Keyp Gloucester jangi, 1943 yil 26 dekabr-1944 yil aprel

Keyp Gloucester jangi, 1943 yil 26 dekabr-1944 yil aprel


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Keyp Gloucester jangi, 1943 yil 26 dekabr-1944 yil aprel

Keyp-Gloucester jangi (1943 yil 26-dekabr-1944-yil apreli) "Dexterity" operatsiyasi paytida, Yangi Britaniyaning g'arbiy qismiga bostirib kirganida, Amerikaning asosiy hujumi bo'lib, Yangi Britaniya va Yangi o'rtasidagi Dampier va Vitiaz bo'g'ozlarini nazorat qilish uchun qilingan. Irlandiya.

Yangi Britaniyaning g'arbiy uchi ikkita sababga ko'ra muhim edi. Birinchidan, bu ittifoqchilarga orolning shimoliy uchida joylashgan qudratli yapon bazasi Rabaul ustidan nazoratni kuchaytirishga imkon beradi. Ikkinchidan, bu ittifoqchilarga Yangi Britaniya va undan kichikroq Umboi oroli (yoki Ruk) o'rtasida o'tadigan Dampier bo'g'ozini nazorat qilish imkonini beradi. Xuon yarim orolidagi ittifoqchilar kampaniyasi ularga Umboi va Yangi Gvineya o'rtasidagi Vitiaz bo'g'ozini nazorat qilish imkoniyatini berdi. Ikkala bo'g'oz ham ittifoqchilar qo'lida bo'lganida, ularni Yangi Gvineya qirg'oqlari bo'ylab g'arbga, keyin esa Filippinga qaytishda ishlatish mumkin edi.

Yaponlar Yangi Britaniyaning g'arbiy qismiga bostirib kirish Ittifoqchilarning navbatdagi harakati bo'lishi mumkin deb qaror qilishdi. Sentyabr oyida general Ivao Matsuda Rabauldan orolning g'arbiy chekkasiga yuborilgan edi. Oktyabr oyida 17 -chi diviziya Xitoydan Rabaulga bora boshladi va uning ko'p qismi G'arbga Matsudaga qo'shilishni buyurdi. Amerikaliklar qo'nganida, yaponlarning 65 -brigadasi, 4 -chi yuk tashish guruhi va 17 -divizionning bir qismi Keyp Gloucesterda, taxminan 10 ming kishi bor edi.

Hujum general Uilyam Rupertus boshchiligidagi AQSh dengiz piyodalari tomonidan amalga oshirilishi kerak edi. Reja Cape Gloucesterning har ikki tomoniga ikki tomonlama hujum qilish edi. 2 -batalon, 1 -dengiz bo'linmasi, yarim orolning g'arbiy qismidagi Taualiga hujum qilib, asosiy yo'lni kesib, yapon himoyachilarini ajratib qo'yishi kerak edi. 7 -dengiz piyodalaridan tashkil topgan C jangovar jamoasi yarimorolning sharqidagi Borgen ko'rfaziga qo'nishi va plyaj boshini o'rnatishi kerak edi. Keyin ularga 1 -dengiz piyodalarining qolgan qismidan tashkil topgan B guruhi qo'shiladi. "B" jangovar guruhi ichki qismga o'tib, Yaponiya aerodromini egallaydi.

Keyp -Gloucester qo'nishiga 11 kun qolganida, Yangi Buyuk Britaniyaning g'arbiy janubidagi Aravega yana bir kuch qo'ndi. Bu Yaponiyaliklarning e'tiborini Keyp -Glousesterdan uzoqlashtirishga qaratilgan chalg'ituvchi hujum edi. Yaponlar bu jangga bir qancha qo'shinlarni jalb qilishdi, lekin orolda harakatning sekinligi Keyp -Gloucesterdagi janglarga unchalik ta'sir qilmadi.

G'arbiy qo'nish hech qanday muammosiz o'tdi. Dengiz piyodalari 26 -dekabr kuni ertalab qo'nganida, Tauali atrofidagi yapon mudofaasi tashlab ketilganini va hech qanday qarshilik ko'rmaganini ko'rdilar. Kun oxirigacha ular burunning g'arbiy qirg'og'i bo'ylab yo'lni to'sib qo'yishdi.

Sharqda ko'proq muammolar bor edi, lekin ular asosan erdan kelib chiqqan. Bosqinlar oldidan olib borilgan razvedka, plyajlarning orqasida nam tekislik borligini taxmin qilgandi, lekin bu chuqur botqoq bo'lib chiqdi. AQShning birinchi bosqinchilik o'limi, aslida, Amerika artilleriya o'qi tomonidan buzilgan, botqoqdagi daraxtning qulashi natijasida sodir bo'lgan. 7 -chi dengiz piyodalari qiyin erlarga qaramay, botqoqlikdan o'tishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi va qurg'oqchilikda, taxminan 900 yard ichkarida o'z pozitsiyalarini o'rnatdilar.

Keyin birinchi dengiz piyodalari rejalashtirilganidek ular orasidan o'tdilar va aerodrom tomon yura boshladilar. Ular birinchi yapon mudofaasiga, to'rt bunkerdan iborat tarmoqqa yugurishdi va bir muddat ushlab turishdi. Oxir -oqibat, ichki deb nomlangan Amtrak bitta bunkerni yo'q qilishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va tarmoqdagi bu bo'shliq dengiz piyodalariga qolganini tugatishga imkon berdi.

27 dekabr kuni dengiz piyodalari qirg'oq yo'li bo'ylab uch milga aerodromga qarab yurishdi.

27-dekabrdan 28-dekabrga o'tar kechasi yaponlar dastlabki qo'nish nuqtasiga qattiq qarshi hujum uyushtirdilar. Hujum muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va yaponlar kamida 200 kishining umriga zomin bo'ldi.

28 dekabr kuni peshin vaqtida dengiz piyodalari kuchli mudofaa pozitsiyasiga o'tdilar, bu safar o'n ikkita bunker, 250 dan ortiq odam. Hozirgi vaqtda dengiz piyodalari o'z tanklarini tushirishdi va 75 mm HE o'qlari va piyoda qo'shinlari bu pozitsiyani tezda yo'q qilishdi. Amerikaliklar 9 halok bo'ldi va 36 yarador, yaponlar kamida 266 o'ldi. Dengiz piyodalari bu hududga "Jahannam nuqtasi" deb nom berishdi, lekin bu qarshilik ko'rsatilgandan ko'ra tezroq engildi.

29 dekabr kuni dengiz piyodalari aerodromning sharqiy chekkasiga etib kelishdi va o'rmondan chiqishdi. Shiddatli qarshilik ko'rsatishni kutishganida, ular piyodalar guruhlari va artilleriya tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanadigan tanklar bilan rasmiy hujum uyushtirishdi, lekin yaponlar hech qanday ko'rinishda bo'lmadi va aerodrom juda tez egallab olindi.

Yaponlar 30 dekabrda yana paydo bo'ldi. Ular Amerika hujumi paytida aerodromning janubida boshpana topdilar va endi banzay hujumini uyushtirdilar. Tez -tez bo'lgani kabi, bu muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi va tirik qolganlar yarim orol markazidagi tog'larga qochib ketishdi.

Yangi qo'lga olingan aerodromni qayta ishga tushirish uchun ko'p kuch sarflandi. AQSh hujumlari natijasida 27 ta shikastlangan yapon samolyotlari uchish -qo'nish yo'lagiga tarqalib ketdi, yer loyga aylandi va bu hudud Yaponiya hujumiga uchradi. Shunday bo'lsa-da, aerodrom fevral oyining o'rtalarida birinchi Ittifoqchi samolyotiga tayyor edi.

Bu Keyp Gloucester atrofidagi janglarni tugatmadi. Yaponlar hali ham Borgen ko'rfazining janubida ko'p sonli qo'shinlarga ega edilar va potentsial ravishda aerodromning artilleriya masofasida bo'lishgan. Bu hududning relyefi Yangi Gvineya kampaniyasining ko'p qismida uchraydi, bu erdagi asosiy o'rni 660 -tepaga olib boradigan bir qator tik o'rmonli o'rmonlar bilan qoplangan. Yaponlar bu tizmalarning ko'piga bunkerlar va turar joylar qurgan va ularni har biridan navbat bilan haydab chiqarish kerak edi. Bu hududda juda kam qurol samarali bo'lgan. Aerodromga boradigan yo'lda juda samarali bo'lgan tanklar bardosh bera olishmadi. Bazukalar va o't o'chiruvchilar namda o'z ta'sirini yo'qotdi, qalin barglari esa minomyotlar, granatalar va artilleriya bunkerlarga qarshi samarasiz edi. Javob chindan ham yaqindan turib, bunkerlarni yo'q qilish uchun portlovchi moddalarni ishlatish edi.

