Olimpiya

Olimpiya


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Olimpiya qadimgi Yunonistonning jonli shahri edi. Olimpiya joyi miloddan avvalgi 3000 -yillarda yashagan, deb ishoniladi, ammo Miken tsivilizatsiyasi qulagandan so'ng, shahar gullab -yashnay boshladi va miloddan avvalgi 900 yilga kelib u muhim diniy joy hisoblangan.

Olympia tarixi

Miloddan avvalgi 776 yilda Yunon xudosi Zevs sharafiga birinchi Olimpiya o'yinlari o'tkazildi. Olimpiada o'yinlari butun mamlakat miqyosida bo'lib o'tdi va mamlakatning turli burchaklaridan kelgan ishtirokchilar va tomoshabinlarni o'ziga jalb qilib, Olimpiada maqomini oshirdi. Ular miloddan avvalgi 394 yilgacha davom etar edilar, Rim imperatori Teodoziy I ularni "butparastlar dini" deb hisoblab, ularni tugatdi.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan shahar rivojlana boshladi. Bugungi kunda, bu bosqichma -bosqich o'sishning natijasini Olimpiada, G'aznachilik, Hera ibodatxonasi, diniy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan va Altis va Pelopion deb nomlanuvchi muqaddas uchastkada joylashgan afsonaviy Peloplarning taxmin qilingan qabrlari orqali ko'rish mumkin. Ular miloddan avvalgi 600 yilda qurilgan.

Hatto Olimpiya o'yinlari o'tkazilgan stadion ham, miloddan avvalgi 560 -yillarda qurilgan va taxminan 50 000 kishini sig'dira oladigan, qurilgan maydon. Bu ta'sirli stadion qoldiqlari bugun ham ko'rinib turibdi.

Klassik davrda Olimpiya o'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqdi va aynan o'sha paytda u erda ko'rish mumkin bo'lgan boshqa joylar, xususan Zevs ibodatxonasi qurilgan. Bu xarobalari Altis hududida joylashgan ulkan diniy tuzilma edi.

Keyinchalik Zevs ibodatxonasi butunlay vayron bo'lgan, avval olov, keyin zilzila natijasida. Ammo arxeologlar binodan kelib chiqqan deb hisoblangan bir qancha haykallar va artefaktlarni qazib olishdi, hozir ular yaqin atrofdagi Olimpiya arxeologiya muzeyida namoyish etilmoqda.

Olimpiyadagi boshqa ajoyib joylar keyinchalik Yunoniston davrida qurilgan. Miloddan avvalgi IV asr qoldiqlari shular jumlasidandir Filippion yodgorlik, Makedoniya qiroli Filipp II va uning oilasiga bag'ishlangan (Filippning o'g'li Aleksandr Makedonskiyni o'z ichiga olgan).

Yana bir qancha ta'sirli joylar bor, ularning aksariyati Rim davrida qurilgan.

Bugun Olympia

Olympia yaxshi yo'l -yo'riqli, bu saytga tashrif buyurishni osonlashtiradi va uning gullab -yashnagan davrida qanday ko'rinishini tushunishga yordam beradi. Agar siz Olympia haqida ko'proq bilmoqchi bo'lsangiz, Olympia arxeologik muzeyiga tashrif buyurishingiz mumkin.

Qadimgi stadion diqqatga sazovor joylardan biri bo'lib, ko'plab mehmonlar shu kungacha yugurish poygalarida tezligini sinab ko'rishmoqda. Aynan shu erda, 2004 yilgi Olimpiya o'yinlari paytida, otish musobaqasi bo'lib o'tdi.

Shuningdek, a bor Olimpiya o'yinlari tarixi muzeyi Olimpiyada.

Olimpiaga borish

Afinadan Olimpiyaga borish uchun mashinada 4 soatcha vaqt ketadi. Avtobuslar, shuningdek, Olimpiya va Gretsiya poytaxti o'rtasida qatnaydi, lekin masofani hisobga olgan holda, bir kunlik sayohatlar mumkin emas.

Olympia, Patrasdan taxminan 2 soatlik masofada va Markaziy Peloponnesda Tripolidan 2 soatlik masofada.

Saytda to'xtash joyi mavjud.


Olimpiya

G'arbiy Peloponnesda joylashgan Olympia qadimgi yunon muqaddas joyi bo'lib, Zevsga sig'inishga bag'ishlangan bo'lib, uning sharafiga Pan-Yunon Olimpiya o'yinlari miloddan avvalgi 776 yildan milodiy 393 yilgacha har to'rt yilda o'tkazilgan. Olimpiya YuNESKO tomonidan Jahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.

Birinchi miloddan avvalgi II ming yillikda istiqomat qilgan, turar joylar haqidagi birinchi arxeologik ma'lumotlar miloddan avvalgi 1900 yildan 1600 yillarga to'g'ri keladi. Saytdagi Kronion tepaligi, ehtimol, Kronosga bag'ishlangan birinchi ibodat joyi edi. Biroq, yovvoyi zaytun yoki Altisning muqaddas bog'idagi tepalik etagidagi boshqa muqaddas binolar Gaia, Temis, Afrodita va Pelops kabi boshqa xudolarga sajda qilinganligini ko'rsatadi. G'arbiy yunon qabilalari Peloponnesga kelishi bilan, Olimpiada xudolarining otasi Zevs Olimpiada hukmron diniy shaxsga aylanadi.

