalmagan ikkinchi jabhadagi omadlari nihoyat tugadi, lekin umidsizlikka tushishdan ko'ra, Frederik Uilyam hayajonlanib ketdi. Nima bo'lganini eshitgan saylovchi, "Men bundan butun Pomeraniyani olish uchun foydalanishim mumkin", deb xursand bo'ldi.
Shved hujumi unga Reyn bo'yida arzimagan ittifoqchilarini qoldirib, o'zi uchun jangovar shon -sharaf qozonish uchun ajoyib bahona berdi. Ammo o'sha qishda armiya yurishga puxta tayyorgarlik ko'rmagan edi. Bundan tashqari, shvedlarni ishonch bilan jalb qilish uchun ma'lum diplomatik choralar, ya'ni Gollandiya Respublikasi bilan Shvetsiya flotiga qarshi dengiz yordami to'g'risida muzokaralar olib borilishi kerak edi. Jarayonni yanada kechiktirish - podagra to'satdan hujumi bo'lib, Frederik Uilyamning Gaagaga may oyigacha etib borishiga to'sqinlik qildi. Yaxshiyamki, shvedlarning o'z ustunliklarini bosishga kayfiyati yo'q edi.
Rathenovning qo'lga olinishi
Nihoyat, saylovchi gollandlardan yordam so'rab murojaat qilganida, ular shvedlarga qarshi chiqish uchun o'z flotini Boltiqbo'yiga yuborishga rozi bo'lishdi. Biroq, avstriyaliklarni qo'llab -quvvatlash so'rovi befoyda bo'lib chiqdi. Kutilganidek, Muqaddas Rim imperatori Brandenburg himoyasida o'z qo'shinlarini qurbon qilishni xohlamadi. Shunga qaramay, umumiy natijalar qoniqarli edi va 5 iyun kuni Brandenburgliklar shved tahdidini bartaraf etish uchun yo'lga tushishdi. Frederik Uilyam piyoda askarlari bilan sayohat qildi, tajribali Derfflinger umumiy buyruqni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Armiya uch qismdan iborat yurish qildi: Gessa-Gomburg shahzodasi Fridrix II boshchiligidagi chap, general Yoaxim Ernst von Gorttske boshchiligidagi va Derfflinger boshqaradigan markaz.
Yurish hayratlanarli darajada muvaffaqiyatli o'tdi. O'ttiz yillik urushning vayronagarchiliklaridan so'ng, hali ham zaxirasi yo'q bo'lgan dahshatli Tyuringiya o'rmonini bosib o'tishga to'g'ri kelganiga qaramay, Brandenburgerlar 20 kun ichida 200 kilometrga yaqin masofani bosib o'tdilar. Bu qo'shinlarni muvofiqlashtirishning ajoyib namoyishi edi va Brandenburg generallari bu harakatni shunchalik yashirin tarzda o'tkazdilarki, ular manzilga etib borganlarida shvedlar tomonidan hali aniqlanmagan edi. Yo'l bo'yidagi mahalliy dehqonlar o'z hukmdorlarining qaytishini yaxshi bilishar edi va ular mag'rurlik bilan: "Biz faqat dehqonlarmiz, bizda ozgina er bor, lekin biz xo'jayinimiz uchun qonimizni xursandchilik bilan beramiz", deb yozilgan bannerlar bilan g'ururlanishdi.
Brandenburgerlar shvedlarni Havel daryosi bo'yida shimolda Havelbergdan janubda Alt-Brandenburggacha to'rt milga cho'zilganligini aniqladilar. Oqsoqol Wrangel shimolda qo'mondonlik qilgan, Valdemar esa Alt-Brandenburgdagi shved qo'shinlarini boshqargan. Shvedning orqa tomonida katta botqoqlik konglomeratsiyasi yotardi - agar to'satdan, shoshilib orqaga chekinish zarur bo'lsa, ma'lum zarar. Branderburger josuslarining so'zlariga ko'ra, shvedlar saylovchilar armiyasi shunchalik yaqinlashib qolganini tasavvur qilishmagan. Vaziyatni bilmay, shved armiyasi faqat garnizon vazifalariga va bu erdagi ko'plab dehqonlar qo'zg'olonlarini bostirish bo'yicha shafqatsiz biznesga e'tibor qaratdi.
Frederik Uilyam shved johilligini o'z foydasiga ishlatishga qat'iy qaror qildi. U strategiya tuzdi, u tezda Havelberg va Alt-Brandenburg o'rtasida joylashgan kichik Rathenov shahrini egallab oladi va shved armiyasini ikkiga bo'linadi. Muvaffaqiyat faqat ajablantiradigan narsaga bog'liqligini bilar ekan, u katta tezlik bilan harakatlanishga tayyorlandi va shunga ko'ra, faqat o'z otliq qo'shinlari va qancha vagonga yuklanishi mumkin bo'lsa, shuncha ko'p piyoda askarlari bilan oldinga siljishga qaror qildi. Zarba kuchi 6000 otliq va 1200 futni tashkil etdi. Qolgan qo'shinlar ergashib, imkoni boricha yetib kelishardi.
Brandenburgliklar 25 iyun kuni Rathenovga jo'nab ketishdi. Ko'zni qamashtiruvchi yomg'ir yog'dirgan loydan o'tib, yarim tunda shahar darvozalariga etib kelishdi. O'zini shved ustuniga o'xshatib, Derfflinger qo'riqchilarni aldab darvozalarni ochishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, shundan so'ng Brandenburgerlar kirib keldi. Qahr -g'azab bilan hujumchilar shaharga kirib kelishdi va shvedlarning ko'pchiligini to'shakda uxlab qolishdi. To'liq chalkashib ketgan himoyachilar yo o'ldirildi, na qo'lga olindi va shahar tez orada qulab tushdi. Butun operatsiya Frederik Uilyamga atigi 15 kishidan iborat edi.
