Ittifoqchilarning Leninni o'ldirish rejasi

Ittifoqchilarning Leninni o'ldirish rejasi


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Juma, 7 mart, 2014 yil

Tadqiqotchilar hukumatni Jon Kennedi o'ldirilishiga oid maxfiy hujjatlarni chiqarishga ko'ndirish uchun ko'p kuch sarflaydilar. Ehtimol, Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi va FTB Kennedining haqiqiy qotillarini ochib beradigan dalillarni keltiradigan hujjatlarni ushlab turishi mumkinmi? Agar ular mavjud bo'lganida, menimcha, ular yo'q qilinmagan bo'larmidi?

Men yaqinda ingliz, frantsuz va amerikalik razvedka agentliklari 1918 yil avgustda Leninni o'ldirish uchun fitna uyushtirgan ishni tergov qilmoqdaman. Bu voqea yuz yil oldin sodir bo'lgan va biz deyarli butun voqeani bilamiz. rasmiy hujjatlarning chiqarilishi tufayli emas.

1993 yilda Gordon Bruk-Shepherd ishni tekshirishga qaror qildi. Sobiq razvedka xodimi jurnalda jurnalist bo'lib ishlagan Daily Telegraph va Britaniya hukumati unga ishonganidek, nima bo'lganini aniqlash uchun yaxshi holatda edi. Oxir oqibat, barcha manfaatdor odamlar o'lgan edi va fitnaning asosiy rejasi 1931 yilda, fitna uyushtirgan agentlardan birining xotini eri Sidney Reylining kundaliklari asosida hisobot e'lon qilganida ma'lum bo'lgan edi. suiqasdga aloqadorligi uchun 1925 yilda Rossiya maxfiy politsiyasi (Cheka) tomonidan qatl etilgan. Keyingi bir necha yil ichida, fitnada ishtirok etgan yana ikkita ingliz agenti Robert Bryus Lokxart va Jorj Aleksandr Xill fitna haqidagi hisobotlarini e'lon qilishdi. Biroq, Britaniya hukumati voqeani tasdiqlaydigan MI6 fayllarini chiqarishni rad etdi.

Bruk-Sheferd ko'p yillar davomida yaqin do'st bo'lgan, ismi oshkor qilinmagan hukumat vaziri bilan uchrashuv o'tkazdi. Keyinchalik u "bir necha uzoq sessiyalar davomida men yopilgan arxivlarda saqlanib qolgan barcha narsalar haqida ma'lumot oldim", deb esladi. Oxir -oqibat, unga Britaniya razvedka xizmatlarining rasmiy hujjatlarini ko'rishga ruxsat berildi. 1918 yil yozida fitna uyushtirilgan paytdagi Moskvadagi MI6 stantsiyasi boshlig'i Ernest Boys haqida bitta ma'lumotni topa olmaganida, u shubhalana boshladi. Bruk-Sheferd "Rossiyada bolsheviklarga qarshi harakatlar" deb nomlangan faylni topish haqida yozadi, lekin u ochilganda u butunlay bo'sh ekanligini aniqladi. Oxir -oqibat, u suiqasdga aloqador har bir hujjat yo'q qilingan degan xulosaga keldi.

Frantsuz arxivlarini o'rganishda Bruk-Sheferdga omad kulib boqmadi. Deuxieme Byurosining barcha arxivlari, boshqa maxsus xavfsizlik va diplomatik fayllar bilan birga, 1940 yilda Frantsiya qulaganidan so'ng, nemislar tomonidan Berlinga jo'natilgan. Bu arxivlar Qizil Armiya tomonidan 1945 yil may oyida Germaniya poytaxtini bosib olingandan keyin olib kelingan. Moskvaga. Sovet Ittifoqida kommunizm qulaganidan so'ng, bu arxivlar to'g'risida yuqori darajadagi muzokaralar olib borildi. 1992 yil 12 noyabrda Frantsiya va Rossiya hukumatlari o'rtasida kelishuv imzolandi. Birinchi etkazib berish 1993 yil dekabrda bo'lib o'tdi va keyingi besh oy ichida Parijga taxminan 140 tonna qog'oz keldi. Biroq, Bruk-Sheferd 1918 yilda Leninni o'ldirish fitnasi bilan bog'liq hujjatlarni topa olmadi. Frantsiya rasmiylariga ko'ra, Rossiya hukumati maxfiy hujjatlarining 5% ga yaqinini saqlamoqda.

Amerikaning suiqasdga aloqadorligi bilan bog'liq vaziyat yanada qiyinroq. Ta`kidlanishicha, amerikaliklar 1918 yilda razvedka xizmatiga ega bo'lmagan. Prezident Vudro Vilsonning so'zlariga ko'ra, hukumat josuslar va razvedka agentlari haqidagi butun fikrga qarshi edi. U 1917 yil 2 aprelda Kongressda qilgan nutqida, u ilgari monarxiyalar va aristokratiyalar tomonidan o'zlarining imtiyozli mavjudotlarini himoya qilish uchun ishlatilganini va yangi demokratik tartibda odamlar hamma narsani bilishga haqli bo'lganini aytdi. O'zini o'zi boshqaradigan xalqlar qo'shni davlatlarni ayg'oqchilar bilan to'ldirishmaydi ". Balki u Davlat departamenti qo'shni Meksikaga bir qancha josuslar va sabotajchilar yuborganini, shu jumladan inqilobiy rahbar Pancho Villaga suiqasd uyushtirganini bilmas edi.

Prezident Uilson ham fitna uyushtirilgan paytda bolsheviklar hukumatiga aralashishga rasman qarshi edi. Bu qisman Britaniya va Frantsiya imperiyalarining kuchini oshiradigan hech narsa qilishni xohlamagani uchun edi. Ikkinchidan, demokrat sifatida u rus monarxiyasining qaytishiga yordam berishni xohlamadi. 1918 yil mart oyida u Moskvadagi Amerika konsulligi orqali bolsheviklar hukumatiga telegramma yubordi: "Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari xalqining butun yuragi avtokratik hukumatdan abadiy qutulish uchun Rossiya xalqi bilan. o'z taqdirining xo'jayiniga aylaning. "

Aslida, amerikaliklarning 1918 yilda Rossiyada agentlar jamoasi bor edi. Spymaster Moskvadagi bosh konsul Devit Klinton Poul edi. Amerikaning asosiy agenti ksenofon Kalamatiano edi, u Rossiya sudlari tomonidan fitna uyushtirgani uchun o'lim jazosiga hukm qilingan edi (agar siz Google orqali bu ikki kishini qidirsangiz, Amerika hukumati tafsilotlarni olib tashlashda qanday katta ish qilganini ko'rasiz. ularning bu fitnada ishtiroki to'g'risida).