Dengiz piyodalari qo'nish joylari va 660 tepaligidan ikki mil masofani bosib o'tish uchun yanvar oyining birinchi yarmini oldi. 12 yanvarda tepalik kuchli havo va artilleriya bombardimonlari, 13 yanvarda esa 3 -batalon, 7 -dengiz piyodalari (polkovnik) edi. Buse), tepalikka birinchi hujum qildi. Asosiy hujum shimoli-g'arbiy tomondan qilingan, himoyachilarni kesish uchun janubga zirhli buldozerli ikkinchi otryad yuborilgan. Asosiy hujum muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, lekin kapitan Jozef Bakli boshchiligidagi buldozerlar partiyasi o'z o'rnini topa oldi.

Dengiz piyodalari 14 -yanvar kuni yana hujum qilishdi va bu safar 60 millimetrlik minomyotlar yordamida tepalik cho'qqisiga chiqishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Yaponlar atrofdagi o'rmonga chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi, ko'plari esa Baklining yo'l to'sig'iga tushib qolishdi. Bir necha kunlik kichik to'qnashuvlar 16 yanvar kuni tong otguncha sodir bo'ldi. Ular ba'zi joylarda cho'qqiga chiqishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, lekin oxir -oqibat og'ir yo'qotishlar bilan qaytarildi. Tepalik 660 uchun jangda dengiz piyodalari 50 kishi halok bo'ldi va yarador bo'ldi, yaponlar 200 kishi halok bo'ldi.

Hill 660 -ning qo'lga kiritilishi Keyp -Gloucester hududini himoya qildi. Dengiz piyodalari asta -sekin sharqqa borib, o'zlarini kuchli mudofaa perimetri bilan ta'minladilar. Ularning oxirgi maqsadi Villaumez yarim oroli va Talasea aerodromi edi. 6 mart kuni ular Talasea shahriga yangi amfibiya hujumini uyushtirishdi va bir necha kundan keyin janglar bu hududni egallab oldi. Bu Amerikaning Yangi Britaniyaga qarshi kampaniyasining samarali yakunlanishini ko'rsatdi va aprel oyining oxirida dengiz piyodalari Armiyaning 40 -diviziyasi tomonidan ozod qilindi.


Vikipediya: O'zaro tahlil/Keyp Gloucester jangi/arxiv1

Men ushbu maqolani birma -bir ko'rib chiqish uchun sanab o'tdim, chunki men ushbu maqolani yaqinda GAga olib boraman deb umid qilaman va men etishmayotgan yoki yaxshilanishi mumkin bo'lgan narsalar haqida fikr bildirmoqchiman. To'xtab qolganlarga rahmat. Rahmat, AustralianRupert (munozara) 01:22, 3 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)

  • Xaritalar uchun sarlavhaga afsonani qo'shishni taklif qiling. Nikkimaria (munozara) 01:12, 5 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
    • Rahmat, Nikki. Qo'shilgan. AustralianRupert (munozara) 11:00, 6 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)

    Izohlar Maqola, albatta, yaxshi holatda. Men quyidagi fikr va takliflarni bildirmoqchiman:

    • Bu jang fonidagi materiallar Rabaulga qarshi havo kampaniyasiga qaratilishi mumkin, bunda bu harakatlarning ko'lami va maqsadi ko'rsatilgan.
      • Biroz qo'shildi, lekin bu belgiga chindan ham tegmasligiga ishonchim komil emas: [1]. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:23, 10 fevral 2018 (UTC)
      • Bajarildi. AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:16, 8 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
      • Fonning kichik bo'limiga bo'ling. AustralianRupert (munozara) 11:00, 6 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
      • Alohida Preludeda tayyorgarlik bo'limi yaratildi. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:49, 12 fevral 2018 (UTC)
      • Qo'shilgan. Bir nechta rasmlarni ko'chirish kerak edi, lekin menimcha, u hozir ishlaydi. AustralianRupert (munozara) 11:00, 6 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
      • Rahmat, Nik, men dam olish kunlari bu sharhlar ustida ishlashga harakat qilaman. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 11:00, 6 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
        • @Nik-D: Gay. Nik, agar sizda bir lahzalik bo'lsa, mening o'zgarishlarimga nazar tashlab, bu sizning niyatingizga mos keladimi, menga xabar berasizmi? Vaqtingiz uchun rahmat. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:56, 2 -Mart 2018 (UTC)
          • Bu o'zgarishlarning hammasi menga yaxshi ko'rinadi va maqola GA va A-klass sharhlari orqali o'tishi kerak. Yaponiya jangovar tartibi to'g'risidagi paragraf - bu juda hayratlanarli darajada murakkab mavzuni hisobga oladigan bo'lsak, juda yaxshi ish (agar siz haqiqatan ham maqolani kengaytirishda quyon jangchisiga aylanishni istasangiz, yaponlarning tuzilishi haqida ko'proq ma'lumot berilishi mumkin) batafsil). Men Rafaulga qarshi havo kampaniyasi haqida rejalashtirilgan maqola uchun o'zimni yumshatish uchun havo foniga biroz ko'proq qo'shilishni xohlayman. Nik-D (munozara) 10:23, 2-mart, 2018 (UTC)
            • Salom, Nik, har qanday qo'shimchalar ma'qul bo'ladi. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:25, 2 -mart, 2018 (UTC)

            Zolushka tomonidan ko'rib chiqilgan 157 Tahrir

            Salom, @AustralianRupert, men Nik va IMHO bilan rozi bo'lmagani uchun uzr so'rayman, ehtimol bu maqola hali ham biroz ishlashga muhtoj - garchi bu GA yoki A sinfiga mos keladimi - bu muhim emas. Ba'zi dastlabki kuzatuvlar:

            Dastlabki izohlarni tahrirlash
            • Nasrni yaxshilash uchun juda ko'p imkoniyatlar mavjud: o'qilishi, ravshanligi va tejamkorligi.
            • Hech bo'lmaganda bitta xato (har xil) manbalarni ko'rib chiqish natijasida aniq bo'ldi
              • "Kuch har xil turdagi kemalar bilan birga qirg'oqqa chiqdi" - ular APD tomonidan tashildi va kemaga tushirildi.
                • Tuzatilgan. AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:16, 8 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
                • Ha, ular PD. AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:16, 8 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
                  • Endi tuzatilgan xaritalar. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 07:38, 9 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                    • Menimcha, 22 -xarita, 302 -bet, Shou va amp Keyn birinchi xaritadan yaxshiroq bo'lishi mumkin, chunki u muhokama qilinayotgan joylarning ko'pini ko'rsatadi? Zolushka157 (munozara) 09:55, 9 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                      • Men birinchi xaritani saqlamoqchiman, chunki yaratuvchi unga juda ko'p mehnat qilgan. Qaysi joylarni qo'shishni xohlaysiz? Men uni to'g'rilash mumkinligini ko'raman. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:13, 9 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
                        • Long -Aylend, Ruk -Is, Gudenof -Is, Gasmata va Talasea. "Madang" matni bir -birini almashtirishi mumkin. Lae, Wau va boshqalar uchun shrift o'lchami Madang aytganidan kattaroqdir. Men bu erda biroz oldinroq o'ylayapman. Agar u umumiy o'lchamlarga yaxshiroq aniqlikda saqlansa, bo'limlar alohida sahifalar uchun kesilishi va saqlanishi mumkin edi. Shimoliy nuqta va o'lchov joylari muammo bo'lishi mumkin. Umuman olganda, yana bir nechta fikrlarni qo'shish yaxshi bo'lardi - aytaylik: Keng ko'rfaz, Ochiq ko'rfaz, Admiral orollari (Manus Is), Kiravina, Vudlark, Normanbi, Fergyusson va boshqa tegishli joylar. Qisqa orollar va G'aznachilik kabi punktlar. Ba'zi fikrlar. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 01:59, 11 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                          • Xavotir olmang, ijodkor munozara sahifasida so'rov qo'shildi. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 04:26, 11 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                            • Hozir xarita yangilandi. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 07:16, 17 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)
                              • Salom, chiqib ketadigan ikkita "xato". Gasmata "a" belgisini yo'qotadi va Telasea juda past - hozirgi joy bilan burunning oxirigacha va sharqiy qirg'og'idagi siqilish orasidagi masofaning yarmigacha (rasmga qarang [2]). Keypt Sudest haqida bir necha bor tilga olingan ([3]). Vaziyatda, uni qo'shishga arziydi. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 07:48, 17 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Xavotir olmang, men Krisning munozarali sahifasida uni biroz o'zgartira oladimi, deb izoh qoldirdim. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 08:02, 17 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)

                                Bu borada siz bilan ishlashdan xursand bo'laman. Men mavjud (on-layn) materialni aylanib chiqishim kerak edi. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 13:09, 7 fevral 2018 (UTC)

                                Bu ajoyib bo'lar edi. Men yordam beradigan har qanday yordamdan xursandman. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:16, 8 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)

                                Strukturaviy sharh Tahrirlash

                                @AustralianRupert, men OHlarni Battle bo'limida ko'rib chiqilgan darajada ko'rib chiqdim. Bu hal qilinishi kerak bo'lgan va/yoki yarashtirilishi kerak bo'lgan tashvish tug'diradi va tizimli o'zgarishlarni va, ehtimol, biroz kengayishni taklif qiladi. Ma'lumot qutisi "1943 yil 26 dekabr - 1944 yil 22 aprel" jangini ko'rsatadi. Men Yangi Britaniya kampaniyasini va Keyp Gloucester bo'limini ko'rib chiqdim. Bu Talasea jangini qamrab oladi. Gloucester bo'limining oxiridan boshlab:

                                Yanvar oyi o'rtalarida Sakay Buyuk Britaniyaning g'arbiy qismidan o'z buyrug'ini olib chiqish uchun ruxsat so'radi va bu oyning 21-kuni Imomura tomonidan berilgan. Yapon qo'shinlari keyinchalik amerikaliklardan ajralib, Talasea hududiga o'tishga harakat qilishdi. [46] Dengiz patrullari yaponlarni ta'qib qilishdi va orolning markazida va uning shimoliy qirg'og'ida ko'p miqdordagi mayda -chuyda janglar o'tkazildi.