Kutilmagan hujumni eshitgan aka -uka Wrangellar, ajablanib hayron bo'lib, Rathenovga hujum qilganlar sonini noto'g'ri hisoblashdi. Hujum qilayotgan Brandenburgerlarni kuch -qudrati ularnikidan ancha kuchliroq deb hisoblab, Wrangellar Rathenovning qarshi hujumiga qarshi chiqdilar va chekinishni tanladilar. Aynan shu narsa Frederik Uilyam kutgan edi, u g'alabali otliq qo'shinlariga shved chekinishini to'xtatishni buyurdi. Derfflinger strategiyaga qarshi chiqdi, uning otliqlari yurish va Rathenovga qilingan hujumdan juda charchaganini aytishdi, lekin saylovchi knyaz Fridrix tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanib, hal qiluvchi kampaniya zarurligini ta'kidlab, uni yengdi.
Sadoqatli askar Derfflinger e'tirozidan voz kechdi va darhol yo'lga tushdi. Uning maqsadi Alt-Brandenburgdan chiqib, sharqqa, Reyn daryosining kichik Fehrbellin shahriga ketayotgan Valdemarning kontingenti edi, u erda shvedlar o'z kuchlarini birlashtirishni rejalashtirgan. Botqoqliklarni kesib o'tish uchun yagona joy Ferhellin ekanligini bilgan Derfflinger, yosh Vrangel qaysi yo'l bilan ketishini aniq bilardi. Brandenburg otliqlari Nauendagi Valdemarni kesib tashlashga umid qilib, oldinga yugurishdi, lekin dushman juda silliq bo'lib qoldi va o'tib ketdi. Shvedlarning qochib ketishiga to'sqinlik qilish, Fehrbellinning o'zi tomon tezlashayotgan Brandenburgerlarning boshqa guruhiga bo'lar edi.
Polkovnik Yoaxim Xenning boshchiligida Brandenburger qo'shinlari Fehrbellin tomon tezlashar edilar, faqat 130 otliqdan iborat edi. Ularning maqsadi dushmanlardan qochish, ularni shaharga urish va shahardagi yolg'iz ko'prikni vayron qilish va shu tariqa shvedlarning chekinishini to'xtatish edi. Belgilangan joyga etib borgach, bosqinchilar guruhi ko'prikni darhol yoqib yubordi, lekin 28 -iyun kuni shvedlar erta kela boshlagach, vayronagarchilik boshlanmadi. Valdemar ko'prikning yonib ketganini va hali ham buzilmaganligini ko'rdi. Uni kesib o'tishdan oldin u faqat kichik ta'mirlarga muhtoj edi. Frederik Uilyam buning uchun zarur bo'lgan vaqtni berish niyatida emas edi va ishonch bilan: "Biz dushmanga shunchalik yaqinmizki, u sochlarini yoki tuklarini yo'qotishi kerak".
Valdemar Brandenburgning asosiy armiyasi yaqin ekanligini bilar edi, lekin u hujumdan qo'rqmadi. U Fridrix Uilyamning ko'prik ta'mirlanmaguncha unga etib borishning yagona yo'li faqat otliqlar bilan bo'lishini to'g'ri taxmin qildi va u piyoda askarlari yordamisiz bunday hujum qilish juda xavfli ekaniga ishondi. Hech bo'lmaganda, maydonda bir kishi, saylovchi zar tashlashni niyat qilganini allaqachon bilgan. Bu Xenning edi, u o'zining kichik askar guruhi bilan birga, shvedlarni iloji boricha kechiktirishga umid qilib, Ferbellinning ichida yashiringan edi.
Kutish qisqa edi. Valdemar kelganidan ko'p o'tmay, voqea joyiga shahzoda Fridrix boshchiligidagi Brandenburger otliqlarining oldingi elementlari yetib keldi. Hali ham yo'lda bo'lgan Frederik Uilyam shahzodaga uning kelishini kutishni buyurdi, lekin knyaz sabrsiz edi va shvedlarni oxirgi oyoqlarida turishini aniqlab, yomg'ir yog'ayotgan paytda darhol hujum qilishni buyurdi. Dastlab, Fridrixning otliq qo'shinlari himoyachilarni orqaga qaytarishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, lekin shvedlar o'jarlik bilan jang qilishdi va tezda hujumni to'xtatishdi.
Tushda Frederik Uilyam, Derfflinger va qolgan Brandenburger otliqlari etib kelishdi va saylovchilarning umumiy kuchini taxminan 7000 chavandozga teng sonli shvedlarga qarshi ko'tarishdi. Frederik Uilyamdan farqli o'laroq, Valdemar ham piyoda askarlarga ega edi va shu tariqa ustunlikka ega edi. Tushunarsiz, shved qo'mondoni qiziq bir ish qildi. G'alabasini zudlik bilan qarshi hujum bilan ishlatishdan ko'ra, u o'z qo'shinlariga joyida qolishni buyurdi. U nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, ko'prikdan orqaga chekinmoqchi edi. Tez orada Valdemar o'z xatosini tushundi, qolgan Brandenburg otliqlari dalaga etib kelishdi va tezda shved o'ngidagi qarama -qarshi tepaliklarni egallab olishdi. Bu Valdemarning butun armiyasini chetga chiqish xavfi ostiga qo'ydi. Valdemarga hujum qilishdan boshqa iloj yo'q edi - endi u ochiq -oydin ayblov qo'yishga majbur bo'ladi.