Reklama

Bu erdagi birinchi yirik bino miloddan avvalgi 650-600 yillarda qurilgan Geraga bag'ishlangan Heraion ibodatxonasi edi. Miloddan avvalgi V asrda ma'bad farovonlik cho'qqisiga chiqdi va Zevsga bag'ishlangan haykal qo'yish uchun miloddan avvalgi 457 yilda 6 x 13 ustunli Dorik ibodatxonasi qurib bitkazildi. Libos Elis tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan ma'bad o'sha paytda Gretsiyadagi eng katta ma'bad edi va uning balandligi 64,12 m x 27,68 m, ustunlari 10,53 m. Ma'badning ustunlarida ajoyib haykal tasvirlangan: sharqda Pelops va Oinomaos o'rtasidagi afsonaviy aravalar poygasi, g'arbiy pedimentda markaziy haykal Apollon bilan Centauromachi. Ma'baddan olingan metoplar Gerkulesning mehnatini ifodalagan. Ma'bad ichidagi Zevs haykali Phidias tomonidan qilingan (u Parfenon va uning Afina haykalida ishlagan) va balandligi 12 m bo'lgan oltin va fil suyagidan yasalgan Zevsning taxtda o'tirgan va qadimgi etti mo''jizasidan biri hisoblanadi. Dunyo. Asrlar mobaynida qurilgan boshqa muhim loyihalarga vannalar va suzish havzasi (miloddan avvalgi V asr), tomoshabinlar uchun qirg'oqlari bo'lgan yangi stadion (miloddan avvalgi IV asr o'rtalari) va boshqalar kiradi. palaistra (Miloddan avvalgi III asr), a gimnastika (Miloddan avvalgi II asr), gipodrom (uzunligi 780 m), katta Leonidaion yoki mehmon uylari (miloddan avvalgi 330 yil) va Teikoloi (ruhoniy qarorgohi).

Sport musobaqalari dastlab dafn marosimlari bilan bog'liq edi, masalan, Axilles Gomerning Patroklos sharafiga uyushtirgan dafn o'yinlari. Iliada. Ba'zi mifologik hisoblar Zevsga Kronos ustidan qozonilgan g'alabani nishonlash uchun O'yinlarning boshlanishiga sabab bo'lgan deb hisoblaydi, Pelops ularni Oinomaos sharafiga boshlagan. Qanday bo'lmasin, sport, sog'lom tana va raqobat ruhi yunon ta'limining katta qismi edi, shuning uchun bir paytlar sport musobaqalari tashkil etilishi ajablanarli emas.

Reklama

Birinchi Olimpiya o'yinlari miloddan avvalgi 776 yilda yozgi quyoshdan keyin to'lin birinchi oyda bo'lib o'tgan. Birinchi va yagona tadbir g'olibi stadion piyoda poygasi (stadion yo'lining bir uzunligi, 600 fut yoki 192 m), Elisning Koroybosi edi va shu vaqtdan boshlab har bir g'olib qayd etildi va har bir olimpiada ularning nomi bilan ataldi, bu bizga yunon dunyosining birinchi aniq xronologiyasini berdi. Uch oylik Pan-Yunon sulhida, o'yinlarda qatnashish uchun butun Gretsiyadan sportchilar va 40 mingga yaqin tomoshabin kelishdi. Shaxslar va shahar-shtatlar Zevsga qurbonliklar olib kelishdi, ular orasida pul, haykallar (shu jumladan, miloddan avvalgi 424 yil, Paioniosning ajoyib Nike va Praxiteles germlari, miloddan avvalgi IV asr oxiri), bronza shtativlar, qalqonlar, dubulg'alar va qurollar bor edi. Olimpiya yunon san'ati va madaniyatining tirik muzeyiga aylandi. Ko'p shaharlar xazina qurdilar - o'z qurbonliklarini joylashtirish va shaharlarining obro'sini ko'tarish uchun kichik, lekin ta'sirli binolar.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan o'yinlarga boshqa poygalar, kurash, boks, aravalar poygasi, disk, nayza, sakrash va beshkurash kabi boshqa tadbirlar qo'shildi. Eng yuqori cho'qqisida besh kun davomida tarqalgan 18 ta voqea bo'ldi. Biroq, u har doim original edi stadion eng muhim voqea bo'lib qoldi. G'oliblar zaytun barglari tojlarini va qo'rqqan o'rmondan kesilgan zaytun novdasini qo'lga kiritishdi, lekin bundan ham muhimi, ular shon -sharaf, shon -sharaf va haqiqiy ma'noda tarixiy o'lmaslikni qo'lga kiritdilar.

Haftalik bepul elektron pochta xabarnomasiga yoziling!

Olimpiada o'tkazilgan ikkinchi muhim voqea, har to'rt yilda ma'buda Hera sharafiga o'tkaziladigan ayollar uchun Heraia o'yinlari edi. Bolalar, o'smirlar va yosh ayollar alohida poygalarda yugurishdi va stadion yo'lining 500 fut (160 m) dan oshdi. G'oliblar uchun mukofotlar orasida zaytun tojlari va saytda o'z portretini o'rnatish huquqi bor edi. O'yinlarni tashkil qilish va ishlatilmaganda saytni saqlash uchun javobgarlik Eleansga yuklatilgan.