                                Ushbu maqola Green Beach-ning LT 21 tomonidan qo'nishi, ularning olib ketilishi va turmushga chiqishini qamrab olmaydi. Borgen ko'rfaziga borishni ham qamrab olmaydi. LT 21 operatsiyaning ajralmas qismi edi. Menimcha, IAW jang bo'limini, hech bo'lmaganda, Talasea jangiga olib boradigan yoki Arava kuchlari bilan bog'laydigan (bu birinchi o'rinda turadi) kengaytirish uchun imkoniyat bormi? Buning bir qismi sifatida men ma'lumot qutisida ko'rsatilgan sanalarni qayd qilaman. Men bilmayman, nima uchun ular (masalan, manba) tanlangan, lekin yanvar oyining o'rtalarida (iqtibos bo'yicha) voqealarga ko'proq mos keladimi? Boshqa tomondan, Rook Is. bu operatsiyaning ajralmas qismi emas, lekin u Battle bo'limida ko'rinadi?

                                Xuddi shunday, maqola plyaj boshlariga cho'zilgan bug '(tafsilot) ning boshi bilan boshlanadi, lekin puflab qo'yilganga o'xshaydi (IMHO)? Ehtimol, bu boshqa narsalar harakatning tugashini ta'minlay oladi.

                                Jang bo'limi qurbonlar haqida qisqacha ma'lumot bilan yakunlanadi? Oraliq xulosadan tashqari, menimcha, bu "Oxir oqibat" uchun ko'proq? Baza ishlab chiqish Jang bo'limi vaqtida boshlanadi. Ehtimol, bu jang va undan keyingi voqealar orasidagi asosiy bo'lim bo'lishi mumkin. Xuddi shunday, tozalash ham jangning bir qismi bo'lishi mumkin. Oxir oqibat, qurbonlar, keyingi rivojlanish (Yangi Britaniya va SWPA bo'yicha), harakatlar tahlili va kengroq tahlillar bilan shug'ullanadi (ikkinchisi, lekin birinchisi emas). Menimcha, Xou Green Beach -ga qo'nishning qiymati kabi birinchisini taklif qiladi. Qisqasi, menimcha, ba'zi tafsilotlar strukturaning noto'g'ri joylarida.

                                Umid qilamanki, bu etarli darajada aniq. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 12:22, 22 fevral 2018 (UTC)

                                • Ma'lumotlar qutisidagi sanaga kelsak, menimcha, bu manba: [4], bu dengiz piyodalari yengillashtirilgan sanadan foydalangan ko'rinadi. 16 -yanvar sanasi Shaw & amp Kane p tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanadi. 389 uyushgan mudofaaning oxiri sifatida: "660-tepalikning qo'lga olinishi va uni qaytarib olish uchun qarshi hujumning qaytarilishi Yaponiyaning Keyp-Gloster-Borgen ko'rfazidagi mudofaasining samarali yakunlanishini ko'rsatdi". Agar siz buni eng yaxshi deb hisoblasangiz, men bunga moslasha olardim.
                                • Menimcha, ma'lumot qutisi maqolaning ko'lamini aks ettirishi kerak - ha, menimcha, uni o'zgartirish kerak. 16 -yanvar maqolaga mos keladi. Talasea ushbu maqola sanasiga to'g'ri keladi, shuning uchun bu muammo bo'lib qoladi - Talasea alohida maqola va bu erda "Battle" bo'limida yoritilmagan. Manbalarni kelishib olish maqsadga muvofiqdir. Buni eslatma bilan qilish mumkin edi. Ammo bunga "Oxir oqibat" da ham murojaat qilish mumkin edi. Maqolaning maqomini hisobga olgan holda, men hozirda eslatmalarni istisno qilmagan bo'lardim (Torakinadan farqli o'laroq - maqola yaxshi holatda bo'lgan). Shuningdek, men "izoh" yozuvlarini iqtiboslardan (qisqartirilgan izohlar) alohida guruhlash shart emasligini kuzataman. Bu juda kam izoh mavjud bo'lgan variant bo'lishi mumkin. Zolushka157 (munozara) 11:42, 23 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Matnda tushuntirishlar bilan tuzatilgan. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:53, 2 -Mart 2018 (UTC)
                                • Sizning sharhingiz haqida "Rooke Is. Bu opning ajralmas qismi emas": siz Long -Aylendni nazarda tutyapsizmi? Agar shunday bo'lsa, ha, men uni boshqa joyga ko'chirish mumkinligiga qo'shilaman. Qiziq, bu "Tayyorgarlik" bo'limida bo'ladimi yoki oqibatda?
                                • Ha, mening xatoim. Oxir oqibatlarini taklif qiling. Zolushka157 (munozara) 11:42, 23 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Hozir ko'chirildi. Shuningdek, 44 -fevralda Ruk oroliga qo'nishi haqida qo'shimcha eslatma. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 02:39, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Qurbonlar haqida, ular 8 -fevralda Favqulodda vaziyatlarga ko'chirildi: [5].
                                • Men aytmoqchi edim: "Bu pozitsiya nihoyat 1944 yil 16 yanvarda ta'minlandi, bunda 50 dengiz piyodasi va 200 dan ortiq yapon halok bo'ldi. Bu pozitsiyaning qo'lga kiritilishi Keyp -Gloster va Borgen ko'rfazi hududlarida Yaponiya mudofaa operatsiyalari tugaganini anglatadi". Ko'rinib turibdiki, bu raqam Oxir oqibatlarga aniq ziddiyatni keltirib chiqaradi va uni yarashtirish kerak bo'lishi mumkin. Yuqorida aytganimdek, "Battle" bo'limida oraliq raqamlar o'rinli emas. Zolushka157 (munozara) 11:42, 23 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Xavotir olmang, men bu so'zlar oraliq ekanligini va faqat Xill 660 atrofidagi janglarga tegishli ekanligini aniqroq qilish uchun so'zlarni to'g'riladim. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 02:39, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Green Beach -ga qo'nishga kelsak, u "Yaponiya g'arbiy qo'nish atrofida himoya qiladi" boshidagi xatboshida keltirilgan. Qabul qiling, bu kengaytirilishi kerak. Bu orada men qaysi plyajga tegishli qo'nishni aniqroq qilish uchun paragrafni biroz o'zgartirdim.
                                • Endi o'z bo'limiga bo'ling. Bir nechta to'qnashuvlar va asosiy to'qnashuvlar, keyinchalik qulash va bog'lanish tafsilotlari qo'shildi. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 02:39, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Borgen ko'rfaziga borishni "keyingi haftalarda AQSh qo'shinlari janubdan Borgen ko'rfaziga qarab surishdi" boshidagi xatboshida yoritilgan. Biroq, uni kengaytirish mumkinligiga rozi bo'ling.
                                • Endi o'z bo'limiga bo'ling. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 02:39, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC)
                                • Men bazani ishlab chiqishni o'z bo'limiga ajratdim, chunki u ikkinchi darajali sarlavhaga ega bo'lishi mumkin, chunki u "Battle" bo'limiga tegishli emas yoki "Aftermath" ning to'liq qismi emas. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:15, 23 -fevral, 2018 (UTC)

                                Salom @AustralianRupert, ehtimol, rejaning evolyutsiyasini muhokama qilish uchun ba'zi imkoniyatlar mavjud, ayniqsa, bu kuchni ikkita hujumchi elementga bo'linishi va havoga qo'nish. Buning yakuniy rejaga o'tishining sabablari va etkazib berish imkoniyati tufayli kechiktirildi. Shuningdek, vazifalar taqsimoti bor, 5 -dengiz piyodalari zaxira bo'ladimi? Logistika rejasi va bu qanday amalga oshdi. Quvvatning qo'nish joyiga o'tishi, shu jumladan aldash rejasi. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 02:14, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC)