Frederik Uilyam dushmanning qarshi hujumiga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun tepalik tepasida 13 ta engil o'qotar qurolini joylashtirdi. Shvedlarning 38 ta to'pi, ulardan faqat ettitasi, hujumga yordam bera olmas edi. Bundan tashqari, botqoqliklar to'sqinlik qilgan shved chap hujumga qo'shimcha og'irlik qo'sha olmaydi. Brandenburger artilleriyasi shvedlarga do'zaxdan yomg'ir yog'dirib, yosh Wrangelni harakatga keltirdi. Saylovchilarning ko'ngli qolmaydi. Valdemarning buyrug'i bilan tepalikka shved piyodalari to'lqini, so'ngra otliqlar bostirib kirishdi. To'plar o'qi ularning saflarini yorib chiqishiga qaramay, shvedlar jinnilik bilan hujum qilib, jang natijasini shubha ostiga qo'yishdi. Ular tepalik cho'qqisiga etib, Brandenburg artilleriyasini qo'lga olishdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, qimor saylovchisi yo'naltirilishi kerak edi.
Ammo Frederik Uilyam mag'lubiyatni yumshoq qabul qilish niyatida emas edi. O'z odamlarini yig'ib, u yig'lab, oldingi qatorga yugurdi: “Oldinga! Sizning shahzodangiz va sardoringiz siz bilan g'alaba qozonadi yoki ritsar kabi o'ladi! ” O'z g'ayratida saylovchi to'satdan o'zini dushman askarlari qurshovida topdi. Uning otxona ustasi Emanuel Froben, go'yoki, u Frederik Uilyamning kulrang oti (saylovchilarning xavfsizligini ta'minlash uchun tog'lar almashinuvi) tufayli minib ketgan. Vaziyat og'ir edi, lekin Frederik Uilyamning katta boyligi uchun to'qqiz ajdaho guruhi dushman saflarini teshib o'tdi va uni yomonlikdan qutqarishdi. Bu orada saylovchilarning jasorati odamlarini ilhomlantirdi va Brandenburgliklar shvedlarni orqaga qaytarishni boshladilar. Ular hammani hayratga solmagan qurollarini qaytarib olishdi va g'azab bilan tepalikning qarama -qarshi yon bag'riga quyishdi. Brandenburger otliqlari to'plari yonib turgan holda, tartibsiz shved o'nglarining qoldiqlarini sindirib, uni Fehrbellinga yuborishdi.
Brandenburger ofitserlari qoni to'kilgan Frederik Uilyamni shaharni yoritishga undashdi, lekin u ularni tanbeh berib: "Men o'z vatanimni yo'q qilish uchun emas, balki uni qutqarish uchun keldim", dedi. Buning o'rniga, saylovchi otliqlariga shved piyoda askarlariga hujum qilishni buyurdi. Keyingi hujum muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va umidsizlikka tushgan shved askarlari mustahkam turdilar. Frederik Uilyam boshqa hujumlarni to'xtatdi va qolgan shvedlarga chekinishga ruxsat berishdan mamnun edi. Hozir ta'mirlangan ko'prikdan o'tishdan mamnun bo'lgan Valdemar, buni sakkizta to'pini ortda qoldirib, yaxshi tartibda amalga oshirdi. Bir necha kun yurish va janglardan charchagan Brandenburgliklar ta'qib qilishdan bosh tortishdi.
Brandenburg uchun g'alaba
Fehrbellindagi Brandenburger g'alabasi atigi 500 kishiga tushdi. Shved qurbonlari ancha ko'p edi va ular dehqonlarning tinimsiz bosqini natijasida ko'proq yo'qotishadi. Kampaniya tugashi bilan Valdemarning ixtiyorida 4000 kishi qoldi. Shunga qaramay, har ikki tomon ham g'alabani da'vo qilishdi. Frederik Uilyam shvedlarni haydab ketayotganini nishonladi, Valdemar esa o'zining qonli ayblovlari dushmanni o'z kuchining asosiy qismini saqlab qolish uchun etarlicha kechiktirganini ta'kidladi. Psychologically, however, the triumph belonged to Brandenburg, which earned the distinction of being the first minor German state in modern times to deal such a stunning blow to a major European power.
Upon hearing the news of Fehrbellin, the people of Berlin immediately began referring to their ruler as the “Great Elector,” making it clear that they expected Frederick William to continue accomplishing great things. In the years following the battle, he did just that. During the final months of 1675, the Brandenburger army drove the Swedes into Mecklenburg, where Charles XI’s tormented army withered still further. Initially, a lack of allies forced the Brandenburgers to halt, but 1676 brought a renewal of fortune. Although Emperor Leopold continued to deny him any assistance, Denmark joined the elector in an alliance that would soon take the war into Sweden itself. Shortly afterward, a combined Dutch-Danish fleet intercepted the Swedish navy and wrecked nearly three-quarters of it. Without a strong maritime presence in the Baltic, Sweden’s army in Germany was cut off, giving Frederick William a decided advantage.
The elector utilized his opportunity to the fullest. During the subsequent campaign he successfully conquered Swedish Pomerania, capturing Stettin, Stralsund, and Greifswald in succession. Then, during the winter of 1678-1679, Frederick William equaled the brilliance of the Fehrbellin campaign when he marched his army across the frozen lagoons at Frisches Haff and Kurisches Haff to outflank the Swedes and force them to retreat from Prussia altogether.
Unfortunately for Brandenburg, its gains would not reflect its military success. Although it had made a profound statement, Brandenburg remained a minor continental player, still subject to the whims of the larger powers. By 1678, the Dutch were trying to push Frederick William into making peace out of fear of the elector’s growing strength. Later that year they abandoned him altogether, forging with France the Treaty of Nymwegen. The Austrians signed for peace soon after. Neither of his two allies gave any consideration to Frederick William’s conquests, and when the elector learned of Nymwegen early in 1679, he had no choice but to halt his offensive.