O'yinlar ellinistik davr mobaynida davom etdi, Filippeyonning ajoyib me'moriy qo'shilishi, Makedoniya Filippi II tomonidan qurilgan, qirol oilasining oltin haykallari (mil. Av. 338 y.). Rimliklar, o'yinlarning diniy ahamiyatiga unchalik ahamiyat bermasalar -da, ularni hurmat qilishda davom etdilar va miloddan avvalgi 80 yilda Sulla o'yinlarni Rimga doimiy ko'chirishga urinishlariga qaramay, Olimpiyani yangi binolar, isitiladigan vannalar bilan bezashni davom ettirdilar. favvoralar (xususan, miloddan avvalgi 150 -yil Gerod Attikus nimfayoni) va haykallar. Eng mashhuri, imperator Neron miloddan avvalgi 67 yilda Olimpiada g'alabasi shon -sharafini qo'lga kiritishga harakat qildi, u har bir musobaqada qatnashdi va g'alaba qozondi.

Reklama

Imperator Teodosiosning barcha diniy marosimlarni taqiqlash to'g'risidagi farmoni bilan, o'yinlar miloddan avvalgi 393 yilda 293 ta Olimpiada o'tkazilgandan so'ng, milodiy 393 yilda o'z nihoyasiga etdi. Bu joy asta -sekin tanazzulga yuz tutdi, milodiy 426 yilda imperator Teodosiy II farmoni bilan qisman vayron qilingan va Vizantiya davrining boshlarida bu erga bazilika qurgan nasroniylar jamoasi tomonidan qabul qilingan. Miloddan avvalgi 522 va 551 yillardagi zilzilalar qolgan qoldiqlarning ko'pini vayron qildi va Alfey va Kladeos daryolarining loylari oxir -oqibat miloddan avvalgi 1829 yilda Frantsiya arxeologik missiyasi tomonidan qayta kashf etilgunga qadar va 1875 yildan boshlab Germaniya Arxeologiya Instituti tomonidan qazish ishlari olib borilguncha yopildi.


Olimpiya - tarix

Olimpiya taniqli rassom Eduard Manening eng mashhur rasmlaridan biridir. Eng yaxshi asar - bu tuvalda ishlangan yog'li rasm. Rasmlarning o'lchamlari 51 dan 74,8 dyuymgacha. The Olimpiya 1863 yilda bo'yalgan va 1890 yilda Frantsiya tomonidan qo'lga kiritilgan. Hozirda u Parij muzeyi d ’Orsayda namoyish etiladi.

Manet va ziddiyatlar

Manet asarlari munozarali bo'lish bilan sinonimga aylandi. Uning oldingi "o'tlardagi tushlik" asari shov -shuvga sabab bo'lgan edi. Uning yangi rasmini chaqirdi Olimpiya Bu birinchi marotaba 1865 yilda namoyish etilgan. Bu ancha katta g'azabni keltirib chiqardi, chunki o'sha davrdagi konformistlar va konservatorlar rasmda tasvirlangan yalang'och yalang'ochlikdan norozi edilar. U zudlik bilan odobsiz qo'pol deb belgilandi.

San'at asari birinchi marta Parij salonida namoyish etildi. U erdagi ma'muriyat qattiqqo'llar uni yo'q qilmasligi uchun qo'shimcha xavfsizlik choralarini ko'rishi kerak edi. Biroq, hamma ham Manet ishiga qarshi emas edi. Uning tarafdorlari ham bor edi, ular yalang'och ayolning rasmini rassomning haqiqiy dunyoni tasvirlash shakli sifatida baholadilar.

Noqulaylikning sababi

O'sha davr tomoshabinlari Manet chizgan ekspozitsiyani hazm qila olmadilar. Yalang'ochlik odamlarni dahshatga solgani emas. Rassomning ayolga ko'rsatgan jirkanch ko'rinishi tomoshabinlarni janjalga soldi. Bu odamlarga aytishni istamaydigan, mehribon odamning nazaridan ko'ra ko'proq qiyin nigohni o'z ichiga oladi. 19 -asrning konservativ jamiyati tomonidan tasvirning butun qismi jasur edi.

Rasm

Olimpiya yalang'och rasmni hamma biladi. Rassom yalang'ochlikni yashirishga urinmagan. U, ehtimol, effektni dramatizatsiya qilgisi kelardi, chunki yalang'och ayolning yonida to'liq kiyingan xizmatkor ayol turadi. Rassom aslida yalang'ochlikni yaqqolroq ko'rsatadigan yorqin kontrastni yaratdi. Rasmdagi bir qancha tafsilotlar Manet tanlagan model xushmuomala bo'lganini ko'rsatdi.

To'liq yechinmagan ayol divanda sharqona o'g'rilikda yotgan holda tasvirlangan. Uning yonida xizmatkor qiz katta guldasta bilan turibdi. Xizmatkor ayollarning yuzidagi ko'rinish juda oddiy. Yalang'och holda rasm chizayotgani aniq bo'lgan yalang'och ayolning yonida turish noqulaylik tug'dirmaydi. Bu qiziqish uyg'otadi, chunki o'sha paytdagi jamiyat biz hozirgidek erkin emas edi.