                                Xavotir olmang, buni ham ko'rib chiqasiz. 5 -chi dengiz piyodalari zaxirada bo'lgani haqida hozircha ikki marta aytilgan, lekin, ehtimol, bu haqda boshqa gapirmaslik kerak. AustralianRupert (munozara) 02:39, 25 fevral 2018 (UTC) Menga OHlarda rejaning evolyutsiyasi juda qiziq tuyuldi. Menimcha, bu bo'lim sifatida ko'proq ishlab chiqilishi mumkin. Iltimos, Arava jangini ko'ring. Men o'qiyotganimda, birinchi reja Gasmata va Cape Glocesterga birinchi dengiz diviziyasi tomonidan qilingan hujum edi. Agar "tafsilotlarni" noto'g'ri tushunsam, kechirasiz. Men ularni ikki marta tekshirmaganman. Mening fikrim - bu keng rasm, dastlabki reja va bu qanday rivojlangan. Dastlabki reja 1 dengiz piyodasini Gasmata va Gape Cape o'rtasida bo'lish edi, Gape Cape -da, xuddi shunday kattalikdagi ikkita turar joy (sharq va g'arb) va pul tushishi bo'lishi kerak edi (agar MacA paras ajratgan bo'lsa). Yaponiyaning Gasmataga bo'lgan mustahkamlashi bu qismni o'ldirdi va alternativa Cav bilan Cavaga tegishli edi. Bu diviziyani tuzilma sifatida ishlashdan ozod qildi (5 ta dengiz regti zaxirada bo'lganidan tashqari). Dastlabki reja oyda noyabrda edi, ammo dengiz floti NGga qo'nishi sababli kechiktirildi. G burnining dastlabki rejasi ikkita turar joy va pul tushishi edi. Dengiz piyodalari o'z kuchlarini bo'lishdan mamnun emasdilar (printsip kuchni jamlash). Qayta ko'rib chiqish Green Beachga cheklangan vazifani berdi. O'ylaymanki, bularning barchasi dengiz piyodalari uchun katta ahamiyatga ega va maqolada buni aks ettirishi kerak - hatto chiziqlar orasidagi o'qish bo'lsa ham. A, B va C jangovar guruhlari reja ishlab chiqilgach, polk chizig'ida shunchalik aniq belgilanmaganmi? Logistika rejasiga kelsak, menimcha, bu juda yaxshi shakllangan, lekin maqolada u qadar aks ettirilmagan. Ta'minot miqyosiga ko'ra, rejalashtirishning umumiy omillari mavjud. Bu qanday amalga oshirilishi kerakligi ham rejalashtirilgan - yuk mashinalariga v katta hajmli yuklarni yuklash va "quyi chiqindilarga" emas, balki tarqatish rejasi. yirik chiqindixonalarda tirbandlik. Bu men rejalashtirishda "nozik" darajada, men odatda AQSh bilan bog'lanmayman. Birinchi otishdan keyingi voqealar - bu boshqa masala. Shubhasiz, armiya haydovchilari va er kabi hiqichoqlar bo'lgan. Bular jangdagi bo'lim bo'lishi mumkinmi? Kirish va harakatlanish alohida bo'lim bo'lishi mumkinmi? Karvon dastlab aldash sifatida Finschaffenga ko'chib o'tdimi? Desant qo'shinlari alohida edi, garchi ular dastlab birgalikda karvon qilsalar ham. Turli xil taqsimotlar aniq ko'rsatilishi kerak. DUWK raketalari butun yo'lni bosib o'tmagan - ular tushgan. Ammo matn xuddi ular o'qiydimi? Sariq plyajga qo'nish uchun yon tomonlarini olib o'tadigan raketali LCP -lar bor edi (eslatilmaganmi?) Moviy plyajga qo'nish muhim edi (garchi bu hech qanday muammosiz o'tmagan bo'lsa ham. Men "ko'k" ni qidirib qaytdimmi? Umid qilamanki, bu yordam beradi. Men o'q otishdan ko'ra ishora qilganimdan afsusdaman ref, ular "Finschhafen" ga hiyla sifatida ko'chib kelganini aytayaptimi? Men buni topa olmadim. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 09:08, 27 fevral 2018 (UTC) Bu mening xotiram edi, lekin men xato qilishim mumkin edi. qarang va sizga qaytib keling. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 09:20, 27 fevral 2018 (UTC) Kechirim so'rab, men xato qilganga o'xshayman. Hurmat bilan Zolushka157 (munozara) 09:46, 27 fevral 2018 (UTC) Xavotir olmang, Menga qaytganingiz uchun tashakkur. Hurmat bilan, AustralianRupert (munozara) 10:43, 27 -fevral, 2018 (UTC) Menimcha, bu nuqtalarning ko'pini hozir yopdim. Hurmat bilan, avstraliyalik anRupert (munozara) 09:53, 2 -mart 2018 -yil (UTC) Men imkoniyat bo'lganda (tashqarida bo'lish juda issiq bo'lganida) narsalarga qarayman. Hurmat bilan, Zolushka157 (munozara) 10:51, 2018 yil 2 -mart (UTC)


                                Birinchi dengiz floti xoch, Nikaragua

                                Birinchi leytenant sifatida Chesty Nikaragua milliy gvardiyasi bo'linmasini boshqargani uchun birinchi dengiz flotini oldi. 1930 yil fevraldan avgustgacha Chesty qurolli banditlarning ko'p soniga qarshi beshta muvaffaqiyatli ish olib bordi va har safar dushman kuchlarini butunlay yo'q qilib yubordi.

                                "O'zining shaxsiy xavfsizligi haqida o'ylamagan aqlli va kuchli rahbarligi bilan, katta jismoniy zo'riqish va ko'p qiyinchiliklarni boshdan kechirgan holda, leytenant Puller Nikaragua Respublikasida uyushgan banditizmga qarshi ketma -ket beshta kuchli zarba berdi", dedi u. .


                                Keyp Gloucester jangi

                                Keyp Gloucester jangi Ikkinchi jahon urushi Tinch okeani teatrida Yaponiya va Ittifoqchi kuchlar o'rtasida Yangi Britaniya oroli, Yangi Gvineya hududida, 1943 yil 26 dekabrdan 1944 yil 16 yanvargacha bo'lib o'tdi.

                                "Backhander" operatsion kodi deb nomlangan AQSh qo'mondoni 1943–1944 yillar davomida Tinch okeanining janubi -g'arbiy zonasi va Tinch okeani mintaqalarida ittifoqchilarning asosiy strategiyasi bo'lgan "Harorat g'ildiragi" operatsiyasining bir qismini tashkil etdi. Bu AQSh birinchi dengiz bo'linmasi urush paytida Gvadalkanaldan keyin o'tkazgan ikkinchi qo'nishi edi. Operatsiyaning maqsadi, Yaponiya 17 -diviziyasi elementlari tomonidan himoyalangan Keyp Gloucester yaqinidagi ikkita yapon aerodromini qo'lga kiritish edi.

                                Artur Pendleton

                                ARTUR PENDLETON – kapital, 1 -dengiz bo'linmasi (H kompaniyasi, 2 -batalon, 1 -bo'linma) 1942 yil 2 -yanvarda, 20 yoshida, Artur Parij oroliga, Janubiy Karolinaga jo'nab ketayotgan kichik guruhlar orasida o'zini topdi [Davomini o'qing]


                                Keyp Gloucester jangi, 1943 yil 26 dekabr - 1944 yil aprel - Tarix

                                Cape Gloucester aerodromlarini qo'lga kiritish

                                1 -chi dengiz bo'linmasining umumiy manevr rejasi, polkovnik Frisbi jangovar guruhi S, 7 -chi dengiz piyodalarini, maqsadli tepaligida plyaj boshini ushlab turishni, B guruhi polkovniki Uilyam A. Whalingning 1 -dengiz piyodalari esa kuchaytirilgan, lekin 2 -batalonsiz. aerodromlarda Green Beach sohilida. Konoli bataloniga hujumga tayyorgarlik ko'rilganligi sababli, general Rupertus Kreugerdan bo'linma zaxirasini, "A" jangovar guruhi, polkovnik Jon T. Seldenning 5 -dengiz piyodalarini ozod qilishni so'radi. Armiya generali rozi bo'lib, 1 -chi va 2 -chi batalonlarni yubordi, bir kundan keyin 3 -chi batalon. Diviziya qo'mondoni jamoani Sariq plyajlardan taxminan uch mil narida, Blue Beachga qo'ndirishga qaror qildi. Moviy plyajdan foydalanish 5 -chi dengiz piyodalarini Keyp Gloucester va aerodromlarga yaqinroq joylashtirgan bo'lardi, lekin Seldenning jangovar guruhi A ning har bir elementi bu so'zga ega emas edi. Ba'zi bo'linmalar uning o'rniga Sariq plyajlarga tegib, piyoda yoki transport vositalarida belgilangan joyga borishga majbur bo'lishdi.

                                Rupertus zaxirani o'z zimmasiga olishni rejalashtirgan bo'lsa, kitning jangovar jamoasi Keyp -Gloster aerodromlari tomon yo'l oldi. Dengiz piyodalari dastlab faqat vaqti -vaqti bilan qarshilik ko'rsatdilar, ammo armiya havo kuchlarining engil bombardimonchilari o'z yo'llarida xavfni payqashdi va tez orada do'zax nuqtasi laqabini olgan teshikdan ichkariga cho'zilgan xandaklar va bunkerlar labirintini topdilar. Yaponlar Matsuda amerikaliklar qo'nishini kutgan plyajlarni himoya qilish uchun bu mudofaalarni qurdilar. Podpolkovnik Xankins boshchiligidagi 3-batalon, 3-chi batalon, oldinga qarab, yonboshda emas, balki yonboshdagi do'zax nuqtasi pozitsiyasiga zarba berdi, lekin baribir majmuani yengib o'tish o'lik ishni isbotlab beradi.