Incensed by the betrayal, he vowed to fight the French alone, but when Louis dispatched an army toward Brandenburg, Frederick William conceded. On June 29, he reluctantly signed the Treaty of St. Germain, effectively wiping out all of his gains by restoring the conquered territories to Sweden. So angered was he by the Dutch Republic and Austria that he would consent to being an ally of hated France for the next six years.
Although stiffed at the peace negotiations, Brandenburg had made tremendous gains, establishing an army and a military tradition far greater than any of their German counterparts. After Fehrbellin, the Great Elector earned the leverage necessary to enlarge his peacetime army against the wishes of the noble estates. This made it much easier for Brandenburg, and later Prussia, to mobilize its military upon the outbreak of hostilities, giving it the ability to immediately compete with its neighbors. The seeds were thus sown for the dramatic growth of the army in generations to come. At the same time, the battle served to underscore Sweden’s gradual decline. Although it would again prove itself a force to be reckoned with under its next king, Charles XII, the Swedish empire, stretched thin and exposed as little more than a client state of France, was doomed to inevitable collapse. The daring horsemen of Frederick William had seen to that at Fehrbellin.
Battle of Fehrbellin, 18/28 June 1675 - History
A.) Prehistory of the War
This war to a large extent was the result of French diplomacy, attempting to divert attention from the war France fought against the Dutch Republic and the Holy Roman Empire since 1672. Sweden agreed, in return for French subsidies, to attack Brandenburg Poland, in the secret Treaty of Jaworow, agreed to attack the Brandenburgian Duchy in Prussia as soon as the ongoing Polish-Ottoman War was ended. She never had to act on that promise.
On Dec. 15th 1674, a Swedish army c. 12,000 men strong, coming from Swedish Pomerania, invaded Brandenburg, but suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Fehrbellin on June 28th 1675. Denmark and the Dutch Republic declared war on Sweden the Brandenburgers occupied Usedom and Wollin (1676), Stettin, Rügen, Greifswald, Stralsund (1678). The Danes, with support of the Dutch fleet, reoccupied Visborg on Gotland (May 1676), which they had lost to Sweden in 1645. The Danes also invaded Scania (June 1676), controlled the province by August. The Battle of Lund Dec. 4th 1676 was undecided. The Snapphanes (Scanians resenting Swedish rule Scania had been Danish until 1658) fought a guerilla war against Sweden. In 1679 a Brandenburg army appeared off the walls of Riga in Livonia. In 1678 the Emperor signed peace with France and withdrew his support of Brandenburg. On June 29th the PEACE OF ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE ended the war almost all conquests were returned, Brandenburg gaining only minor territory on the east bank of the Oder River.
The war and the peace were victories of French diplomacy. In the peace negotiations, Brandenburg and Denmark were deprived of the fruits of their efforts Sweden was lucky not to lose more territory. During the war, Brandenburg had stood loyally on the side of the Emperor Frederick William, the Great Elector, felt betrayed by the latter and now signed a treaty with France which guaranteed him an annual subsidy.
The King of Sweden blamed the poor showing on the Swedish side on the Swedish constitution in 1680 he introduced Absolutism in his country.
Events in History on June 28
1519 King Carlos I elected Holy Roman Catholic Emperor Charles V
- Duke of Bourbon occupies Province Spanish troops conquer Buren Earl Mauritius conquers Geertruidenberg Peace of Alès: Rights of French huguenots limited French colony of Guadeloupe established in the Caribbean Battle of Beresteczko between Poles and Ukrainians starts. Battle at Fehrbellin: Brandenburg army beats Sweden
Event of Interest
1762 Russian Tsarina Catherine II seizes power, declaring herself sovereign ruler of Russia
United States Declaration of Independence
1776 Final draft of Declaration of Independence submitted to Continental Congress
- Charleston, South Carolina repulses British sea attack Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey (General Washington beats Clinton) Mary Ludwig Hayes "Molly Pitcher" aids American patriots British troops land at Ensenada, Argentina Tomato is proven to be non-poisonous by Colonel Robert Gibbon eating a tomato on steps of courthouse in Salem, New Jersey Gerrit Moll measures noise of guns Three missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society obtain permission from Chief Moshoeshoe (Moshesh) to found a mission station in Basutoland (now Lesotho)
Coronation of Queen Victoria
1838 Coronation of Queen Victoria in Westminster Abbey, London
- The Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique in Paris premieres the ballet Giselle The Sigma Chi Fraternity was founded at Miami University 1st dog show held, in Newcastle upon Tyne, England Leipzig Observatory discovers short-period (6.2 yrs) Comet d'Arrest Day 4 of 7 Day Battle of Savage's Station [Garnett's Farm] in Virginia The Army of the Potomac is disbanded Amsterdam typographer strike
Event of Interest
1880 Australian bushranger Ned Kelly captured at Glenrowan
- Labor Day established as a holiday for US federal employees The Natal Legislature plans to introduce the Indian Franchise Bill, South Africa El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form Central American Union
Event of Interest
1895 French painter Paul Gauguin leaves France for Tahiti for the second time
- Marquis C de Bonchamps' expedition reaches Gore Ethiopia US Congress authorizes Louisiana Purchase Expo $1 gold coin US buys concession to build Panama canal from French for $40 million Germany, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire renew their Triple Alliance for six more years International Anti-Military Cooperation (IAMV) forms in Amsterdam SS Norge runs aground and sinks off Rockall, North Atlantic, more than 635 die, largest maritime loss of life until Titanic 1st French air show, Concours d'Avation opens Joseph Caillaux forms government in France Potato entrepreneurs begins in Amsterdam 1st flight between Hawaiian Islands Treaty of Versailles, ending WWI and establishing the League of Nations, is signed in France The Irish Civil War starts when Irish Free State forces attack anti-treaty republicans in Dublin