Model sochlariga orkide kiyadi. Uning bo'ynida qora rang shnur bor, u oqarib ketgan terisini ta'kidlaydi. Bilaguzuk va marvarid sirg'alari uning boshqa bezaklari. U bir oyog'ida ko'k bantli shippak kiyadi, ikkinchisi esa beparvolik bilan olib tashlanadi.

’s mavzusi qo'li uning ko'kragi ochilgan bo'lsa ham, uning shaxsiy qismini yopadi. U yalang'och holda suratga tushayotganida hech qanday noqulaylik yo'q. Ko'rinib turibdiki, u atrofdagi odamlardan ustunligini his qiladi. Qora mushuk ayol kasbining ramzi - fohishalik.

Manet uslubida Olimpiya nazariy me'yordan chetga chiqadi. U yalang'och rasm chizish uchun zamondoshlari ishlatgan yumshoq rang ohanglari o'rniga keng cho'tka urishlarini ishlatgan. Olimpiya hali ham badiiy asar sifatida qadrlanadi.


Olimpiya - tarix

Og'irlik tasnifi va ochkosi bo'lmagan boks musobaqalaridan tortib, har bir burchakda xavf yashiringan aravachalar poygasiga qadar, nima uchun qadimgi o'yinlar yunonlarni shunchalik uzoq vaqtdan beri hayajonga solganini tushunish oson. Bu erda biz sizga eng muhim ma'lumotni beramiz, eng sevimli faktlarni ta'kidlaymiz.

Olimpiya o'yinlari qon, ehtiros va g'ayrioddiy yutuqlarga to'la, deyarli 12 asrlar davomida qadimgi yunon taqvimining sport, ijtimoiy va madaniy diqqatga sazovor joylari bo'lgan.

Olimpiada yunonlar uchun qanchalik muhim bo'lganini aytish qiyin, - dedi AQShning Dartmut kollejining qadimgi yunon tarixi professori Pol Kristesen.

Klassik misol, 480 yil (miloddan avvalgi) yozida forslar Yunonistonga bostirib kirganida, ko'plab yunon shaharlari ittifoqchi qo'shinni birlashtirishga kelishib olishgan, biroq ularni birlashtirish juda qiyin bo'lgan, chunki ko'p odamlar xohlagan. Olimpiadaga boring. Shunday qilib, ular mamlakatni forslardan himoya qilish uchun qo'shin yig'ishni kechiktirishlari kerak edi. & Rdquo

Bosqinlar xavfi yo'qmi, O'yinlar har to'rt yilda miloddan avvalgi 776 yildan kamida 393 yilgacha bo'lib o'tdi. Barcha erkin yunon erkaklar, fermer xo'jaliklaridan tortib qirollik merosxo'rlariga qatnashishlariga ruxsat berildi, garchi olimpiadachilarning aksariyati askarlar edi. Ayollar musobaqada qatnasha olmaydilar va hatto qatnasha olmaydilar. Biroq, bu noto'g'ri qoidada kamchilik bor edi va chavandozlar emas, balki aravachalar Olimpiya chempioni deb e'lon qilindi va har kim aravaga ega bo'lishi mumkin edi. Spartalik qirolning qizi Kyniska bundan foydalanib, miloddan avvalgi 396 va miloddan avvalgi 392 yilda g'alaba gulchambarlarini da'vo qilgan.

Ularning yuragida O'yinlar diniy bayram va O'rta er dengizi havzasining turli burchaklaridan kelgan yunonlar uchun g'alayon barbekyu yig'ish uchun yaxshi bahona edi. Bayramning o'rtalarida, yunon xudolarining podshohi Zevs sharafiga ko'p sonli sigirlar so'yildi, qolganlari esa odamlar uchun edi.

Birinchi 250 yil mobaynida barcha harakatlar Peloponnesning shimoli-g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Olimpiya qo'riqxonasida bo'lib o'tdi. G'alaba gulchambarlari kesilgan va Zevsga qurbongoh qo'yilgan zaytun daraxtlari bilan bezatilgan joy juda qo'rqinchli joy edi.

O'yinlar miloddan avvalgi V asrga qadar to'liq besh kun davom etdi va yugurish, sakrash va uloqtirish, boks, kurash, pankration va arava poygalarini ko'rdi. Miloddan avvalgi II asrda, har kuni kamida 40 000 tomoshabin O'yinlar va rsquo mashhurlik cho'qqisida stadionni to'ldirgan bo'lardi, ko'pchilik o'z mahsulotlarini tashqarida sotar edi.


Olimpiya - tarix

Mifologiya

Antik davrdagi Olimpiya o'yinlari

Sport tadbirlari
Diniy marosimlarda muntazam ishlatiladigan muqaddas joy sifatida, shuningdek, Qadimgi o'yinlarga mezbonlik qilgan Olimpiya Yunon tsivilizatsiyasining markazida bo'lgan. Taniqli ekspert Pol Kristesen Olympic.org saytiga Olimpiya va o'yinlar o'sishi bilan sayt qanday o'zgargani haqida noyob ma'lumot beradi.

& LdquoAvvalgi Olimpiya o'yinlari o'z yuragida diniy ziyoratgohda o'tkaziladigan diniy bayram edi, va tushuntirdi AQShning Dartmut kollejining qadimgi yunon tarixi professori Pol Kristesen.