Bu razvedka xizmatlari fitnani sir saqlashga urinishlariga qaramay, bizda hozir to'liq hikoya bor. Biroq, faqat tafsilotlar 2001 yilgacha e'lon qilingan. Bu ma'lumot Rossiya maxfiy politsiyasi katta xodimi Aleksandr Orlovdan keldi. U Iosif Stalinga yaqin odam edi va 1936 yilda Lev Kamenev va Gregori Zinovyovdan yolg'on e'tiroflarni olish uchun mas'ul edi. Ispaniya fuqarolar urushi paytida Orlov respublika armiyasi va Xalqaro brigadalar uchun kurashayotgan Leon Trotskiy tarafdorlarini yo'q qilish vazifasiga ega edi. .

1938 yil iyul oyida Stalin Orlovni Sovet Ittifoqiga qaytarishni buyurdi. Buyuk tozalash davom etayotganidan va uning bir qancha do'stlari qatl etilganidan xabardor bo'lgan Orlov AQShga yo'l olishdan oldin xotini va qizi bilan Frantsiyaga qochib ketdi. Orlov NKVD boshlig'i Nikolay Yejovga xat yubordi, agar unga yoki uning oilasiga qarshi choralar ko'rilsa, tashkilot sirlarini oshkor qiladi.

Orlov Amerikaga kelganida FQB bilan suhbatlashgan. U, albatta, Sovet Ittifoqida bo'lib o'tgan ko'rgazmalar sinovlari to'g'risida ajoyib ma'lumot manbai bo'lgan (siz esda tutishingiz kerak, o'sha paytda ommaviy axborot vositalari haqiqatan ham Stalinni ag'darish uchun Trotskiydan ilhomlangan fitna borligini yozishgan edi). Biroq, u nafaqat Rossiyada 1930 -yillardagi voqealar haqida bilgan. 1918 yilda u Chekada kichik ofitser bo'lgan va Ksenofon Kalamatianoning tergovida qatnashgan.

Orlovga Amerikada qolishga ruxsat berildi, lekin unga Sovet Ittifoqidagi faoliyati to'g'risida hech qanday ma'lumotni ruxsatsiz e'lon qila olmasligini aytishdi. Iosif Stalin vafotidan keyin nashr etdi Stalin jinoyatlarining maxfiy tarixi (1953). Bunga Leninni o'ldirish rejasining tafsilotlari kiritilmagan. U bu haqda yozgan edi, lekin uni nashr qilishdan bosh tortdi. Orlov 1973 yil 25 martda Ogayo shtatining Klivlend shahrida vafot etdi.

Orlovdan intervyu olgan FBR agentlaridan biri Edvard P. Gazur ismli odam edi. U Orlov bilan do'stlashdi va u nashr etilmagan xotiralarini meros qilib oldi. U bu materialni Gordon Bruk-Sheferdga ko'rishga ruxsat berdi, u undan yozishga yordam berdi Temir labirint: G'arb maxfiy xizmatlari va bolsheviklar (1998). Kitobda aytilishicha, fitna inqilobdan beri bolsheviklar hukumatini himoya qilib kelayotgan Lett (Latviya) polklarining katta qo'mondoni polkovnik Eduard Berzin tomonidan uyushtirilgan. Bu to'g'ri, lekin u Chekaning agenti edi.

Berzin birinchi uchrashuvini 1918 yil 14-avgustda Sovet hukumatining Buyuk Britaniyaning Rossiyadagi bosh konsuli vazifasini bajaruvchi maxsus missiyasi rahbari Robert Bryus Lokxart bilan o'tkazdi. Aniq xususiyatlar va qattiq ko'zlar "Berzinni hayratda qoldirdi. U Lokxartga inqilobdan beri bolsheviklar hukumatini himoya qilib kelayotgan Letish (Latviya) polklarining katta qo'mondoni ekanligini aytdi. Berzinning ta'kidlashicha, bu polklar Lenin uchun ajralmas bo'lib, uning rejimini bir necha urinishlardan qutqargan davlat to'ntarishlari.

1918 yil 25-avgustda bosh konsul Devit Klinton Poul Frantsiya bosh konsuli Jozef Fernan Grenar bilan uchrashuvda qatnashdi va u erda fitna muhokama qilindi. Poul operatsiyaga 200 ming rubl miqdorida mablag 'ajratdi. Frantsiya razvedkasining Rossiyadagi etakchi agenti, polkovnik Anri de Vertemont ham bu ishga pul qo'shdi. Keyingi hafta Sidney Reyli, Ernest Boys va Jorj Aleksandr Xill polkovnik Belzin bilan muntazam uchrashuvlar o'tkazib, u erda bolsheviklar hukumatini ag'darishni rejalashtirishgan. Bu davrda ular 1 200 000 rubl topshirishdi. MI6 noma'lum, bu pul darhol Cheka rahbari Feliks Dzerjinskiyga topshirildi. Fitna tafsilotlari ham shunday edi.

Berzin fitnachilarga o'z qo'shinlari Sovet Markaziy Ijroiya Qo'mitasi yig'ilishi kerak bo'lgan teatrni qo'riqlash uchun tayinlanganini aytdi. Lenin va Leon Trotskiyni hibsga olish rejasi 1918 yil 28 -avgustda bo'lib o'tishi kerak edi. Robin Bryus Lokxart, muallif. Reyli: Ace ayg'oqchilari (1992): "Reylining asosiy rejasi 28 avgust kuni Sovet Markaziy Ijroiya Qo'mitasining yig'ilishi o'tkazilishi kerak bo'lgan paytda, barcha qizil rahbarlarni birdaniga hibsga olish edi. Ularni ijro etish o'rniga, Reyli sumkani olib tashlamoqchi edi. Bolsheviklar ierarxiyasi, Lenin va Trotskiy bilan birga, ularni Moskva ko'chalarida shim va ichki kiyimsiz, ko'ylak-dumli shabada uchib yurishdi, keyin qamoqqa tashlanishdi. bolsheviklar rahbarlarini otib, shahid qilishdan ko'ra ". Oxir -oqibat Reilining rejasi rad etildi va bolsheviklar partiyasining butun rahbariyatini ijro etishga qaror qilindi.

Britaniya hukumati yangi rus hukumatining boshlig'i bo'lishni xohlagan odamni tanladi. Uning ismi Boris Savinkov edi. Bu bahsli qaror edi, chunki Savinkovning o'tmishi shubhali edi. U sotsialistik inqilobiy partiya a'zosi bo'lgan va bir qancha terrorchilik harakatlarida qatnashgan va 1904 yilda ichki ishlar vaziri Vyacheslav Plevega suiqasd uyushtirgan. Savinkov 1917 yilda Muvaqqat hukumat a'zosi bo'lgan. bolsheviklarga qattiq nafrati bor edi.