Event of Interest
1923 Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry of the Netherlands state visit to London
- Tornado strikes Sandusky and Lorain, Ohio, killing 93 Mercedes Benz forms when the world's oldest automobile manufacturers DMG and Benz & Cie merge Alfred E Smith (NY-Governor) nominated for US President at Democratic Convention Friedrich Schmiedl attempts rocket mail in Austria (unsuccessful) 1st night game in Detroit at newly built Hamtramck Stadium as Negro League Detroit Stars take on KC Monarchs
Event of Interest
1934 Hitler flies to Essen (for Night of Long Knives)
Event of Interest
1935 FDR orders a federal gold vault to be built at Fort Knox, Kentucky
- Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China Pan Am opens southern route transatlantic air service (Dixie Clipper) "Quiz Kids?" premieres on radio Romania cedes Bessarabia to Soviet Union German and Romanian soldiers kill 11,000 Jews in Kishinev German troops occupy Galicia, Poland Col-gen Von Hoth' 6th Pantser enters Voronezj Polish Provisional government of National Unity set up by Soviets Enrico de Nicola becomes 1st President of Italy British begin airlift “Operation Plainfare” to West Berlin North Korean forces capture Seoul, South Korea in opening phase of the Korean War 111°F (44°C) at Camden, South Carolina (state record)
Event of Interest
Event of Interest
1964 Organization for Afro-American Unity formed in New York by Malcolm X
Event of Interest
1965 1st US ground combat forces in Vietnam authorized by President Lyndon B. Johnson
- Dutch Princess Beatrice and Claus von Amsberg announce their engagement Israel annexes East Jerusalem Daniel Ellsberg indicted for leaking Pentagon Papers Police carry out an early morning raid on gay bar Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, NY about 400 to 1,000 patrons riot against police, it lasts 3 days. Beginning of the modern LGBT rights movement Around 500 Catholic workers at the Harland and Wolff shipyard are forced to leave their work by Protestant employees as serious rioting continues in Belfast Lawsuit in Detroit challenges Little League's "no girls" rule New Zealand ship HMNZS Otago sails for Mururoa nuclear test zone after France’s refusal to accept an International Court of Justice injunction against its atmospheric nuclear testing Northern Ireland Assembly elections take place Fall of earth and rocks kill 200 (Quebrada Blanca Canyon, Colombia)
Event of Interest
- Bridge section along I-95 in Greenwich, Connecticut collapses, killing 3 NASA launches Galaxy-A Former member of South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), Jeannette Schoon, and her six-year-old daughter, Katryn, are killed by a letter bomb at Lubango, in northern Angola Discovery ferried back to Kennedy Space Center via Bergstrom AFB, Tx Irish population condemns divorce Kenneth and Nellie Pike challenge Ala Dem runoff win by AG C Graddick West European leaders, meeting in the Netherlands, delay indefinitely imposing economic sanctions against South Africa South Africa signs the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2 earthquakes, including 3rd strongest in US (7.4) rock California
Event of Interest
2009 Professor Stephen Hawking hosts a 'party for time travellers' at the University of Cambridge, not sending out the invites until after the party
2011 Christine Lagarde becomes the 1st women to be elected head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- A series of car bombs in Iraq kills 14 and injures 50 people David Sweat shot and captured near Canadian border. 2nd prisoner to escape maximum-security Clinton Correctional Facility June 6 Greek Credit Crisis: Greek government says banks closed for a week and ATM withdrawals restricted after European Central Bank refused to supply emergency funds Suicide bombings and gun attacks at Istanbul's Ataturk Airport kill 42 and wound more than 200 Wilshire Grand Center becomes the tallest building in Los Angeles and in the US west of the Mississippi at 1,100 ft
Event of Interest
2017 China’s president, Xi Jinping begins 3 day trip to Hong Kong to mark 20 years since the territory handed back to China
Tarixda tug'ilgan kunlar
- Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French writer (Mémoires), born in Paris (d. 1755) Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl, Bavarian politician (d. 1750) Guillaume Delisle, French cartographer (d. 1726) Benedict XIV [Prospero L Lambertini], Italian Pope (1740-58) Humphry Ditton, English mathematician, born in Salisbury, England (d. 1715) Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei, Italian archaeologist (d. 1755) Mary Walcott, American accuser at the Salem witch trials, born in Salem, Massachusetts (d. 1720) Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French soldier (d. 1747) William Somervile, English poet (d. 1742) Paul Dudley, Attorney-General of Massachusetts, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts (d. 1751) Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, born in Norwich, England (d. 1729) Emperor Higashiyama of Japan (d. 1710) Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, English soldier and politician, born in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany (d. 1749)
Frederick William and Fehrbellin in 1675
In December 1640, when Frederick William acceded to the throne, Brandenburg was still under foreign occupation. A two-year truce was agreed with the Swedes in July 1641, but the looting, burning and general misbehaviour continued. In a letter of spring 1641, the Elector’s viceroy, Margrave Ernest, who carried the responsibility for administering the ruined Mark, offered a grim synopsis:
The country is in such a miserable and impoverished condition that mere words can scarcely convey the sympathy one feels with the innocent inhabitants. In general, We think that the cart has been driven so deep into the muck, as they say, that it cannot be extricated without the special help of the Almighty.
The strain of overseeing the anarchy unfolding in Brandenburg ultimately proved too much for the margrave, who succumbed to panic attacks, sleeplessness and paranoid delusions. By the autumn of 1642, he had taken to pacing about in his palace muttering to himself, shrieking and throwing himself to the floor. His death on 26 September was ascribed to ‘melancholy’.