                                Yomg'ir va chaquvchi hasharotlar

                                Yomg'irli yomg'ir, Conolining 2 -bataloniga, 7 -chi dengiz piyodalariga qilingan hujumni ko'rsatdi, butun orolni va undagi odamlarni suvga botirdi. Old tomondan, to'fon tulki teshiklarini suv bosdi va sharoit faqat orqa tomondan ancha yaxshi edi, u erda ba'zi odamlar ikki daraxt orasiga osilgan o'rmonli hamaklarda uxlashardi. Dengiz piyodasi hamakka chivin to'rining teshigidan kirdi, kauchuk mato bilan yotdi va to'rni yopdi. Uning tepasida, shuningdek, to'rga o'ralgan, uni yomg'irdan himoya qilish uchun mo'ljallangan rezina qoplamali qopqoq cho'zilgan. Afsuski, D-Day kechasi esayotgan bo'ron kabi shiddatli bo'ron qopqoqni yelkanli gavdadek qoqib qo'ydi va yomg'irni hamak ichiga olib kirdi. Qorong'ida shamol kuchli shamolni yoki suv toshqini yoki tayyorgarlik bombardimonidan zaiflashgan daraxtni yiqitib yuborishi mumkin. Yiqilgan daraxt dengiz piyodalaridan birining gamkomiga qulab tushdi, agar kimdir pichoq bilan qoplamani kesib, ozod qilmaganida cho'kib ketardi.

                                Musson yomg'irlari Gloucester burnidagi dala oshxonasini suv bosadi va suvli sho'rva haqidagi shikoyatlarni oqlaydi. Mudofaa vazirligi (USMC) surati 72821

                                Yomg'ir, dedi 11 -dengiz piyodalari bataloni qo'mondoni, podpolkovnik Lyuis J. Filds, "ustingizdan to'kilgan palapartishlikka o'xshaydi va u davom etadi". Birinchi toshqin besh kun davom etdi va takroriy bo'ronlar yana ikki hafta davom etdi. Nam kiyimlar hech qachon quritilmagan va erkaklar doimiy ravishda qo'ziqorin infektsiyasidan azob chekishgan, ular o'rmon chirishi deb atalib, ochiq yaralarga aylanib ketishgan. Chivinlar bezgagi dengiz piyodalari sog'lig'iga tahdid soladi, ular boshqa hasharotlar va "hatto qora chumolilar, mayda qizil chumolilar, katta qizil chumolilar" bilan kurashishga majbur bo'lgan "hatto tırtıllar ham tishlaydigan" orolda. Yaponlar dori -darmon tanqisligi va mavjud narsalarni tarqatishda qiynalgani uchun bundan ham ko'proq azob chekishgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu noqulaylik va kasalliklarga chalingan dengiz piyodalariga yupanch edi. 1944 yil yanvar oyining oxiriga kelib, kasallik yoki jangsiz jarohatlar mingdan ortiq dengiz piyodalarini evakuatsiya qilishga majbur qildi, har o'ndan bittasi Yangi Britaniyaga xizmatga qaytdi.

                                Orolning botqoqliklari va o'rmonlari shamol, yomg'ir va kasalliksiz etarli darajada og'ir bo'lardi. Ba'zida, jangga kirgan dengiz piyodalari oldilaridan bir necha metr narida ko'rinmasdi. Harakat imkonsiz bo'lib qoldi, ayniqsa yomg'ir erni suv bosgan yoki vulqon tuprog'ini silliq loyga aylantirgan. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, diviziya qo'mondoni yordamchisi, brigada generali Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., Yangi Britaniya kampaniyasini "Grantning fuqarolar urushidagi sahroda bo'lishiga qaramay" bilan solishtirsa ajab emas.

                                Musson suv toshqini oqibatida suv toshqini hatto orqa tomondan qulay sharoitda ham hayotni yomonlashtiradi. Mudofaa vazirligi (USMC) surati 72463

                                Rupertus Xenkins hujumini kechiktirib, Selden 5 -dengiz piyodalari bo'linmasi zaxirasiga qirg'oqqa chiqish uchun vaqt ajratdi. 28 dekabr kuni ertalab, 2-batalon, 11-dengiz piyodalari tomonidan bombardimon qilinganidan va A-20s havo kuchlarining zarbalaridan so'ng, hujumchi qo'shinlar M4 Sherman o'rta tanklarining qo'shimcha vzvodlari bo'lishi uchun yana bir soat kutishdi. hujumning og'irligini oshiring. 1100da Xankinsning 3 -bataloni, 1 -dengiz piyodalari oldinga siljishdi, I kompaniyasi va qo'llab -quvvatlovchi tanklar yetakchilik qilishdi. Taxminan bir vaqtning o'zida kit ovlash do'zax nuqtasidan cho'zilgan tizmaning ichki qismini egallash uchun o'z polkining "A" kompaniyasini botqoq va o'rmon orqali yubordi. Yo'ldagi to'siqlarga qaramay, "A" kompaniyasi taxminan 1145 yilda o'rmondan otilib chiqib, baland o'tloqli maydon bo'ylab o'tdi va yaponlarning kuchli olovi to'xtaguncha. Kech tushganda, Ualing manevradan voz kechdi. Both Company A and the defenders were exhausted and short of ammunition the Marines withdrew behind a barrage fired by the 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, and the Japanese abandoned their positions after dark.

                                Roughly 15 minutes after Company A assaulted the inland terminus of the ridge, Company I and the attached tanks collided with the main defenses, which the Japanese had modified since the 26 December landings, cutting new gunports in bunkers, hacking fire lanes in the undergrowth, and shifting men and weapons to oppose an attack along the coastal trail parallel to shore instead of over the beach. Advancing in a drenching rain, the Marines encountered a succession of jungle covered, mutually supporting positions protected by barbed wire and mines. The hour's wait for tanks paid dividends, as the Shermans, protected by riflemen, crushed bunkers and destroyed the weapons inside. During the fight, Company I drifted to its left, and Hankins used Company K, reinforced with a platoon of medium tanks, to close the gap between the coastal track and Hell's Point itself. This unit employed the same tactics as Company I. A rifle squad followed each of the M4 tanks, which cracked open the bunkers, twelve in all, and fired inside the accompanying riflemen then killed anyone attempting to fight or flee. More than 260 Japanese perished in the fighting at Hell's Point, at the cost of 9 Marines killed and 36 wounded.

                                A 75mm pack howitzer of the 11th Marines fires in support of the advance on the Cape Gloucester airfields. Department of Defense (USMC) photo 12203

                                With the defenses of Hell's Point shattered, the two battalions of the 5th Marines, which came ashore on the morning of 29 December, joined later that day in the advance on the airfield. The 1st Battalion, commanded by Major William H. Barba, and the 2d Battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel Lewis H. Walt, moved out in a column, Barba's unit leading the way. In front of the Marines lay a swamp, described as only a few inches deep, but the depth, because of the continuing downpour, proved as much as five feet, "making it quite hard," Selden acknowledged, "for some of the youngsters who were not much more than 5 feet in height." The time lost in wading through the swamp delayed the attack, and the leading elements chose a piece of open and comparatively dry ground, where they established a perimeter while the rest of the force caught up.

                                Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, attacking through that regiment's 3d Battalion, encountered only scattered resistance, mainly sniper fire, as it pushed along the coast beyond Hell's Point. Half-tracks carrying 75mm guns, medium tanks, artillery, and even a pair of rocket-firing DUKWs supported the advance, which brought the battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Walker A. Reaves, to the edge of Airfield No. 2. When daylight faded on 29 December, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, held a line extending inland from the coast on its left were the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, and the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, forming a semicircle around the airfield.

                                The Japanese officer responsible for defending the airfields, Colonel Kouki Sumiya of the 53d Infantry, had fallen back on 29 December, trading space for time as he gathered his surviving troops for the defense of Razorback Hill, a ridge running diagonally across the southwestern approaches to Airfield No. 2. The 1st and 2d Battalions, 5th Marines, attacked on 30 December supported by tanks and artillery. Sumiya's troops had constructed some sturdy bunkers, but the chest-high grass that covered Razorback Hill did not impede the attackers like the jungle at Hell's Point. The Japanese fought gallantly to hold the position, at times stalling the advancing Marines, but the defenders had neither the numbers nor the firepower to prevail. Typical of the day's fighting, one platoon of Company F from Selden's regiment beat back two separate banzai attacks, before tanks enabled the Marines to shatter the bunkers in their path and kill the enemy within. By dusk on 30 December, the landing force had overrun the defenses of the airfields, and at noon of the following day General Rupertus had the American flag raised beside the wreckage of a Japanese bomber at Airfield No. 2, the larger of the airstrips.