Urush vaziri Uinston Cherchill aralashuvni jonkuyar tarafdori edi va Sidney Reylining tavsiyasi bilan Savinkovni hukumatni boshqaradigan eng yaxshi odam deb tanlagan edi. Bosh vazir Devid Lloyd Jorj bolsheviklarni ag'darishga urinishlariga shubha bilan qaradi: "Savinkov, shubhasiz, kelajakning odamidir, lekin men hozir bolsheviklar bo'lsam ham, Rossiyaga muhtojman. Savinkov hozircha hech narsa qila olmaydi, lekin Ishonchim komilki, uni vaqti kelib chaqirishadi, unga o'xshagan ruslar ko'p emas ". Tashqi ishlar vazirligi Savinkovni "eng ishonchsiz va qiyshiq" deb ta'riflagani taassurot qoldirmadi. Cherchill: "U o'zini dahshatli usullarga qaramasdan," buyuk odam va buyuk rus vatanparvari "deb o'ylayman, deb javob berdi. Cherchill maslahatchilarining maslahatlarini rad etdi, "boshqa mamlakatdagi siyosatni baholash juda qiyin".

1918 yil 28 -avgustda Sovet Markaziy Ijroiya Qo'mitasining yig'ilishi bekor qilindi. Uch kundan keyin Dora Kaplan Leninni o'ldirmoqchi bo'ldi. Bu Britaniyaning bolsheviklar hukumatini ag'darish fitnasining bir qismi ekanligi va Chekaning boshlig'i Feliks Dzerjinskiy Buyuk Britaniyaning Petrograddagi elchixonasida joylashgan agentlarni to'plash to'g'risida buyruq bergani da'vo qilindi. Dengiz attaşesi Frensis Kromi hibsga olishga qarshilik qilib o'ldirildi. Robin Bryus Lokxartning so'zlariga ko'ra: "Jasoratli Kromi oxirigacha qarshilik ko'rsatdi; har bir qo'lida Braunning bilan u komissarni o'ldirdi va bir necha cheka bezorilarini yarador qildi. Qizil o'qlar bilan yiqilib tushdi. Tepib va ​​oyoq osti qilindi, tanasi tashlandi. Ikkinchi qavat derazasidan ".

Ernest Boys va Robert Bryus Lokxart hibsga olingan, biroq Sidney Reyli omadli qochib qutulgan. U ertalab Kromi bilan uchrashishni rejalashtirdi. U Britaniya elchixonasiga Kromi o'ldirilganidan ko'p o'tmay keldi: "Elchixona eshigi menteşalarini sindirib tashlagan. Elchixona bayrog'i yirtilgan. Elchixonani bo'ron ko'targan". Endi Reyli yashiringan va 60 ming rubl to'lab, Gollandiyalik yuk tashuvchi bortida Rossiyadan olib chiqib ketishgan.

Jorj Aleksandr Xill ham qochishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. O'sha paytda Sibirda tashrif bilan bo'lgan bosh konsul Devit Klinton Poul boshqa hibsga olishlar haqida eshitib, Finlyandiyaga borishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Uning Rossiyadagi asosiy agenti Ksenofon Kalamatianoning omadi kelmadi va hibsga olindi. Aleksandr Orlov Kalamatianodan intervyu olganda o'sha erda edi. U savollarga javob berishdan bosh tortdi, lekin ofitserlardan biri uning qo'lidagi tayog'i bilan hech qachon ajralmaganini payqadi. Ofitser qamishchani ko'rishni so'radi va uni yaxshilab o'rgana boshladi. Orlov FTBga shunday dedi: "Kalamatiano oqarib ketdi va o'zini yo'qotdi. Tergov tez orada qamishning ichki naychasi borligini aniqladi va uni chiqarib oldi. Unda maxfiy shifr, josuslik hisobotlari, o'ttiz ikkita ayg'oqchining kodli ro'yxati yashiringan. ularning ayrimlaridan pul tushumlari ».

1918 yil 2 oktyabrda Britaniya hukumati Robert Bryus Lokxart va Ernest Boysni Maksim Litvinov kabi asir bo'lgan sovet amaldorlariga almashtirishni buyurdi. Ozodlikdan keyin qolgan fitnachilar sudga tortildi. Ularning barchasi aybdor deb topildi va Ksenofon Kalamatiano va polkovnik Aleksandr V. Frida o'limga hukm qilindi. Sud, shuningdek, Lokxart, Sidney Reyli, Jozef Fernand Grenard va polkovnik Anri de Vertemontga ham "o'lim bilan qochib ketishganini" ta'kidlab, o'lim jazosini berdi. Agar ularning hammasi Sovet zaminida topilsa, otib tashlanardi. Frida 14 dekabrda qatl qilindi, ammo Kalamatiano Lubyanka qamoqxonasiga jo'natildi. Hibsga olinganining dastlabki haftalarida uni bir necha bor hiylaga soxta qatl qilish uchun olib ketishgan. Biroq, Feliks Dzerjinskiy Kalamatianoni o'likdan ko'ra tirikroq ishlatishga qaror qildi.

Kalamatianoni ozod qilish bo'yicha muzokaralar darhol boshlandi. Bolshevik hukumati Amerika rasmiylariga "Kalamatiano Sovet davlatiga qarshi eng oliy jinoyatni sodir etgan, Rossiya inqilobiy qonuniga muvofiq sudlangan va hozirgacha Sovet Rossiyasi uchun xavfli hisoblanadi", deb aytgan. Kalamatiano Amerika hukumati davom etayotgan Rossiya fuqarolar urushida Oq Armiyani qo'llab -quvvatlaguncha qamoqda qolishi aniq bo'ldi.

1920 yil 19 -noyabrda Kalamatiano o'zini razvedka agenti bo'lgan professor Samuel N. Xarperga shunday xabar yuborishga muvaffaq bo'ldi: "Sizga aytadigan bir nechta so'zlar va do'stlarimdan qaysi biri bilan uchrashsangiz ham, men hali hamman. juda tirik - oriq bo'lsa -da ... Kecha mening 30 yillik qamoqxonamni turli muassasalarda nishonladi ... Biroq, tashqarida nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, bu erda to'plangan bo'lsa, menga inqilobni tomosha qilish uchun o'rindiq berilgan deb o'ylayman va shikoyat qilmayman. Bunday g'ayrioddiy imkoniyat. Sizning tanishlaringiz bu erga har xil vaqtda kelgan. Men sizga ishonamanki, ular haqida hamma narsani batafsil aytib beraman. Hozirda qog'ozdagi ismlar juda yoqimsiz ... Agar men tiriklayin chiqarsam va menda hamma narsa bo'lsa. umid qilamanki, hozir shunday bo'lishga umid qilaman - garchi bir paytlar imkoniyat tadbirkorning tarafida bo'lsa -da, umid qilamanki, biz gaplashish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lamiz. "

1921 yil yozida mamlakatda ochlik hukm surdi va 25 milliondan ortiq ruslar ochlikdan qiynalishdi. 27 iyul kuni AQSh Davlat kotibi Charlz Evans Xyuz Sovet Tashqi ishlar vaziri Maksim Gorkiyni yozma ravishda ogohlantirdi: "Amerika hukumati uchun Rossiyadagi qiyinchiliklarni bartaraf etish choralarini ko'rish bizning fuqarolarimiz haqida batafsil ma'lumot bera olmasligi aniq. . " Uch kundan keyin bolsheviklar amerikalik yordam idorasiga shoshilinch yordam evaziga amerikalik mahbuslarni qo'yib yuborishga rozi bo'lishdi. 1921 yil 10 -avgustda Kalamatiano va yana beshta amerikalik ozod qilindi.