Only in March 1643 did Frederick William return from the relative safety of Königsberg to the ruined city of Berlin, a city he scarcely recognized. Here he found a population depleted and malnourished, and buildings destroyed by fire or in a parlous state of repair. The predicament that had bedevilled his father’s reign remained unsolved: Brandenburg had no military force with which to establish its independence. The small army created by Schwarzenberg was already falling apart and there was no money to pay for a replacement. Johann Friedrich von Leuchtmar, a privy councillor and the Elector’s former tutor, summarized Brandenburg’s predicament in a report of 1644: Poland, he predicted, would seize Prussia as soon as it was strong enough Pomerania was under Swedish occupation and likely to remain so Kleve in the west was under the control of the Dutch Republic. Brandenburg stood ‘on the edge of the abyss’.
In order to restore the independence of his territory and press home his claims, the Elector needed a flexible, disciplined fighting force. The creation of such an instrument became one of the consuming preoccupations of his reign. The Brandenburg campaign army grew dramatically, if somewhat unsteadily, from 3,000 men in 1641–2, to 8,000 in 1643–6, to 25,000 during the Northern War of 1655–60, to 38,000 during the Dutch wars of the 1670s. During the final decade of the Elector’s reign, its size fluctuated between 20,000 and 30,000. Improvements in tactical training and armaments modelled on French, Dutch, Swedish and imperial best practice placed the Brandenburg army close to the cutting edge of European military innovation. Pikes and pikemen were phased out and the cumbersome matchlock guns carried by the infantry were replaced by lighter, faster-firing flintlocks. Artillery calibres were standardized to allow for the more flexible and efficient use of field guns, in the style pioneered by the Swedes. The foundation of a cadet school for officer recruits introduced an element of standardized professional formation. Better conditions of employment – including provision for maimed or retired officers – improved the stability of the command structure. These changes in turn improved the cohesion and morale of the non-commissioned ranks, who distinguished themselves in the 1680s by their excellent discipline and low rates of desertion.
The improvised forces assembled for specific campaigns during the early years of the reign gradually evolved into what one could call a standing army. In April 1655, a General War Commissioner (General-kriegskommissar) was appointed to oversee the handling of financial and other resources for the army, on the model of the military administration recently introduced in France under Le Tellier and Louvois. This innovation was initially conceived as a temporary wartime measure and only later established as a permanent feature of the territorial administration. After 1679, under the direction of the Pomeranian nobleman Joachim von Grumbkow, the General War Commissariat extended its reach throughout the Hohenzollern territories, gradually usurping the function of the Estate officials who had traditionally overseen military taxation and discipline at a local level. The General War Commissariat and the Office for the Domains were still relatively small institutions in 1688 when the Elector died, but under his successors they would play a crucial role in toughening the sinews of central authority in the Brandenburg-Prussian state. This synergy between war-making and the development of state-like central organs was something new it became possible only when the war-making apparatus was separated from its traditional provincial-aristocratic foundations.
The acquisition of such a formidable military instrument was important, because the decades that followed the end of the Thirty Years War were a period of intense conflict in northern Europe. Two foreign titans overshadowed Brandenburg foreign policy during the Elector’s reign. The first was King Charles X of Sweden, a restless, obsessive figure with expansionist dreams who seemed bent on trumping the record of his illustrious predecessor Gustavus Adolphus. It was Charles X’s invasion of Poland that started the Northern War of 1655–60. His plan was to subdue the Danes and the Poles, occupy Ducal Prussia and then march south at the head of a vast army to sack Rome in the manner of the ancient Goths. Instead, the Swedes became bogged down in a bitter five-year struggle for control of the Baltic littoral.
After the death of Charles X in 1660 and the ebbing of Swedish power, it was Louis XIV of France who dominated Brandenburg’s political horizons. Having assumed sole regency after the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, Louis expanded his combined wartime armed forces from 70,000 to 320,000 men (by 1693) and launched a sequence of assaults to secure hegemony in western Europe there were campaigns against the Spanish Netherlands in 1667–8, the United Provinces in 1672–8 and the Palatinate in 1688.
In this dangerous environment, the Elector’s growing army proved an indispensable asset. In the summer of 1656, Frederick William’s 8,500 troops joined forces with Charles X to defeat a massive Polish-Tartar army in the battle of Warsaw (28–30 July). In 1658, he changed sides and campaigned as an ally of Poland and Austria against the Swedes. It was a sign of Frederick William’s growing weight in regional politics that he was appointed commander of the Brandenburg-Polish-imperial allied army raised to fight the Swedes in 1658–9. A chain of successful military assaults followed, first in Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland and later in Pomerania.
The most dramatic military exploit of the reign was Frederick William’s single-handed victory over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in 1675. In the winter of 1674–5, the Elector was campaigning with an Austrian army in the Rhineland as part of the coalition that had formed to contain Louis XIV during the Dutch wars. In the hope of securing French subsidies, the Swedes, allies of the French, invaded Brandenburg with an army of 14,000 men under the command of General Karl Gustav Wrangel. It was a scenario that awakened memories of the Thirty Years War: the Swedes unleashed the usual ravages on the hapless population of the Uckermark, to the north-east of Berlin. Frederick William reacted to news of the invasion with undisguised rage. ‘I can be brought to no other resolution,’ the Elector told Otto von Schwerin on 10 February, ‘than to avenge myself on the Swedes.’ In a series of furious despatches, the Elector, who was bedridden with gout, urged his subjects, ‘both noble and non-noble’, to ‘cut down all Swedes, wherever they can lay their hands upon them and to break their necks [… ] and to give no quarter’.