Kristesen aytganidek, & ldquoit shunchaki sport va rdquo bilan shug'ullanish emas edi. Va bu kontseptsiyaning markazida saytning o'zi bor edi. Olimpiya Peloponnesning shimoli-g'arbiy burchagida (hozirgi G'arbiy Yunoniston mintaqasida) yotardi.

Aytishlaricha, Yunon xudolari shohi Zevs miloddan avvalgi 1200 -yillarda Eleanlar atrofni zabt etganda Olimpiyada istiqomat qilgan. Qo'rqinchli xudo o'zining yuksalishini Olimp tog'ining tepasidagi uyidan muqaddas o'rmonga momaqaldiroq chaqishi bilan belgiladi.

Ma'muriy markazi Olimpiadan bir kun va shimoldan piyoda yurgan Elis shahar shtati, O'yinlarni o'z hayotining ko'p qismida o'tkazgan, Eleanlar miloddan avvalgi 572 yilda mahalliy raqiblari Pisatanlar tomonidan to'liq nazoratni qo'lga kiritgan. Miloddan avvalgi II asrda o'yinlar va rsquo mashhurlik davrida, 40 mingdan ziyod odamni o'z ichiga oladigan stadionga qaramay, u har doim qishloq joylarida saqlanib qolgan.

Biz bilamizki, ular aslida stadionga bug'doy ekishgan, - dedi rdquo Kristesen. & ldquoBu katta bo'sh joy bo'lib, u ko'pincha ishlatilmadi, shuning uchun O'yinlar arafasida, hamma narsani tozalashganida, bug'doy dalasi edi. & rdquo

Miloddan avvalgi 776 yilda miloddan avvalgi 550 yilgacha bo'lgan birinchi nashrdan boshlab, O'yinlar ma'badning o'zida bo'lib o'tdi. G'alaba gulchambarlari kesilgan muqaddas Zevs zaytun daraxti barcha irqlar uchun yakuniy chiziqni belgilab berdi. Birinchi stadion, atrofdagi tepaliklarning tabiiy qirg'og'idan foydalangan holda, xudojo'y hududda ham qoldi. Hozirgi davrga oid 150 dan ortiq quduqlarning topilishi shuni ko'rsatadiki, hatto Olimpiya o'yinlari boshida ham ular katta e'tiborni tortishgan.

Miloddan avvalgi IV asr o'rtalarida stadionning uchinchi mujassamligi qurilgan. Keng va zamonaviy ko'rinishga ega bo'lib, tomoshabinlarning tashrifi taxminan 50%ga oshdi. Stadionning holati o'zgartirildi, voqealar endi Zevs qurbongohida tugamadi.

Biroq, Qadimgi O'yinlarning 1000 yildan ortiq davom etgan ko'pchilik davrida bu sayt hech qanday diniy kuchini yo'qotmagan, uning xilma-xilligi uning omon qolishining kalitidir.

Yunonlar tajovuzkor ravishda ko'p xudochi edilar, - dedi Kristesen. Shunday qilib, Olympia Zevsning muqaddas joyi bo'lsa -da, biz bilamizki, u bu erda ibodat qiladigan yagona xudo emas edi. 70 dan ortiq turli xil qurbongohlar bor edi, siz xohlagan odamga qurbonlik berishingiz mumkin edi. & Rdquo

Eleanlar Olimpiada doimiy ishtirok etib, har oy qurbonlik qilar edilar, bu sayt yiliga bir hafta davomida, asosan, tinch idildan Gretsiyaning aqldan ozgan markaziga aylandi.

& ldquoYunon olamining hamma burchaklaridan katta auditoriya olishni istagan har bir kishi Olimpiada maydoniga chiqdi. Rassomlar, rassomlar, notiqlarning barchasi o'z mahsulotlarini ko'rgazmaga qo'yish uchun u erga borishgan, - dedi Kristesen.

& ldquoBiz bilamizki, bir hafta mobaynida betartiblik yuz berdi, chunki kim o'z profilini ko'tarishni xohlasa, bu joy va vaqt edi. & rdquo

Stadionning to'rtinchi mujassamlanishi birinchi asrda, aravalar poygasining AD17 yilgi dasturga qaytishi tufayli, o'yinlarning mashhurligi oshib ketdi. Keyingi asrda qiziqish cho'qqisiga chiqdi va beshinchi va oxirgi ta'mirlash amalga oshirildi.

Bu reenkarnasyonlar davomida stadiondagi trekning uzunligi o'zgarmadi. Nima uchun u har doim 600 fut/192,2 m balandlikda bo'lganligi haqidagi hikoyalar juda ko'p, eng jozibali tomoni shundaki, bu qahramon Gerkules bir nafasda yugurishi mumkin bo'lgan masofa edi.

Raqobat bilan bir qatorda, mashg'ulotlar Olimpiada bo'lib o'tdi. Avvaliga bu ochiq havoda sodir bo'lgan, lekin ellinistik davrda (miloddan avvalgi 323-331 yillar) palestra va gimnaziya qurilgan. Kurash, boks, pankration va uzunlikka sakrash bilan shug'ullanuvchilarning uyi, palestra va rsquosning asosiy xususiyati katta, to'rtburchaklar ichki hovli edi. Uning yonida ustunlar bor edi va qo'shni xonalarda keng cho'milish tizimi bor edi. Gimnaziya nayza va disk tashlovchilarga o'z ishlarini bajarish uchun joy ajratilgan uzun to'rtburchaklar edi. Ikkala bino ham intellektual bahs -munozara va ta'lim markazlari bo'lib, faylasuflar va o'qituvchilar yosh ongning soyasi va mo'lligidan foydalangan.