Kalamatianoga Dyuitt Klinton Poul Rossiyadagi faoliyati haqida hech kimga aytmaslik kerakligini ogohlantirgan. U 1921 yil dekabrda Davlat departamentidan ishdan bo'shatildi va Kalver Harbiy Akademiyasida chet tili o'qituvchisi bo'lib ishga joylashdi. Rasmiy e'tirozga qaramay, u o'z xotiralarini yozdi, lekin hech bir nashriyot uning qo'lyozmasini qabul qilishga rozi bo'lmadi.

Ksenofon Kalamatiano ovchi edi va 1922 yil qishda bitta ekspeditsiyadan keyin oyog'i muzlab qoldi. U zaharli bo'lib qoldi va oyoq barmoqlarini kesib tashlashga to'g'ri keldi. "Men dunyoni zarracha qilib tashlayapman", deb yozadi u kasalxonadan o'zining eski ustozi, professor Samuel N. Xarperga. Zahar uning tanasiga hujum qilishni davom ettirdi va oxir -oqibat uning yuragiga zarar yetkazdi. U 1923 yil 9-noyabrda shifokorlar tomonidan tasdiqlangan "o'tkir septik endokardit" kasalligidan vafot etdi. U qirq bir yoshda edi.

Hikoyaning oxirgi qismi bu erda ochilgan Aleksandr Orlov: FQBning KGB generali, 2001 yilda nashr etilgan kitob. FBR agenti Edvard P. Gazur, Aleksandr Orlovdan intervyu olgan, 1918 yilda Rossiyada MI6 bo'limi boshlig'i Ernest Boys aslida ikki tomonlama agent bo'lganini va sovetlar maoshida bo'lganini da'vo qiladi. Nayjel Uestning ta'kidlashicha, "buning sababi shu paytgacha chiqmagan, chunki Britaniya razvedkasi ma'lumotiga ega bo'lmagan Orlov Edvard Gazurdan boshqa hech kimga aytmagan".

Orlovniki Vaqt marti, xotiralar, 2004 yilgacha nashr etilmagan. Gordon Bruk-Shepherd, muallifi Temir labirint: G'arb maxfiy xizmatlari va bolsheviklar (1998) ta'kidladi: "Mualliflik huquqi Vaqt marti, xotiralar Aleksandr Orlov tomonidan yozilgan, u 655 sahifadan iborat bo'lib, yigirma to'qqiz bobda askarlik va sovet maxfiy xizmatining bolsheviklar davridagi epizodlari, bolsheviklar hukmronligining birinchi yillaridan 1939 yildagi Stalin bilan bo'lgan tanaffusigacha va sarguzashtli parvozi haqida hikoya qiladi. Ispaniyadagi oxirgi postidan Shimoliy Amerikagacha. Ispancha hikoyaning ko'p qismi va uning Stalin qo'lidan qochishi allaqachon bosma nashrlarda paydo bo'lgan edi. Avvalgi davr haqidagi bu xabar hech qachon nashr etilmagan va hatto tarqatilmagan. U kitobning yarmini qamrab oldi, ko'p qismi bolsheviklar hokimiyatining birinchi o'n yilligida. (Masalan, "Beshinchi" bobda, yetmish olti sahifadan ziyod "buyuk fitnachi" va bolsheviklarning barcha rus dushmanlari orasida eng xavflisi Boris Savinkovning tuzoqqa tushishi haqidagi haqiqiy voqea keltirilgan). Bu bo'limlarning har ikkalasida ham, ular nafaqat odamlarning ajoyib tafsilotlari tufayli, balki men ularni tez-tez o'tkaziladigan nazorat tekshiruvlaridan so'ng ishonchli deb bilganim uchun.

Maxfiy razvedka xizmati boshlig'i Jon Skarlett o'zining yuz yilligi arafasida MI6 "Xizmatning birinchi qirq yillik tarixi bo'yicha mustaqil va obro'li jildni topshirishini" e'lon qildi. Keyf Jefferi, Belfast qirolicha universitetining Britaniya tarixi professori, vazifani bajarish uchun tanlangan MI6: Maxfiy razvedka xizmati tarixi: 1909-1949 Kitob 1918 yilda Rossiyada MI6 agentlari faoliyatining ba'zi tafsilotlarini o'z ichiga oladi, lekin hozirda "Lokhart uchastkasi" deb nomlanuvchi narsa haqida hech narsa aytilmagan.

Kitobda Ernest Boys haqida bitta ma'lumot bor. Bu Boysni 1925 yil sentyabr oyida Sidney Reylini Rossiyaga qaytarib yuborganlikda ayblaydi, u Markaziy Rossiya monarxistik ittifoqi rahbarlari bilan yashirin uchrashuvlar o'tkazadi. "Boys fojia uchun bir qancha ayblarni o'z zimmasiga olishi kerak edi. Londonga, Xelsinkidagi yordamchisi Garri Karr eslaganidek," u boshlig'i tomonidan bu baxtsiz ishda o'ynagan roli uchun gilamlangan ". U bu guruhni Sovet maxfiy politsiyasi boshlig'i Feliks Dzerjinskiy Leninga qarshi fitnalar uchun qasos olish uchun tashkil qilganini qo'shmaydi. Bundan bir necha oy oldin, Britaniya hukumati bolsheviklar rahbarlari o'ldirilganidan keyin Rossiya hukumatining yangi rahbari bo'lishni xohlagan odam Boris Savinkov ham xuddi shunday tuzoqqa tushib qolgan edi. Savinkov 1925 yil 7 -mayda politsiya hibsxonasida vafot etdi, 5 -noyabrda Reyli qatl qilindi.

Britaniya, Frantsiya va AQSh razvedka xizmatlarining Lokhart uchastkasini yashirishining sabablari ko'p emas, chunki ular chet el rahbarlarining o'ldirilishi kabi noqonuniy xatti -harakatlarni amalga oshirgan. Asosiy tashvish ularni Cheka osonlikcha aldab ketishganini va ularning asosiy ofitserlaridan biri ikkilamchi agent ekanligini yashirish edi.

Bu Jon F. Kennedi o'ldirilishi haqidagi Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi va FTB fayllari oshkor qilinmaganiga ham tegishli bo'lishi mumkinmi? Balki ular shunchaki o'zlarining qobiliyatsizligini yashirishyapti.