Frederick William joined his army in Franconia at the end of May. Covering over one hundred kilometres per week, his forces reached Magdeburg on 22 June, just over ninety kilometres from the Swedish headquarters in the city of Havelberg. From here, the Brandenburg command could establish through local informants that the Swedes were strung out behind the river Havel, with concentrations in the fortified cities of Havelberg, Rathenow and Brandenburg. Since the Swedes had failed to register the arrival of the Brandenburg army, the Elector and his commander Georg Derfflinger had the advantage of surprise, and they resolved to attack the Swedish strongpoint at Rathenow with only 7,000 cavalry a further 1,000 musketeers were loaded on to carts so that they could keep pace with the advance. Heavy rain and muddy conditions impeded their progress but also concealed them from the unsuspecting Swedish regiment at Rathenow. In the early morning of 25 June, the Brandenburgers attacked and destroyed the Swedish force with only minimal casualties on their own side.
The collapse of the Swedish line at Rathenow set the scene for the Battle of Fehrbellin, the most celebrated military engagement of the Elector’s reign. In order to restore cohesion to their position, the Swedish regiment in Brandenburg City pulled back deep into the countryside with the intention of sweeping to the north-west to join up with the main force at Havelberg. This proved more difficult than they had expected, because the heavy spring and summer rains had transformed the marshes of the area into a treacherous waterland broken only by islands of sodden grass or sand and criss-crossed by narrow causeways. Guided by locals, advance parties of the Electoral army blocked the main exits from the area, and forced the Swedes to fall back on the little town of Fehrbellin on the river Rhin. Here their commander, General Wrangel, deployed his 11,000 men in defensive fashion, setting the 7,000 Swedish infantry in the centre and his cavalry on the wings.
Against 11,000 Swedes the Elector could muster only around 6,000 men (a substantial part of his army, including most of his infantry, had not yet arrived in the area). The Swedes disposed of about three times as many field guns as the Brandenburgers. But this numerical disadvantage was offset by a tactical opportunity. Wrangel had neglected to occupy a low sandhill that overlooked his right flank. The Elector lost no time in positioning his thirteen field guns there and opening fire on the Swedish lines. Seeing his error, Wrangel ordered the cavalry on his right wing, supported by infantry, to take the hill. For the next few hours the battle was dominated by the ebb and surge of cavalry charge and counter-charge as the Swedes attempted to seize the enemy guns and were thrown back by the Brandenburg horse. A metaphorical fog of war shrouds all such encounters it was thickened on this occasion by a literal summer mist of the kind that often gathers in the marshes of the Havelland. Both sides found it difficult to coordinate their forces, but it was the Swedish cavalry that gave way first, fleeing from the field and leaving their infantry – the Dalwig Guards – exposed to the sabres of the Brandenburg horse. Of 1,200 Guards, twenty managed to escape and about seventy were taken prisoner the rest were killed. On the following day, the town of Fehrbellin itself was seized from a small Swedish occupation force. There was now a great fleeing of Swedes across the Mark Brandenburg. Considerable numbers of them, more perhaps than fell on the field of battle, were hacked to death in opportunist attacks by peasants as they made their way northwards. A contemporary report noted that peasants in the area around the town of Wittstock, not far from the border with Pomerania, had slain 300 Swedes, including a number of officers: ‘although several of the latter offered 2000 thalers for their lives, they were decapitated by the vengeful peasants.’21 Memories of the ‘Swedish terror’ still vivid in the older generation played a role here. By 2 July, every last Swede who had not been captured or killed had left the territory of the Electorate.
Victories of the kind achieved at Warsaw and Fehrbellin were of enormous symbolic importance to the Elector and his entourage. In an era that glorified successful warlords, the victories of Brandenburg’s army magnified the prestige and reputation of its founder. At Warsaw, Frederick William had stood in the thick of the fighting, repeatedly exposing himself to enemy fire. He wrote an account of the event and had it published in The Hague. His notes on the battle formed the basis for the relevant passages in Samuel Pufendorf’s history of the reign – a comprehensive and sophisticated work that marked a new departure in Brandenburg historiography. All this bore witness to a heightened historical self-consciousness, a sense that Brandenburg had begun to make – and to narrate – its own history. In his ‘royal memoirs’, a text intended for the eyes of his successor, Louis XIV observed that kings owe an account of their actions ‘to all ages’. The Great Elector never unfolded a cult of historicized self-memorialization to rival that of his French contemporary, but he too began consciously to perceive himself and his achievements through the eyes of an imagined posterity.
At Warsaw in 1656 the Brandenburgers had shown their mettle as coalition partners at Fehrbellin nineteen years later the Elector’s army, though outnumbered and forced to advance at lightning speed, prevailed without aid over an enemy with an intimidating European reputation. Here too the Elector, now a stout man of fifty-five, stayed at the centre of the action. He joined his riders in assaults on the Swedish lines until he was encircled by enemy troops and had to be cut free by nine of his own dragoons. It was after the victory at Fehrbellin that the soubriquet ‘the Great Elector’first appeared in print. There was nothing particularly remarkable in that, since broadsheets extolling the greatness of rulers were commonplace in seventeenth-century Europe. But unlike so many other early-modern ‘greats’ (including the abortive ‘Louis the Great’, propagated by the sycophantic pamphleteers of the sun-king ‘Leopold the Great’ of Austria and ‘Maximilian the Great’, usage of which is now confined to die-hard Bavarian monarchist circles) this one survived, making Elector Frederick William the only non-royal early-modern European sovereign who is still widely accorded this epithet.