Rim davriga kelib, bu o'quv inshootlari, boshqa joylar bilan bir qatorda, diniy tomondan ham, yil bo'yi sayyohlarni jalb qiladigan joyga aylandi.

Odamlar katta badiiy asarlar va bag'ishlovlarni qo'yishdi, shuning uchun u yunon san'atini ko'rish uchun mashhur saytga aylandi, - dedi Kristesen. & ldquoAniqki, Rim davrida bu erga yo'l ko'rsatuvchi sifatida tirikchilik qiladigan odamlar bor edi. & rdquo


Qadimgi Olimpiya o'yinlari

Tarixda qancha vaqt oldin sport musobaqalari o'tkazilgani munozarali masala bo'lib qolmoqda, ammo ular deyarli 3000 yil oldin Gretsiyada bo'lgani aniq. VI asrning oxiriga kelib, qadimgi, miloddan avvalgi 6 -asrning oxiriga kelib, "klassik o'yinlar" deb nomlangan kamida to'rtta yunon sport festivali katta ahamiyatga ega bo'ldi: Olimpiada, Pifiya Olimpiya o'yinlari, Delfi, Nemea o'yinlari. Korinf yaqinida o'tkazilgan Istmiy o'yinlari. Keyinchalik shunga o'xshash festivallar Rim, Neapol, Odessus, Antioxiya va Iskandariya kabi 150 ga yaqin shaharlarda o'tkazildi.

Yunoniston bo'ylab o'tkazilgan barcha o'yinlarning eng mashhuri Olimpiya o'yinlari edi. Ular har to'rt yilda 6 -avgustdan 19 -sentabrgacha o'tkazilgan bo'lib, ular yunon tarixida shunday muhim o'rinni egallaganki, antik davr tarixchilari vaqtni ular orasidagi interval bilan o'lchagan - Olimpiada. Olimpiya o'yinlari, deyarli barcha yunon o'yinlari singari, diniy bayramning ajralmas qismi edi. Ular Zevs sharafiga Peloponnesning shimoli-g'arbiy qismidagi Elis shahar-Olimpiada o'tkazildi. Rekordlar ro'yxatiga kiritilgan birinchi Olimpiya chempioni, miloddan avvalgi 776 yilda sprint poygasida g'olib bo'lgan oshpaz Elis Korob edi. Olimpiada miloddan avvalgi 776 yildan ancha oldin boshlangani haqidagi tushunchalar tarixiy dalillarga emas, afsonaga asoslangan. Bir afsonaga ko'ra, masalan, o'yinlar Zevs va Alkmenning o'g'li Herakllar tomonidan asos solingan.


Tarkibi

Qo'shma Shtatlar to'rt marta yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlariga mezbonlik qilgan: 1904 yilgi o'yinlar Missuri shtatining Sent -Luis shahrida, 1932 yilda va 1984 yilda Kaliforniya shtatining Los -Anjeles shahrida, 1996 yilgi o'yinlar Jorjiya shtatining Atlanta shahrida bo'lib o'tgan. Los -Anjelesdagi 2028 yilgi o'yinlar AQSh tomonidan yozgi o'yinlar o'tkazilgan beshinchi voqea bo'ladi.

2012 yilda Buyuk Britaniyada Londonda uchinchi yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlari bo'lib o'tdi va bu yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlarini uch marta o'tkazgan birinchi shahar bo'ldi. Los -Anjeles, Parij va Afina shaharlarida har biri ikkita Yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlari o'tkazilgan. 2024 yilda Frantsiya o'z poytaxtida uchinchi yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlarini o'tkazadi, bu esa Parijni uchta yozgi Olimpiada o'tkazgan ikkinchi shaharga aylantiradi. Va 2028 yilda Los -Anjeles o'z navbatida o'yinlarni uch marta o'tkazgan uchinchi shaharga aylanadi.

Avstraliya, Frantsiya, Germaniya va Gretsiyada yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlari ikki marotaba o'tkazilgan. XOQ Tokio (Yaponiya) ni 2020 yilgi Yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlarini qabul qilish uchun tanladi, u 1964 yilda G'arb dunyosidan tashqarida bir necha bor yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlarini o'tkazgan birinchi shaharga aylanadi. Boshqa mamlakatlar mezbonlik qilgan. Yozgi Olimpiada Belgiya, Braziliya, Xitoy, Kanada, Finlyandiya, Italiya, Meksika, Gollandiya, Janubiy Koreya, Ispaniya, Sovet Ittifoqi va Shvetsiya bo'lib, bu mamlakatlarning har biri yozgi o'yinlarni faqat bir marta o'tkazgan.