Boshqa xabarlar

Ittifoqchilarning Leninni o'ldirish rejasi (7 mart, 2014 yil)

Rasputin MI6 tomonidan o'ldirilganmi? (2014 yil 24 -fevral)

Uinston Cherchill va kimyoviy qurol (11 fevral, 2014 yil)

Pit Seeger va ommaviy axborot vositalari (2014 yil 1 -fevral)

Tarix o'qituvchilari foydalanishi kerak Qoraqalpoq sinfxonada? (2014 yil 15 yanvar)

Nima uchun razvedka xizmatlari doktor Stiven Uordni o'ldirishdi? (2014 yil 8 -yanvar)

Sulaymon Nortup va 12 yillik qullik (2014 yil 4 -yanvar)

Osvensim farishtasi (2013 yil 6 -dekabr)

Jon Kennedi o'limi (2013 yil 23 -noyabr)

Adolf Gitler va ayollar (2013 yil 22 -noyabr)

Geli Raubal ishidagi yangi dalillar (2013 yil 10 -noyabr)

Sinfdagi qotillik holatlari (2013 yil 6 -noyabr)

Katta Truman Smit va Adolf Gitlerni moliyalashtirish (2013 yil 4 -noyabr)

Birlik Mitford va Adolf Gitler (2013 yil 30 oktyabr)

Klod Kokbern va uning tinchlantirishga qarshi kurashi (2013 yil 26 oktyabr)

Uilyam Vaysemanning g'alati ishi (2013 yil 21 oktyabr)

Robert Vansittartning josuslik tarmog'i (2013 yil 17 oktyabr)

Britaniya gazetasining tinchlik va fashistlar Germaniyasi haqidagi hisoboti (2013 yil 14 oktyabr)

Pol Dakre, Daily Mail va fashizm (2013 yil 12 oktyabr)

Uollis Simpson va fashistlar Germaniyasi (2013 yil 11 oktyabr)

MI5 faoliyati (2013 yil 9 oktyabr)

O'ng klub va Ikkinchi jahon urushi (2013 yil 6 oktyabr)

Pol Dakrening otasi urushda nima qilgan? (2013 yil 4 oktyabr)

Ralf Miliband va Lord Rothermere (2013 yil 2 oktyabr)


Uzoqqa sakrash operatsiyasi

Uzoqqa sakrash operatsiyasi (Nemis: Unternehmen Weitsprung) 1943 yilda Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Tehron konferentsiyasida "Katta uchlik" ittifoqchilari rahbarlari Jozef Stalin, Uinston Cherchill va Franklin Ruzveltni bir vaqtning o'zida o'ldirish haqidagi nemis rejasi edi. [1] Eron operatsiyasini SS- boshqarishi kerak edi.Obersturmbannführer Waffen SS dan Otto Skorzeni. Sovet josusi Gevork Vartanian boshchiligidagi Sovet Ittifoqidan kelgan bir guruh agentlar bu fitnani boshlanishidan oldin fosh etishdi va missiya hech qachon ishga tushmadi. [2] Suiqasd rejasi va uning buzilishi Rossiya ommaviy axborot vositalari tomonidan film va romanlarda chiqishlari bilan ommalashdi.


Tarixni tubdan o'zgartiradigan tasodifiy qotillik rejalari (agar ular muvaffaqiyat qozongan bo'lsa) (10 ta maqola)

Ish haqi bo'yicha qo'zg'olon inqilobiy urushni koloniyalar uchun g'alabaga olib kelishi mumkin edi. Nyu -Yorkda (Nyu -York), 1783 yil mart oyida, charchagan Kontinental Armiya, agar ularga to'lanmagan bo'lsa, deyarli general Jorj Vashingtonga murojaat qildi. Biroq, ayyor Vashington tomonidan Nyburgburg fitnasi tezda tugadi.

Oxir-oqibat qo'shinlarning g'azablari yuqori martabali zobitlarga ko'tarildi, ular anonim maktub tarqatib, kam maosh olayotgan askarlarning qo'zg'olonini talab qilishdi. Brutus nomidan yozilgan xat, askarlarga urush harakatlaridan voz kechib, hukumatning xazinasini bosib, o'zlariga tegishli bo'lgan pulni olishlarini taklif qildi. Borayotgan fitna haqida xabar topgan Vashington, maxfiy uchrashuvda norozi ofitserlarni kutilmaganda kutib oldi va ularni jo'shqin nutq bilan kurashishga ko'ndirdi.

(#9) Angliya Yelizaveta I

Angliya qirolichasi Yelizaveta I o'zining protestantligi uchun ko'plab katolik-flaklarni tutdi. Bir necha bor, Angliyada katoliklikni tiklashni xohlovchilar Yelizavetaning amakivachchasi, Shotlandiya qirolichasi Maryamni taxtga o'tirishga va yo'lni tozalash uchun Elizabetni o'ldirishga harakat qilishgan. Biroq, Elizabetning josuslik agentlari har doim raqobatdan bir qadam oldinda qolishgan.

Boshqa bir urinishda, 1583 yildagi Throckmorton uchastkasi, Yelizaveta davlat kotibi Frensis Uolsingem tomonidan topilgan. Uning kuzatuvi Meri shahriga olib boradigan rejani tavsiflovchi yozishmalar topilishiga olib keldi. Throckmorton qiynoqqa solingan va o'ldirilgan, Maryam esa qulflangan. Katoliklikni Angliyaga qaytarishga undagan ispanlar ham fitnaga bog'lanib, barcha elchilarni quvib chiqarishdi.

Keyin fitna uyushtiruvchilar yana 1586 yilda qatnashishdi - bu safar fitnachi Entoni Babington boshchilik qildi, u muvaffaqiyatsiz Babington uchastkasiga o'z ismini berdi. Yelizavetaga qarshi ikkinchi fitnaning fosh qilinishi oldindan qamoqqa tashlangan Maryamning qatl etilishiga olib keldi. Elisabetning eng katta ayg'oqchisi Uolsingem Maryamga xabar yuborish uchun ikkilamchi agent yubordi va shu tariqa uni tuzoqqa olib, malikaga qarshi davom etayotgan tahdidlarga aralashdi.

(#4) Pudra uchastkasi

Ko'plab britaniyaliklar 5 -noyabrda, Gay Fokkes kunini nishonlaydilar, 1605 yilgi qurol -yarog 'qurilishi muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, qirol Jeyms I va butun parlament lordlar palatasi ostiga qo'yilgan o'nlab barrel porox portlashidan aziyat chekdi.

Robert Keytsbi boshchiligidagi katoliklar guruhi qo'zg'olonni bir yilga rejalashtirgan, bu esa papa qarshi bo'lgan qirol Jeyms Ini ag'darish edi. Fitnachilar Lordlar palatasida yerto‘lani ijaraga olib, 30 bochkadan ortiq poroxni ag'darib yuborishdi. 5 -noyabr kuni parlament buyurtma berishga chaqirilganda, reja qirol Jeyms I va butun hukumatni zarba berish edi.