With Fehrbellin, moreover, a bond was forged between history and legend. The battle became a fixture in memory. The dramatist Heinrich von Kleist chose it as the setting for his play Der Prinz von Homburg, a fanciful variation on the historical record, in which an impulsive military commander faces a death sentence for having led a victorious charge against the Swedes despite orders to hold back, but is pardoned by the Elector once he has accepted his culpability. To the Brandenburgers and Prussians of posterity, Frederick William’s predecessors would remain shadowy, antique figures imprisoned within a remote past. By contrast, the ‘Great Elector’ would be elevated to the status of a three-dimensional founding father, a transcendent personality who both symbolized and bestowed meaning upon the history of a state.
Data for 1675The Prime Meridian passing through it, the Royal Greenwich Observatory gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time, the precursor to UTC
In the year 1675, Native American Christian John Sassamon from the Massachusett tribe is killed (Jan 29), the killers convicted (Jun 8), and this helps spark the conflict known as King Philip’s (Metacomet) War, breaking out as the Wampanoags attack Swansea in Massachusetts (Jun 24), Brandenburg defeats the Swedes in the Battle of Fehrbellin (Jun 28), construction of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London begins (Aug 10), the Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston (Sep 18), United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Massacre in New England (Dec 19), the American Indian Wars go on – and all these fine people were born:
1675-xxxx Erik Cajanus* teacher/ editor/bishop – Sotkamo, Sweden-Finland (1737/c.62)
1675-0114 Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard* the governess of Maria Theresa of Austria – Vienna, Austria (1754/79)
1675-0127 Erik Benzelius the younger* priest/librarian/Archbishop of Uppsala – Uppsala, Sweden (1743/68)
1675-0214 Johann Cyriak Hackhofer* painter – Wilten, Tirol, Austria (1731/56)
1675-0228 Guillaume Delisle* cartographer – Paris, France (1726/50)
1675-0328 Johann Wilhelm* Duke of Saxe-Jena – Jena, Holy Roman Empire (1690/15)
1675-0403 Guillermo Mesquida* painter – Palma de Mallorca, Spain (1747/72)
1675-0509 Anders Örbom* soldier/POW in Siberia – Örebro, Sweden (1740/65)
1675-0817 Johann Adolph Wedel* physician – Jena, Holy Roman Empire (1747/71)
1675-0902 William Somerville* poet – Staffordshire, England (1742/66)
1675-0903 Paul Dudley* jurist/ Attorney-General of the Province of Massachusetts Bay – Roxbury, Massachusetts (1751/75)
1675-1011 Samuel Clarke* philosopher/clergyman – Norwich, England (1729/53)
1675-1021 Higashiyama* 東山天皇 the 113th emperor of Japan – Japan (1710/34)
1675-1115 Caspar König* German organ builder – Ingolstadt, Holy Roman Empire (1765/89)
1675-1129 Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli* Italian sculptor/architect – Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1744/68)
1675-1228 Heinrich Klausing* German mathematician/astronomer/ polymath – Herford, Holy Roman Empire (1745/69)
Fehrbellin - Encyclopedia
FEHRBELLIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Rhine, 40 m. N.W. from Berlin on the railway to NeuRuppin. Pop. (1905) 1602. It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church and some small industries, among them that of wooden shoes. Fehrbellin is memorable in history as the scene of the famous victory gained, on the 18th of June 1675, by the great elector, Frederick William of Prussia, over the Swedes under Field-Marshal Wrangel. A monument was erected in 1879 on the field of battle, near the village of Hakenberg, to commemorate this great feat of arms.
See A. von Witzleben and P. Hassel, Zum 200 jdhrigen Gedenktag von Fehrbellin (Berlin, 1875) G. Sello, "Fehrbellin," in Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaften, vii. M. Johns, "Der Grosse Kurfurst bei Fehrbellin, &c.," in Hohenzollern Jahrbuch, 'Feijoo Y Montenegro, Benito Jeronimo' (1676-1764), Spanish monk and scholar was born at Santa Maria de Melias, near Orense, on the 8th of October 1676. At the age of twelve he entered the Benedictine order, devoted himself to study, and waged war against the superstition and ignorance of his countrymen in the Teatro critico (1726-1739) and the Cartas eruditas (1742-1760). These exposures of a retrograde system called forth embittered protests from narrow-minded patriots like Salvador Jose Maner, and others but the opposition was futile, and Feij60's services to the cause of knowledge were universally recognized long before his death, which took place at Oviedo on the 26th of September 1764. He was not a great genius, nor a writer of transcendent merit his name is connected with no important discovery, and his style is undistinguished. But he uprooted many popular errors, awakened an interest in scientific methods, and is justly regarded as the initiator of educational reform in Spain.
- Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites)
- If you wish to link to this page, you can do so by referring to the URL address below.
This page was last modified 29-SEP-18
Copyright © 2021 ITA all rights reserved.
- Small memorial (built in 1800 on the initiative of Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow , "Erbherr auf Reckahn " but soon expired), which stands on the country road (parcel Auf dem Lehmberge ) where the Swedish battle line was broken.
After collecting the necessary funds, the Fehrbellin and Surrounding Warrior Association initiated the renewal of the vase pedestal. The monument was consecrated on August 23, 1857. The monument was renewed in 2002.
Famous Deaths In 1675
Famous People Died In This Year In History
Feb 09 Gerard Dou, Dutch painter, buried died on this day in history.
Mar 18 In the year 1675 death of arthur Chichester, 1st Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1606)
Apr 12 Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1609) died on this day in history.
May 18 Jacques Marquette jesuit/missionaries (Chicago), dies at 37 on this day in history.
May 27 Gaspard Dughet, French painter (b. 1613) died on this day in history.
Jun 12 In the year 1675 charles Emanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1638-75), dies at 40
Jul 25 In the year 1675 nicolas Saboly, composer, dies at 61
Jul 27 On this day in history henri de La Tour d'Auvergne Vicomte de Turenne, gen (France), dies