                                On 31 December 1943, the American flag rises beside the wreckage of a Japanese bomber after the capture of Airfield No. 2, five days after the 1st Marine Division landed on New Britain. Department of Defense (USMC) photo 71589

                                The 1st Marine Division thus seized the principal objective of the Cape Gloucester fighting, but the airstrips proved of marginal value to the Allied forces. Indeed, the Japanese had already abandoned the prewar facility, Airfield No. 1, which was thickly overgrown with tall, coarse kunai grass. Craters from American bombs pockmarked the surface of Airfield No. 2, and after its capture Japanese hit-and-run raiders added a few of their own, despite antiaircraft fire from the 12th Defense Battalion. Army aviation engineers worked around the clock to return Airfield No. 2 to operation, a task that took until the end of January 1944. Army aircraft based here defended against air attacks for as long as Rabaul remained an active air base and also supported operations on the ground.


                                History’s Storyteller: The Life of WWII Marine Ed Bearss

                                US Marine Corps Corporal Edwin Cole Bearss wearing his Purple Heart Medal circa 1945. Photograph archivingwheeling.org.

                                Edwin (Ed) Cole Bearss (pronounced ‘bars’) was born June 26, 1923, in Billings, Montana, to Omar and Virginia Bearss. He grew up on a 10,000 acre ranch, the B bar S, located 90 miles west of Billings. The Little Bighorn Battlefield was 35 miles southwest of the ranch. He had a younger brother, Pat, and there was a time Ed and Pat would ride together on horseback to and from the Sarpy Creek School a distance of six miles from the ranch.

                                Ed and Pat on horseback. Photograph courtesy of the Bearss Family, Robert Desourdis, and Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

                                Ed Bearss was born into a lineage of family members who served in the United States (US) Marine Corps. His father, Omar, was a Marine in WWI. Omar’s cousin Hiram “Hiking Hiram” Bearss was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1901 for extraordinary heroism during the Philippine-American War (February 4, 1899 – July 2, 1902) Hiram Bearss was also awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in 1918 for his valor in WWI (1914 -1918).

                                Omar Bearss would read history books to his boys on subjects including WWI, the American Civil War, and the US Marine Corps. Ed developed an intense interest in history that infused his life. Charles Crawford of the Georgia Battlefields Association said about Ed, “There was a Marine in Ed before Ed was ever in the Marines.”

                                On December 7, 1941, the National Football League was finishing its season. Three games were played that day: the Chicago Bears (34) against the Chicago Cardinals (24), the Brooklyn Dodgers (21) versus the New York Giants (7), and the Washington Redskins (20) played against the Philadelphia Eagles (14). During these three games public address announcers broadcast early reports of the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, or paged government and military personnel to report to their units.

                                The Bearss family on December 7, 1941, was listening to the Chicago Bears playing against the Chicago Cardinals at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois.

                                On April 28, 1942, Ed Bearss enlisted in the US Marine Corps.

                                Ed arrived at the US Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego, California, on April 30, 1942. After seven weeks training in Boot Camp Platoon 369, he was assigned to the newly activated 22nd Marine Regiment (22nd Marines). On June 18 the 22nd Marines began deployment to the WWII Pacific Theater of Operations. In September 1942 Ed requested and was assigned to the 3rd Raider Battalion which was being formed in the Samoas. [ The Samoan Islands are an archipelago in the central South Pacific Ocean.]

                                In April 1943 when the 3rd Raider Battalion was based in New Hebrides (an island group off the northern coast of Australia now called Vanuatu), Ed was diagnosed with malaria and sent to New Zealand for six weeks to recuperate.

                                Ed didn’t return to the 3rd Raiders after convalescence but was assigned to the 2nd Platoon of L Company, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division. The 1st Marine Division would deploy to New Guinea to plan the assault on Cape Gloucester in New Britain, Territory of New Guinea.

                                The island of New Britain, Territory of New Guinea, is to the east of mainland New Guinea. Ed Bearss would land at Cape Gloucester with the 1st Marine Division on December 26, 1943. Map commons.wikimedia.org.

                                [The Battle of Cape Gloucester (December 26, 1943 – January 16, 1944) codenamed Operation Backhander had the objective to capture a major Japanese airstrip near Cape Gloucester and to defeat elements of the Japanese 17th Division in control of the area. The battle was in support of Operation Cartwheel (1943 – 1944).

                                Operation Cartwheel was a major Allied plan to neutralize and then to isolate and bypass Rabaul (far eastern end of island of New Britain) as the Allies moved northward towards Japan.

                                Rabaul was a Australian naval base that was captured by the Japanese in 1942. It became a major Japanese air and naval installation and was the most heavily defended Japanese fortification in the South Pacific. It was also the assembly point for convoys of ships, known as the “Tokyo Express,” that would race south to bring troops and supplies to areas of conflict in the Solomon Islands.]

                                On December 26, 1943, the 1st Marine Division would spearhead an attack at Cape Gloucester.

                                January 2, 1944, the Marines were driving eastward through dense jungle terrain. Corporal Bearss’ platoon was advancing through the jungle — Ed was walking point — when they approached a creek that would become known as Suicide Creek.

                                Medium tank crosses Suicide Creek to blast Japanese emplacements holding up the Marine advance. Photograph US Marine Corps January 1944.

                                In the 2003 book Edwin Cole Bearss History’s Pied Piper by John C. Waugh, Ed tells of being wounded as the Japanese, dug into the bank on the other side of Suicide Creek, opened fire:

                                “I was on my knees when the first bullet struck. It hit me in my left arm just below the elbow, and the arm went numb. It felt like being hit with a sledgehammer. It jerked me sideways and then I was hit again, another sledgehammer blow to my right shoulder. I fell, both arms shattered, and my helmet slipped down over my eyes. I couldn’t see. But there were now dead men lying all around me.

                                It seemed a long time that I lay there, in fierce pain, pinned down by Japanese fire… Unable to stand it any longer and afraid of bleeding to death, I decided to risk getting up the Japanese gun just in front of me was firing off to the right. As I wiggled around trying to rise, another bullet grazed my butt and another hit my foot. I quit moving…”

                                After lying in an area without possible rescue for what seemed like hours, bleeding, and afraid he was going to die, Ed decided to try to move again.

                                “They [the Japanese] saw me [move] but couldn’t get their gun depressed fast enough before, without the use of either arm, I went over the lip of a knoll and slid down the other side, … I still don’t know how I did it. If that ground had been level, I would be dead. I realized then how important terrain was in a battle.”

                                Having moved to a different position, Lieutenant Thomas J. O’Leary and a US Navy corpsman named Hartman, crawled over to Ed and pulled him back behind the lines far enough so stretcher bearers could reach him and carry him to the battalion aid station.

                                Ed received medical treatment at military facilities in the South Pacific and would eventually arrive back in the US for continued medical care and rehabilitation. During his hospitalization Ed would spend countless hours reading history books. After 26 months recovering from his war wounds, Edwin Cole Bearss was discharged from the US Marine Corps on March 15, 1946. [But for those of us who have known a US Marine, “Once a Marine always a Marine.”]

                                Ed Bearss graduated from Georgetown University in 1949 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Foreign Service Studies. In 1955 he would earn a Master of Arts Degree in History from Indiana University.

                                After working at the Naval Hydrographic Office and the Office of the Chief of Military History, in 1955 Ed sought a position working for the National Park Service. He was assigned to the Vicksburg National Military Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi, as a historian.

                                In 1957 a young schoolteacher born in Brandon, Mississippi, arrived at the Vicksburg National Military Park with a US Civil War question about Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Meridian Campaign. Her name was Margie Riddle. Her question and their discussion involved a campaign “cannonball,” and she was proved correct on the issue. Ed and Margie were married July 30, 1958, and they would be a formidable team in the field of American Civil War history.

                                In 1958 Ed would be promoted to Regional Historian for the Southeast Region of the National Park Service working out of Vicksburg.

                                While at Vicksburg, Ed studied Civil War maps and located what he thought was the sunken Union gunboat United States Ship (USS) Cairo (named after Cairo, Illinois). A ironclad warship, she was sunk on December 12, 1862, when clearing mines in the Yazoo River for the planned attack on Haynes Bluff, Mississippi. [It was the first ship sunk by a mine that was remotely detonated.] Along with Don Jacks, a maintenance man at the Vicksburg National Military Park, and Warren Grabau, US Army engineer and geologist, the USS Cairo was located buried in Yazoo River mud.

                                USS Cairo. US Naval Historical Center photograph.

                                With support from the State of Mississippi the ship was salvaged and can now be viewed at the USS Cairo Museum at the Vicksburg National Military Park.

                                In 1966, Ed, Margie, and their three children moved to Washington, D.C., where he became the Historian for the National Park Service’s historical sites. In 1981 he was named Chief Historian of the National Park Service. He held the position until 1994.

                                In the 1990 Ken Burns miniseries Fuqarolar urushi, Ed Bearss was featured as one of the Civil War historians.