Osiyo yozgi Olimpiadaga atigi uch marta mezbonlik qilgan: Tokio (1964), Seul (1988) va Pekin (2008). COVID-19 pandemiyasi tufayli 2020 yilda Tokioda bo'lib o'tadigan yozgi Olimpiada, bu shahar ikkinchi marta o'tkazilishi rejalashtirilgan sanadan o'n ikki oyga qoldirildi. Tokio asosan ingliz tilida so'zlashadigan va Evropa mamlakatlari tashqarisidagi birinchi shahar bo'ladi, ular odatda yozgi Olimpiadani ikki marta o'tkazgan o'yinlarni o'tkazadilar [3], shuningdek, 1964 yildan buyon sezilarli darajada o'sgan eng yirik shahar bo'ladi.

2016 yil Rio -de -Janeyroda (Braziliya) bo'lib o'tgan o'yinlar Janubiy Amerikada o'tkazilgan birinchi va mahalliy "qish" mavsumida to'liq o'tkazilgan birinchi yozgi Olimpiada edi. Janubiy yarimsharda yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlarini o'tkazgan ikkita mamlakat Avstraliya (1956 va 2000) va Braziliya (2016) bo'lgan, Afrika hali hech qanday yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlarini o'tkazmagan.

Shvetsiyaning Stokgolm shahrida ikkita Yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlari bo'lib o'tdi, 1912 yilgi o'yinlarning yagona mezboni bo'lgan va 1956 yilgi yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlarida ot sporti musobaqalarini o'tkazgan (ular Avstraliyaning Melburn shahri bilan birgalikda o'tkazilgan deb hisoblanadi). [4] Amsterdam, Gollandiya, shuningdek, ikkita Yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlarida tadbirlar o'tkazgan, 1928 yilgi o'yinlarning yagona mezboni bo'lgan va ilgari 1920 yilgi Yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlarida ikkita yelkanli poygalarni o'tkazgan. 2008 yilgi Yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlarida Gonkong Sha Tin va Kvu Tung shaharlarida bo'lib o'tgan ot sporti musobaqalari uchun joy ajratdi.

Dastlabki yillar tahrir

Xalqaro Olimpiya qo'mitasi 1894 yilda frantsuz pedagogi va tarixchisi Per de Kuberten sport musobaqalari orqali xalqaro tushunishni targ'ib qilishga intilganida tashkil etilgan. Olimpiya o'yinlarining birinchi nashri 1896 yilda Afinada bo'lib o'tdi va unga atigi 245 nafar ishtirokchi qatnashdi, ulardan 200 dan ortig'i yunon va faqat 14 mamlakat vakillari edi. Shunga qaramay, ilgari bunday miqyosdagi xalqaro tadbirlar tashkil etilmagan edi. Ayol sportchilarga musobaqalarga ruxsat berilmadi, lekin bitta ayol, Stamata Reviti, "qo'mita menga musobaqaga ruxsat bermasa, men ularning ortidan boraman", deb o'z -o'zidan marafon kursini o'tkazdi. [5]

1896 yilgi yozgi Olimpiada rasmiy ravishda Olimpiada o'yinlari sifatida tanilgan, 1896 yil 6-15 aprel kunlari Afina shahrida (Gretsiya) nishonlangan xalqaro sport musobaqasi edi. Bu zamonaviy davrda o'tkazilgan birinchi Olimpiya o'yinlari edi. O'yinlarning ochilishiga 100 mingga yaqin odam tashrif buyurdi. Sportchilar 14 mamlakatdan kelgan, ko'pchiligi Gretsiyadan kelgan. Garchi Gretsiya eng ko'p sportchiga ega bo'lsa -da, AQSh eng ko'p chempion bilan yakunlandi. 11 amerikalik o'z musobaqalarida birinchi o'rinni egalladi - Gretsiya 10. [6] Qadimgi Yunoniston Olimpiya o'yinlarining tug'ilgan joyi bo'lgan, shuning uchun Afina birinchi zamonaviy o'yinlarni o'tkazish uchun to'g'ri tanlov sifatida qabul qilingan. 1894 yil 23 -iyunda Parijda Per de Kuberten tomonidan uyushtirilgan kongressda u bir ovozdan mezbon shahar sifatida tanlandi. XOQ ham shu kongress davomida tashkil etilgan.

Ko'p to'siqlar va muvaffaqiyatsizliklarga qaramay, 1896 yilgi Olimpiada katta muvaffaqiyat sifatida baholandi. O'yinlar shu kungacha har qanday sport musobaqalarida eng katta xalqaro ishtirokga ega bo'ldi. Zamonaviy dunyodagi birinchi yirik stadion "Panatinaiko" stadioni sport musobaqasini tomosha qilish uchun eng ko'p odam yig'ilgan edi. [7] Yunonlarning diqqatga sazovor joyi, suv tashuvchisi vatandoshi Spiridon Lui marafonda g'alaba qozondi. U 2 soat 58 daqiqa 50 soniyada g'alaba qozondi va stadionda bayramni nishonladi. Eng muvaffaqiyatli raqib to'rtta oltin medalni qo'lga kiritgan nemis kurashchisi va gimnastikachisi Karl Shuhman edi.