Bitta fitnachi 4 -noyabr kuni sovuq oyoqqa turdi va siyosatchi Lord Monteaglni 5 -noyabr kuni Lordlar palatasidan uzoqlashishga undadi. oddiy portlovchi moddalarni portlatishda ayblangan edi. Foukes London minorasida qiynoq ostida aybini tan oldi va aybdorlarning hammasi o'ldirildi - ba'zilari suddan keyin, ba'zilari oldin.

(№7) Napoleon Bonapart

Napoleon Bonapart Evropani shuhratparastlik bilan egallab olishni 1803 yilgacha - Sen -Nikaysa ko'chasi qurilganidan uch yil o'tgach boshlamadi. 1800 yilgi fitna paytida, Napoleon Frantsiyaning birinchi konsuli sifatida frantsuz hukumatining mutlaq nazoratini qo'lga kiritish yo'lida tez yurar edi, lekin uning muxoliflari uni to'xtatish niyatida edilar.

Fitnachilar Rojdestvo arafasida Napoleonni kuzatib boradigan vagonlar kortejida portlovchi moddalar bilan to'ldirilgan "AKA Machine Infernale" bochkasini qo'yishni rejalashtirishgan. Sug'urtalovni qachon yoqish kerakligini hamkasbiga ko'rsatishi kerak bo'lgan fitna rejasi buzildi. Bomba juda kech portladi, ko'pchilik halok bo'ldi, shu jumladan 14 yoshli begunoh qiz, "Mashina infernalasi" ni ushlab turgan aravani kuzatib turish uchun pul olgan-u bug'doy doni deb o'ylagan.

(#6) Franklin D. Ruzvelt

1933 yilda Franklin Delano Ruzveltning inauguratsiyasidan oldin, bir guruh kuchli sanoatchilar - ularning kelayotgan prezidenti aslida kasal mamlakat uchun javob emas, degan xavfli g'oya bilan qurollangan - saylangan prezidentni ag'darish rejasini boshladilar. Guruh (go'yoki JP Morgan), millionlab dollar va qurol -yarog'larni yashirib, fashistik rejim AQSh hukumatini nazoratini qanday qo'lga kiritishi kerakligi haqida fikr yuritdi. Ular mutlaq kuch xalqni Buyuk Depressiyadan olib chiqishning yagona yo'li ekanligiga ishonishdi.

Quvvat brokerlarining paranoid kliklari mashhur dengiz piyodalari generali Smedli Butlerni davlat to'ntarishini amalga oshirish uchun unga sodiq armiyani jalb qilishga urinishdi. Buning o'rniga Butler nomaqbul taklifni Kongressga ma'lum qildi va tergov boshlandi. Tergov natijasida hech kim jinoiy javobgarlikka tortilmadi, lekin AQShning Germaniyadagi elchisi Uilyam Doddsning bir nechta hisoblarida, yaxshi tikilgan sanoatchilar, AQSh demokratiyasini ag'darish va fashistik diktaturani o'rnatish uchun nemislar bilan til biriktirgani ko'rsatilgan. Albatta, FDR qayta saylandi, qolganlari esa tarix.

(#5) Papa Sixtus IV

300 yil Medici oilasi Italiyaning Florensiya shahrida hukmronlik qildi. Ularning platformasining bir qismi papa boshqaruviga qarshi chiqish edi - bu 1478 yilda Patsi fitnasi ortida qolgan Papa Sixtus IV bilan yaxshi munosabatda bo'lmagan. Medicisga, va ular birgalikda Lorenzo va Djuliano de Medici aka -ukalarga suiqasd uyushtirib, shahar hukumatini o'z qo'llariga olishdi.

Shafqatsiz qurbonlik paytida, to'rt kishi, shu jumladan ikkita ruhoniy, yakshanba kuni birodarlarga hujum qilishdi. Jiuliano 20 pichoq jarohati tufayli vafot etdi, lekin Lorenzo yelkasini o'tlatib qutulib qoldi. Medici oilasi o'z tarafdorlari bilan kurashdi, ular 200 dan ortiq Patsi fitnachilarini so'yishdi. Keyin Patsi oilasi Florensiyada taqiqlandi va boyligidan mahrum qilindi.

Ushbu vosita haqida

Tarixda har bir mamlakatning turli davrlarida katta ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan muvaffaqiyatsiz yoki muvaffaqiyatli suiqasdlar ko'p bo'lgan. Insoniyat tarixida turli siyosiy tizimlar yoki davlatlar o'rtasidagi ziddiyatlar va hatto urushlar hech qachon uzilmagan va suiqasdlar o'ta o'ta muhim va muhim o'rinni egallagan. Chaqmoq chaqishi bilan muvaffaqiyatli qotillik tarixni o'zgartiradi.

Suiqasdlar siyosiy rivojlanish yo'nalishini o'zgartirish va tarixni qayta yozish uchun an'anaviy usul sifatida ishlatilgan. Ko'plab mamlakatlar tarixida ko'plab siyosiy rahbarlar qotillik rejalarini tuzatishgan. Tasodifiy asbob tarixda tahdidlardan omon qolgan 10 taniqli etakchilar ro'yxatini ko'rsatadi.

Bizning ma'lumotlarimiz Rankerdan keladi, Agar siz ushbu sahifada ko'rsatilgan narsalar reytingida ishtirok etmoqchi bo'lsangiz, bu erni bosing.


Britaniyaning 1918 yilda Leninni o'ldirish rejasi bormi?

Britaniya hukumati Vladimir Leninni o'ldirishga urinishda va uning bolsheviklar rejimidan voz kechishga urinishda ayblanganidan 90 yil o'tib, u Rossiya siyosatiga singib ketishi mumkin edi va bu da'vo uzoq vaqt sovet propagandasi sifatida rad etilgan edi. ayblov rost bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Qisman Amerika arxivlarida topilgan ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Buyuk Britaniyaning rasmiylari o'nlab yillar davomida aytganidek, Leninni o'ldirish sxemasi asossiz mish -mishlar bo'lmasligi mumkin.

Birinchidan, ba'zi bir fon. 1918 yil boshlariga kelib, rus podshosi Nikolay II taxtdan voz kechdi, vaqtincha rus hukumati bolsheviklar tomonidan Lenin tomonidan ag'darildi va qimmat Birinchi jahon urushidan qutulish uchun Sovetlar imperiya Germaniyasi bilan tinchlik shartnomasi tuzishdi.

“Bu Londonga ma'qul kelmadi ” BBC. “Bu harakat ikki jabhada urush olib borayotgan Berlinga G'arbdagi kuchlarini kuchaytirishga imkon beradi.

Determined to keep the Russians in the conflict, and thereby keep the Germans fighting a two-front war, the British despatched a young man named Robert Bruce Lockhart to Russia. For decades, what became known as the “Lockhart plot” has been etched in the annals of the Soviet archives, taught in schools and even illustrated in films.