                                After retiring from the National Park Service Ed Bearss continues to share his love for history and vast knowledge by leading battlefield tours, writing, lecturing, participating in Civil War Roundtables, and encouraging remembrance of our national history. He has received numerous awards and has been called by many “A National Treasure.”

                                Ed Bearss leads a tour in 2011 about the US Civil War Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), Pennsylvania, with South Mountain Expeditions. Photograph S. O’Konski Collection.

                                Ed leads the Battle of Gettysburg tour members across the July 3, 1863, “Pickett’s Charge” field in 2011. Photograph S. O’Konski Collection.

                                In an earlier quote from Ed Bearss in this story about his wounding and survival at the 1944 Battle of Suicide Creek, he said, “I realized then how important terrain was in a battle.” On his battlefield tours today he says, “You can’t describe a battlefield unless you walk it.”

                                Thank you to the Bearss family, Robert Desourdis, and Nova Science Publishers, Inc., for use of the Bearss family photograph.

                                Thank you to the US Marine Corps University Research Center for assistance in the research for this story.

                                Thank you to Dr. Vernon L. Williams, Military Historian and Professor Emeritus of History, at Abiliene Christian University, Abilene, Texas. He is the Director of the East Anglia Air War Project.

                                I first met Ed Bearss on a 2006 History America Tours cruise “Invasion of Italy.” The tour started in Valletta, Malta. We sailed on theClipper Adventurer to Sicily where we walked WWII Allied invasion beaches and visited battle sites. The ship then sailed from Messina, Sicily, to the mainland of Italy, and the tour travelled north with excursions to the WWII battle sites of Salerno, Monte Cassino, Anzio, the Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial, and other WWII history locations.

                                After daily trip excursions with Ed, I was filled with information about WWII. I became a member of the “Ed Bearss Fan Club.” I learned a great deal about WWII from him and was motivated to pass on the history I learned to others interested in WWII history. In 2015 I started my website World War 2 History Short Stories and named Chief Historian Emeritus of the National Park Service Ed Bearss as one of the people who inspired me to undertake the project.

                                Dinner onboard the Clipper Adventurer in 2006. Left to right: Ed Bearss, this story’s author Susan O’Konski, and History America Tours company owner Peter Brown.


                                Battle of Cape Gloucester – 1943

                                From the Commander: Just another follow up to last month’s Military History and the history of island hopping in the Pacific. Although not widely published or reported, there were people back in the U.S. that opposed the lose of life during this time on islands nobody knew existed and wondered why soldiers were dying on these “God forsaken shores”. A point to remember is General MacArthur’s promise to the Philippine people that he would return. In April 2008, I was fortunate enough to visit the Philippines with my wife and two couples from Post 49 and we visited Corregidor and truly received a lesson in History.

                                An overlay of the U.S. over the many islands in the south Pacific. to give an idea of distances.

                                The Battle of Cape Gloucester was a battle in the Pacific theater of World War II between Japanese and Allied forces which took place on the island of New Britain, Territory of New Guinea, between late December 1943 and April 1944.

                                The battle was a major part of Operation Cartwheel, the main Allied strategy in the South West Pacific Area and Pacific Ocean Areas during 1943–44, and was the second World War II landing of the U.S. 1st Marine Division, after Guadalcanal.

                                The main objective of the American and Australian allies was the capture and expansion of the Japanese military airfield at Cape Gloucester. This was to contribute to the increased isolation and harassment of the major Japanese base at Rabaul. A secondary goal was to ensure free Allied sea passage through the straits separating New Britain from New Guinea.

                                Supporting operations for the landings in Cape Gloucester began on 15 December, when the U.S. Army‘s 112th Cavalry Regiment was landed at Arawe on the south-central coast to block the route of Japanese reinforcements and supplies from east to west and as a diversionary attack from the future Cape Gloucester landings.

                                Monsoon rains kept everything wet

                                Although they lost the opening battle, the Japanese did not concede Arawe to the Americans without further struggle. Beginning on the afternoon of the invasion, 15 December 1943, and continuing for the next several days, they launched furious air attacks, especially targeting ships that had supported the assault. In addition, two nearby Japanese infantry battalions advanced on Arawe and dug in just beyond the American perimeter.

                                Beyond dealing with night-long battles, the Marines had to cope with Cape Gloucester’s terrible winter weather. Day after day of monsoon rains flooded the kitchens (causing the men to eat watery soup) and flooded the rearward tents (for those fortunate-enough to sleep in tents instead of outdoor hammocks covered with mosquito netting).

                                Wet uniforms never really dried, and the men suffered continually from fungus infections, the so-called jungle rot, which readily developed into open sores. Mosquito-borne malaria threatened the health of the Marines, who also had to contend with other insects—”little black ants, little red ants, big red ants,” on an island where “even the caterpillars bite.”

                                Why did anyone care about these hot, malaria-infested places? General MacArthur believed capturing Cape Gloucester, and other island locations with good harbors, was indispensable for his plan to recapture Japanese-occupied sections of the Philippines. All the military services, and especially the Allied navies, required logistical bases to resupply their forces, repair their equipment, treat their wounded, and support their fighting elements.


                                Base development

                                The Base Engineer and his operations staff landed on 27 December 1943 and completed a reconnaissance of the two Japanese airfields by 30 December. They found that they were 3 feet (0.91   m) deep in kunai grass and that the Japanese had neither attempted to construct proper drainage nor to re-grade the airstrips. They decided not to proceed with any work on No. 1 Airstrip and to concentrate on No. 2. The 1913th Engineer Aviation Battalion arrived on 2 January, followed by the 864th Engineer Aviation Battalion on 10 January and the 841st Engineer Aviation Battalion on 17 January. Work hours were limited by blackout restrictions imposed by the Task Force Commander, which limited work to daylight hours until 8 January 1944 and by heavy and continuous rain from 27 December 1943 until 21 January 1944, averaging 10 inches (254   mm) a week. Grading removed 3 to 6 feet (0.91 to 1.83   m) of material, mostly kunai humus, from two-thirds of the area. The subgrade was then stabilized with red volcanic ash that had to be hauled from the nearest source 8 miles (13   km) away. Marston Mat was then laid over the top but this did not arrive until 25 January 1944, resulting in further delay. By 31 January, 4,000 feet (1,200   m) of runway was usable and by 18 March a 5,200-foot (1,600   m) runway was complete. Natural obstacles prevented the runway being lengthened to 6,000 feet (1,800   m) as originally planned but there were four 100-by-750-foot (30 by 229   m) alert areas, 80 hardstands, a control tower, taxiways, access roads and facilities for four squadrons. [93]

                                A memorial service for Marines killed during the battle

                                A Beechcraft Model 18 had landed on the runway at Cape Gloucester in January, followed by a C-47. Lieutenant General Walter Krueger, the commander of Alamo Force, inspected the airstrip with Brigadier General Frederic H. Smith, Jr., on 9 January 1944. They estimated that the 8th Fighter Group could move in as early as 15 January. This did not prove feasible the airbase was not finished and was at capacity with transport aircraft bringing in much-needed supplies. The 35th Fighter Squadron arrived on 13 February, followed by the 80th Fighter Squadron on 23 February. Heavy rains made mud ooze up through the holes in the steel plank, making the runway slick. This did not bother the 35th Fighter Squadron which flew nimble and rugged P-40 Kittyhawks but the P-38 Lightnings of the 80th Fighter Group found themselves overshooting the short runway. Major General Ennis C. Whitehead, the commander of the Fifth Air Force Advanced Echelon (ADVON), decided to move the 8th Fighter Group to Nadzab and replace it with RAAF Kittyhawk squadrons from Kiriwina. [94] No. 78 Wing RAAF began moving to Cape Gloucester on 11 March. No. 80 Squadron RAAF arrived on 14 March, followed by No. 78 Squadron RAAF on 16 March and No. 75 Squadron RAAF two days later. No, 78 Wing provided close air support for the 1st Marine Division, assisted the PT boats offshore and provided vital air cover for convoys headed to the Admiralty Islands campaign. Operations were maintained at a high tempo until 22 April, when No. 78 Wing was alerted to prepare for Operations Reckless and Persecution, the landings at Hollandia (Jayapura) and Aitape. [95]

                                To support air operations, 18,000 US barrels (2,100,000   l 570,000   US   gal 470,000   imp   gal) of bulk petroleum storage was provided, along with a tanker berth with connections to the five storage tanks, which became operational in May 1944. The 19th Naval Construction Battalion worked on a rock-filled pile and crib pier 130 feet (40   m) long and 540 feet (160   m) wide for Liberty ships. It was not completed before the 19th Naval Construction Battalion left for the Russell Islands, along with the 1st Marine Division, in April 1944. Other works included 800,000 square feet (74,000   m 2 ) of open storage, 120,000 square feet (11,000   m 2 ) of covered warehouse storage and 5,400 cubic feet (150   m 3 ) of refrigerated storage a 500-bed hospital was completed in May 1944 and a water supply system with a capacity of 30,000 US gallons (110,000   l 25,000   imp   gal) per day was installed. Despite problems obtaining suitable road surface materials, 35 miles (56   km) of two-lane all-weather roads were provided, surfaced with sand, clay, volcanic ash and beach gravel. Timber was obtained locally, and a sawmill operated by the 841st Engineer Aviation Battalion produced 1,000,000 board feet (2,400   m 3 ) of lumber. [96]


                                Leading From the Front

                                During the opening weeks of the campaign, Puller won a fourth Navy Cross for his efforts in directing Marine units in attacks against the Japanese. On February 1, 1944, Puller was promoted to colonel and later took command of the 1st Marine Regiment. Finishing the campaign, Puller's men sailed for the Russell Islands in April before preparing for the Battle of Peleliu. Landing on the island in September, Puller fought to overcome a tenacious Japanese defense. For his work during the engagement, he received the Legion of Merit.