“Lockhart, a Scot, was a colorful character,” the BBC xabar berdi. “Known for his love of wine, women and sports, he also prided himself on his alleged ability to read five books at the same time.”

Initially, Lockhart appeared to make progress but in March 1918 the Soviets signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, effectively ending any hopes of their rejoining the Allied effort.

Lockhart, according to the BBC, it seems, had no intention of giving up, despite Russia’s withdrawal from the conflict.

“Instead, the suggestion is, his attention was now turning to overthrowing the Bolshevik regime and replacing it with another government that would be willing to re-enter the war against Germany,” it reported. “Documents show that, in June, Lockhart asked London for money to fund various anti-Bolshevik organisations in Moscow.”

A letter was sent from the British Foreign Office to the Treasury, okaying the expenditure of such funds as Lockhart needed to complete his mission.

In late May, the British sent a small military force to Archangel in northern Russia under the guise that troops were going to be used to prevent thousands of tons of British military equipment, supplied to the Russians, from falling into German hands.

“However, documents from the day suggest that plans were later drawn up for these 5,000 British troops to join forces with 20,000 crack Latvian troops who were guarding the Kremlin but could, it was thought, be turned against the Bolsheviks.”

In the summer of 1918, Lockhart sent a telegram to London following a meeting with a local opponent of the Bolsheviks called Savinkov, the BBC xabar berdi.

It read: “Savinkov’s proposals for counter-revolution. Plan is how, on Allied intervention, Bolshevik barons will be murdered and military dictatorship formed.”

Underneath that telegram is a note bearing the signed initials of Lord Curzon, who was then a member of the British War Cabinet.

It says: “Savinkoff’s methods are drastic, though if successful probably effective, but we cannot say or do anything until intervention has been definitely decided upon.”

Around this time, Lockhart had teamed up in Moscow with Sidney Reilly, a Russian who had earlier changed his name from Rosenbloom, who had recently begun working for the British Secret Services.

But before the pair could move against Lenin, a young Russian woman named Fanya Kaplan shot him twice at close range in late August 1918.

“The Bolshevik’s secret police, the Cheka, arrested Bruce Lockhart a few hours later and he was taken to the Kremlin for questioning,” according to the BBC. “Reilly escaped the Cheka’s clutches on that occasion but was shot dead several years later after being lured back into Russia.

“According to Cheka records, Lockhart confessed to being part of a plot proposed by London to kill Lenin and overthrow the Bolshevik government,” the BBC qo'shildi. “But in early October 1918, Britain’s representative to Moscow was freed in an exchange for his Russian counterpart in London.

Lockhart published his memoirs in the 1930s in which he insisted he’d played no either in attempts to kill Lenin or overthrow the Bolshevik government, according to the BBC:

Instead, he insisted that the maverick “Ace of Spies” Sidney Reilly was the man behind plans for a coup.

Lockhart added that he had little to do with Reilly who some claimed was out of control.

However, a letter written by Lockhart’s son, Robin, has been discovered in archives in America. It suggests that his father was being rather economical with the truth:

“If the question of my father’s relationship with Reilly still exercises anyone’s mind in the F.O., it is clear from his book Memoirs of a British Agent that once intervention in Russia had been decided on in 1918, he gave his active support to the counter-revolutionary movement with which, of course, Reilly was actively working.

“My father has himself made it clear to me that he worked much more closely with Reilly than he had publicly indicated…”

Nearly a century later, the only way to be sure of the truth would be to gain access to the rest of the files. But, not surprisingly, the British government continues to keep many of them secret. Don’t look for that to change anytime soon, either.


Nazi Plot Aimed To Kill The "Big Three" Allied Leaders With One Bomb

The Nazi war effort had begun to crack by 1943, so desperate times called for desperate measures. Enter Operation Long Jump: an alleged German plan to kill allied leaders Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt at the Tehran Conference in Iran.

Russian agents have been credited with thwarting the German assassins before they could execute their brazen plan, and the Russian media loved to trumpet the heroic triumph of successfully saving Stalin and his frenemies. British and American intelligence considered the Russian report to be baloney, maintaining that it never actually happened.


⟬onomical with the truth'

In his best selling book, Memoirs of a British Agent published in the 1930s, Lockhart insisted that he had played no part either in attempts to kill Lenin or overthrow the Bolshevik government.

Instead, he insisted that the maverick "Ace of Spies" Sidney Reilly was the man behind plans for a coup.

Lockhart added that he had little to do with Reilly who some claimed was out of control.

However, a letter written by Lockhart's son, Robin, has been discovered in archives in America. It suggests that his father was being rather economical with the truth:

"If the question of my father's relationship with Reilly still exercises anyone's mind in the F.O., it is clear from his book Memoirs of a British Agent that once intervention in Russia had been decided on in 1918, he gave his active support to the counter-revolutionary movement with which, of course, Reilly was actively working.

"My father has himself made it clear to me that he worked much more closely with Reilly than he had publicly indicated…"


Did the U.S. Try to Assassinate Lenin in 1918?

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THE LENIN PLOT
The Unknown Story of America’s War Against Russia
By Barnes Carr

In a famous speech shown on Russian television in 1984, President Reagan spoke directly to the Soviet people. “Our governments have had serious differences,” he declared. “But our sons and daughters have never fought each other in war.” Just over two decades later President Obama said almost the same thing when he was trying to “reset” relations with Vladimir Putin’s Russia.

It is one of the myths the United States has maintained about its relationship with Russia. Most Russian history textbooks contain at least a brief mention of the invasion by American forces (along with the British and French) of northern Russia in 1918, after the Bolshevik Revolution. But one would be hard pressed to find anything about this conflict in official United States documents, or even American military history books, which makes Barnes Carr’s entertaining new study, “The Lenin Plot,” a welcome corrective.

It is obvious why the American venture has been practically written out of history, though nearly 600 soldiers were killed or went missing in action. The war was a humiliating failure and not entirely legal. President Woodrow Wilson, supposedly a pillar of moral rectitude, and his pious secretary of state, Robert Lansing, lied about American involvement. Then they conspired in a cover-up.

The story is vividly told by Carr, who has unearthed some fascinating new archival sources to add to a sparkling narrative.

Russia fought together with the Western Allies in World War I, but huge casualties led to extreme war weariness by the time the czar was deposed in February 1917. Lenin’s promise to end the war was one of the main reasons his revolution succeeded and was one of the few pledges he kept.

When Lenin made a separate peace with Germany, the Allies felt they had a right to retaliate against the Bolsheviks, who had taken power in a coup, seized foreign assets and threatened to spread revolution throughout the world.

The trouble was they couldn’t agree on what to do or how to do it. At first they sent spies to persuade or bribe the Bolsheviks into remaining in the war — considered crucial by the Allies in order to keep the Germans fighting on two fronts. This is the best part of the book, with a cast list of colorful characters — spooks, crooked businessmen, mountebanks, ideologues and opportunists. The American spymaster in Moscow was a former tennis champion, DeWitt Clinton Poole, known to friends and the Russian secret service as “Poodles” his main field officer was a Russian-born track star, Xenophon de Blumenthal Kalamatiano — the first American spy to be swapped for a Soviet agent. My favorite is the wonderfully named Charles Adolphe Faux-Pas Bidet, the French spy in Moscow who as a police detective had led the case against Mata Hari.