                                Battle of Cape Gloucester, 26 December 1943-April 1944 - History

                                Qurilish
                                Built prewar by the Australians as a single runway for civilian aircraft known as Cape Gloucester Airfield. During late late December 1942, after the Japanese built a second runway, the original runway became known as No. 1 Strip. The Japanese built second runway became known as Cape Gloucester No. 2 Strip, East Airfield or No. 2 Strip.

                                World War II Pacific Theatre History
                                On December 17, 1942 at dawn under cloud cover, Tachikaze and Patrol Boat No. 39 landed 350 Japanese troops at Cape Gloucester. This detachment was under the overall command of Major Kiyomitsu Mukai, the construction battalion commander and rapidly secured Cape Gloucester Airfield (No. 1 Strip) and established a 40 km beachhead area.

                                The Japanese immediately began improving and expanding the prewar runway and built a second runway (Cape Gloucester No. 2 Strip, East Airfield). Once built, the original runway became known as Cape Gloucester No. 1 (Old Strip, West Airfield).

                                Cape Gloucester Airfield was used by the Japanese as a forward airfield for fighters and bombers from both the Japanese Army Air Force (JAAF) and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN).

                                On July 30, 1943 two Type 96 G3M Nell bombers from the 11th Air Fleet escorted by sixteen A6M Zeros including three from the 201 Kokutai that landed with the bombers at Cape Gloucester. Aboard one was Vice-Admiral Junichi Kusaka, commander of the Southeast Area Fleet and his staff for a brief inspection then departed transporting Major General Iwasa Shun. That same day, three Type 2 fighters (Ki-45kai Nick) from the 13th Sentai arrived as the first fighters based at the airfield.

                                On August 2, 1943 a Ki-51 Sonia from the 83rd Dokuritsu Chutai with passenger Lt. General Hatazo Adachi took off from Madang Airfield on a bound for Lae Airfield escorted by nine Ki-43 Oscars from the 24th Sentai. Flying at 4,900', the formation was spotted by P-38 Lightnings escorting B-25 Mitchells off Teliata Point on the north coast of New Guinea roughly 30 miles south of Saidor. To flee, Ki-51 Sonia dove to low level and managed to escape interception and proceeded eastward to land safely at Cape Gloucester Airfield.

                                As of October 19, 1943 defenses included 12 heavy and 34 light anti-aircraft batteries, including fake "dummy" gun positions.

                                Japanese units based at Tuluvu / Cape Gloucester
                                13th Sentai (3 x Ki-45 Nick) July 30, 1943
                                26th Sentai (Ki-51 Sonia)
                                83rd Dokuritsu Chutai / 83rd Independent Air Chutai (Ki-51 Sonia)

                                As of October 19, 1943 defenses included 12 heavy and 34 light anti-aircraft batteries plus fake "dummy" gun positions.

                                For roughly a year spanning from late December 1942 until the American landing at Cape Gloucester on December 26, 1943 Cape Gloucester Airfield was targeted by American bombers and fighters. The airfield was so heavily bombed by the 5th Air Force, a new term entered their vocabulary 'to Gloucesterize' a target, due to the pot-marked appearance of the airfield from aerial photos.

                                American missions against Cape Gloucester
                                December 23, 1942 - January 29, 1944

                                After the December 26, 1943 landing by the 1st Marine Division at Cape Gloucester, the Japanese 53rd Infantry commanded by Col. Kouki Sumiya fell back to Cape Gloucester Airfield on December 29 and centered their defense on "Razorback Hill" a ridge with bunkers that spans across the southwest approach to the airfield. The 5th Marines 1st Battalions and 2nd Battalions attacked this area on December 30 supported by tanks and artillery. Overpowered, Japanese were defeated by dusk.

                                On December 30, 1943 U. S. Marines occupied Cape Gloucester Airfield. On December 31, 1943 U. S. Marine Corps (USMC) General William H. Rupertus held a U. S. flag raising ceremony near G4M1 Betty on No. 2 Strip. Later on March 11, 1944 Colonel Oliver P. Smith and Lieutenant Colonel Henry W. Buse with a color guard of the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines raised the same U. S. flag at Bitokara.

                                After capturing Cape Gloucester, the Marines located intact Ki-61 Tony 263. This aircraft was immediately recovered and transported to Australia for technical evaluation. Many other wrecks were surveyed by ATIU (Air Technical Intelligence Unit).

                                During January 1944, American forces worked to repair the runway but heavy rains delayed repairs until the end of the month. As of January 31, 1944 the runway was 4,500' x 100', with a parallel runway under construction and the west runway used as a crash strip.

                                American units based at Cape Gloucester
                                8th FG, 35th FS (P-40) from Finschafen February 19 - March 14, 44 Nadzab
                                8th FG, 36th FS (P-47) from Finschafen Feb 19 - March 14, 44 to Nadzab
                                8th FG, 80th FS (P-38s) Dobodura Feb 24 - March 25, 1944 to Nadzab
                                6th PRG 8th PRS (F4-F5s) from ? Lae - ? to Nadzab #1
                                12th Defense Battalion (USMC) Dec 30, 1943 - late May 1944
                                Australian units based at Cape Gloucester
                                78 Squadron (P-40s) March - April 25, 1944 to Tadji

                                Robert Rocker adds:
                                "The 36th FS and 80th FS were based at Gloucester in March of 1944, but it was raining so much in April they pulled both squadrons back into New Guinea. Bill Wallisch a 35th FS Crew Chief told me the mud was so bad there that they just could not operate properly."

                                Cape Gloucester I (Old Strip, West Airfield)
                                Lat 5° 27' 32S Long 148° 25' 57E Cape Gloucester I is located to the west, running roughly north-west to south-east, nearest to the ocean.

                                Built prewar by the Australian administration. The single runway was 600 yards long. When the Japanese occupied the airfield on December 17, this runway was unserviceable due to trench barricades, erosion, floodwaters and vegetation. Surveyed by on December 20, the Japanese decided to build a new runway adjacent to this runway. When completed, the runway was expanded to 3,900' runway and a series of revetments were built along the eastern edge of the strip.

                                Largely abandoned by the Japanese, it was overgrown when captured by Marines in December 1943. Reportedly, this strip was repaired and used until 1990s, when it was deemed unsafe.

                                Cape Gloucester II (No. 2 Strip, East Strip, New Airfield)
                                This runway runs east to west. Built prewar by Australians, 750 yards long. When the Japanese occupied the airfield on December 17, this runway was unserviceable due to trench barricades, erosion, floodwaters and vegetation.

                                Expanded by the Japanese , the first phase of construction was completed by January 15, 1943 for emergency landings 1,150m x 100m. On February 1 at 9am, a Ki-61 Dinah piloted by 1Lt. Okano and Sgt. Major Kanaya landed but, flipped over damaging the aircraft and injuring the crew. Next on February 5, four aircraft landed at 6am, likely Ki-43 Oscars of the 11th Sentai, en route from Rabaul to Lae.

                                By February 16, the runway was observed as 3,900', later expanded to 4,500' in length, with a large dispersal loop and taxiway to the north side. This was the primary Japanese strip at Cape Gloucester. Several wrecked and some intact Japanese Navy and Army aircraft were captured at this location. Repaired and expanded by the Americans. Post war, it was disused and overgrown today.

                                Bugun
                                Still in use today, known as "Cape Gloucester Airport". Airport code: IATA: CGC. Serviced by secondary airlines. Occasionally, nearby volcanic eruptions temporarily close the runway.

                                Brayan Bennet qo'shadi:
                                "I found the old dump at Cape Gloucester some years ago but you would need to move a bit of dirt to get at it. I recall that there were bits of Japanese aircraft sticking out of the ground."

                                Manbalar
                                Engineers in Theater Operations [Pacific] "Advance Area Airdromes 31 January 1944", Map No. 24
                                Airdromes Guide Southwest Pacific Area - 1 July 1945
                                Cape Gloucester: The Green Inferno by Bernard C. Nalty, Marine Corps Heritage Center, 1994
                                Tuluvu's Air War by Richard Dunn
                                Tuluvu's Air War: Chapter V High Ranking Visitors by Richard Dunn

                                Ma'lumot qo'shish
                                Sizda rasmlar yoki qo'shimcha ma'lumot bormi?


                                Videoni tomosha qiling: Jinsiy savol- nemislar uni qanday hal qilishdi???