When persuasion failed, the Allies began plotting the assassination of Lenin, which is where the book falters. Carr writes a rollicking spy yarn, but there is no convincing evidence that the one serious attempt on Lenin’s life, when he was shot in the neck and shoulder outside a Moscow factory in August 1918, leads back to Allied intervention. Western spooks talked about murdering Lenin, but it is not clear they did much about it.

Then came military intervention. The United States paid vast sums to support the White forces against the Communist Reds in the civil war. In order to get around the law then forbidding the American government from granting loans to independent armies or mercenaries, they laundered the money, paying the British and French, who passed it on to the Whites. Wilson denied it, but he fooled nobody, least of all the Russians.

To many anti-Communists, the worst thing about the American intervention wasn’t that it was illegal it’s that it was entirely ineffective. When the Allies finally started fighting the Reds around the port of Archangel with a multinational force of over 20,000 troops, including nearly 4,500 Americans, their army was far too small to make any practical difference. But it had a hugely significant future impact. The Soviets never forgot, and for many historians this was the start of the 20th century’s longest war, the Cold War.


BOSHQA MAKALALAR

Lockhart’s son, Robin, writes: ‘If the question of my father’s relationship with Reilly still exercises anyone’s mind in the F.O. [Foreign Office], it is clear from his book Memoirs of a British Agent that once intervention in Russia had been decided on in 1918, he gave his active support to the counter-revolutionary movement with which, of course, Reilly was actively working.

‘My father has himself made it clear to me that he worked much more closely with Reilly than he had publicly indicated.’

Professor Service, who found the letter, gave an interview with a BBC Radio 4 programme, The Lockhart Plot, aired last night.

He claimed the only way to get to the truth is to view the files from the day – but the British Government continues to keep many of them secret.

Statesman: Today, Lenin's embalmed body remains on display in the Kremlin, Moscow


4 Murdering MacArthur

Technically, this ambitious assassination attempt happened after the war, but it could have very well started World War III if it succeeded. Led by Hideo Tokayama, a former member of the secret police and one-time kamikaze pilot, the plotters planned to kill General Douglas MacArthur at his Tokyo headquarters on May 1, 1946 and pin the blame on Communists who were scheduled for a Labor Day rally nearby. The plot unraveled only after Tokayama poisoned a fellow plotter, whom he felt lacked the guts to follow through with the mission. The poisoned man survived and spilled the beans to the authorities, who promptly moved to foil the plot. While MacArthur was all class and even refused extra security, the assassination attempt nonetheless sent jitters throughout the Japanese populace, who had experienced hell only a year earlier.


Unveiled! Lenin's Brilliant Plot to Destroy Capitalism

Let's say you're a revolutionary looking to overthrow capitalism. You've got it all figured out when it comes to grabbing power. But you're still not sure how to stamp the market system out, forever, once l'état c'est toi. What is to be done?

Chop etish, chop etish, chop etish. That was Lenin's answer. Or at least what John Maynard Keynes thought was Lenin's answer. In his post-Versailles treatise, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, Keynes famously quoted the Bolshevik leader saying, perhaps apocryphally, that "the best way to destroy the capitalist system is to debauch the currency." In other words, incompetent central bankers are a communist's best friend. The idea is hyperinflation breaks down markets and breaks down classes. Business can't plan beyond today if they don't know what money will be worth tomorrow. And a collapsing currency turns the bourgeoisie into the proletariat overnight. That sound you hear is the revolution coming.

But it's a bit more complicated than that. Michael White and Kurt Schuler unearthed the original Lenin quote -- yes, he really did say it -- in a 2009 paper in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. And let's just say he wasn't so sanguine about capitalism withering away. See, Lenin thought hyperinflation was the best way to destroy capitalism after the revolution, because the revolution wouldn't be enough itself. The profit-motive would survive even if the bourgeois state did not -- and even if the socialist state tried to outlaw it. The only way to kill the profit-motive was to kill profits. And that meant killing the very concept of money itself. Here's how Lenin described how he was trying to do this back in 1919 (emphasis added):

Hundreds of thousands of ruble notes are being issued daily by our treasury. This is done, not in order to fill the coffers of the State with practically worthless paper, but with the deliberate intention of destroying the value of money as a means of payment. There is no justification for the existence of money in the Bolshevik state, where the necessities of life shall be paid for by work alone.

Experience has taught us it is impossible to root out the evils of capitalism merely by confiscation and expropriation, for however ruthlessly such measures may be applied, astute speculators and obstinate survivors of the capitalist classes will always manage to evade them and continue to corrupt the life of the community. The simplest way to exterminate the very spirit of capitalism is therefore to flood the country with notes of a high face-value without financial guarantees of any sort.

Already even a hundred-ruble note is almost valueless in Russia. Soon even the simplest peasant will realize that it is only a scrap of paper, not worth more than the rags from which it is manufactured. Men will cease to covet and hoard it so soon as they discover it will not buy anything, and the great illusion of the value and power of money, on which the capitalist state is based will have been definitely destroyed.

This is the real reason why our presses are printing ruble bills day and night, without rest.

Well, maybe. Or maybe the Bolsheviks were printing ruble bills day and night, without rest, because they had to. They needed money to fight their civil war, but they didn't have any thanks to an economy in free fall and a Western embargo (and military intervention). And that left the printing press. So there's something of Lenin trying to turn economic lemons into ideological lemonade here.

But there's still something to the idea that destroying money destroys democracy and capitalism like nothing else, right?

Actually, no. Take Weimar Germany. Everybody knows you can draw a straight line from its hyperinflation to Hitler, but, in this case, what everybody knows is wrong. The Nazis didn't take power when prices were doubling every 4 days in 1923-- they tried, and failed -- but rather when prices were falling in 1933. See, money is just memory. That's how Minneapolis Fed president Narayana Kocherlakota put it back in 1996, and he's right: it's our way of keeping track of who has what and who owes what. Hyperinflation destroys one set of memories, but we can always use or create others. We can resort to hard currency or scrip or barter instead. In any case, our market mindset is still there, even if our savings aren't. Deflation, though, doesn't destroy our memories. It leaves us with nothing to remember. Falling prices mean falling wages -- which means rising rising unemployment and rising debt burdens. It's a vicious circle down into mass bankruptcy. And mass bankruptcy has a way of making people unhappy enough with capitalism that they want to give something else a try.

In other words, incompetent central bankers really are a communist's best friend -- but only central bankers who print too little money. So, would-be revolutionaries, forget about debauching the currency. The best way to destroy the capitalist system is to worry about inflation during a depression.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Зачем Вовану мощи Ленина