Gretsiya rasmiylari va jamoatchilik Olimpiya o'yinlarini o'tkazish tajribasidan juda xursand bo'lishdi. Bu tuyg'uni ko'plab sportchilar ham bo'lishdi, ular hatto Afinadan Olimpiada o'tkaziladigan doimiy shahar bo'lishini talab qilishdi. XOQ keyingi o'yinlarni dunyoning turli mezbon shaharlariga o'tkazishni rejalashtirgan. Ikkinchi Olimpiada Parijda bo'lib o'tdi. [8]

To'rt yil o'tgach, 1900 yilgi Parijdagi yozgi Olimpiada o'yinlariga to'rt barobar ko'p sportchilar, shu jumladan kroket, golf, yelkan va tennis bo'yicha birinchi marta rasman qatnashishga ruxsat berilgan 20 ayol jalb qilingan. O'yinlar Parij Butunjahon ko'rgazmasi bilan birlashtirilgan va 5 oydan ortiq davom etgan. Haqiqatan ham aynan qaysi voqealar bo'lganligi bahsli Olimpiya, chunki o'sha paytda voqealarning bir nechtasi yoki hatto hech biri shunday reklama qilinmagan.

Rus-yapon urushi va Sent-Luisga borish qiyinligi tufayli yuzaga kelgan keskinliklar 1904 yilgi o'yinlarda AQSh va Kanadadan tashqarida juda kam sonli sportchilar ishtirok etishiga sabab bo'lishi mumkin. [9]

1906 yilda Afinada bir nechta kichik o'yinlar bo'lib o'tdi. XOQ hozircha bu o'yinlarni rasmiy Olimpiya o'yinlari deb tan olmaydi, lekin ko'pchilik tarixchilar buni tan olishadi. 1906 yilgi Afina o'yinlari Afinada o'tkaziladigan navbatdagi o'yinlarning birinchisi edi, ammo bu seriya amalga oshmadi. O'yinlar 1900 va 1904 yildagi o'yinlarga qaraganda muvaffaqiyatli o'tdi, 900 dan ortiq sportchi ishtirok etdi va kelgusi o'yinlarning muvaffaqiyatiga ijobiy hissa qo'shdi.

1908 yilgi London o'yinlarida raqamlar yana o'sdi, shuningdek, 42.195 km (26 mil 385 yard) standart masofa bo'ylab marafonning birinchi yugurishi. Birinchi Olimpiya marafoni 1896 yilda (faqat erkaklar poygasi) 40 km (24 mil 85 yard) masofada o'tkazilgan. Yangi marafon masofasi poyga Britaniya qirollik oilasi egallagan quti oldida tugashini ta'minlash uchun tanlangan. Marafon 1896 yildagi birinchi o'yinlar uchun 40 km (24,9 milya) masofani tashkil qilgan, lekin keyinchalik ko'cha va stadionning joylashuvi kabi mahalliy sharoit tufayli 2 km (1,2 mil) gacha o'zgargan. 1900-1920 yillar oralig'idagi oltita Olimpiya o'yinlarida marafon oltita masofani bosib o'tdi. O'yinlarda Buyuk Britaniya 146 ta medalni qo'lga kiritdi, bu 99-o'rinda ikkinchi o'rinni egallagan amerikaliklardan 99 taga ko'p, bu uning eng yaxshi natijasi.

1908 yildagi marafon oxirida, birinchi bo'lib stadionga italiyalik yuguruvchi Dorando Pietri kirdi, lekin u aniq xavotirda edi va musobaqani tugatmasdan charchab qoldi. Unga marraga tegishli rasmiylar yordam berishdi va keyinchalik diskvalifikatsiya qilishdi. Yo'qolgan medal uchun kompensatsiya sifatida qirolicha Aleksandra Pietriga zarhal kumush kubokni berdi. Artur Konan Doyl musobaqa haqida maxsus hisobot yozdi Kundalik pochta. [10]

O'yinlar 1912 yilda Stokgolmga 2504 ta raqobatchini jalb qilgan holda o'sishda davom etdi, shu jumladan, ko'p qirrali sportchi Jim Torpe, u ham dekatlon, ham beshkurash bo'yicha g'alaba qozondi. Torp ilgari beysbolning bir nechta o'yinlarini pullik o'ynagan va Avery Brundage shikoyatlaridan so'ng, bu havaskorlikning "buzilishi" uchun medallarini tortib olgan. Ular 1983 yilda, o'limidan 30 yil o'tgach, qayta tiklangan. Stokgolmdagi o'yinlar Per de Kubertenning asl g'oyasini birinchi bo'lib amalga oshirdi. O'yinlar 1896 yilda boshlanganidan buyon birinchi marta beshta qit'ada bitta stadionda sportchilar ishtirok etishdi.

Rejalashtirilgan 1916 yilgi yozgi Olimpiya o'yinlari Birinchi jahon urushi boshlanishi bilan bekor qilindi.

Urushlararo davrni tahrirlash

1920 yildagi Antverpen o'yinlari Belgiyada bo'lib o'tdi, lekin bu rekord raqobatchilar sonini ko'paytirdi. Bu rekord faqat 1924 yilgacha, Parij o'yinlarida 3000 ta ishtirokchi qatnashgan paytgacha, ularning eng yirigi fin yuguruvchisi Paavo Nurmi edi. "Uchar fin" uchta oltin medalni qo'lga kiritdi va yakka tartibda 1500 va 5000 metrga yugurdi, ikkinchisi o'sha kuni. [11]

1928 yilgi Amsterdam o'yinlari ayollarga yengil atletika musobaqalarida qatnashishga imkon bergan va Coca-Cola kompaniyasi tomonidan homiylik qilingan o'yinlarning paydo bo'lishidan tashqari, zamonning umumiy farovonligidan katta foyda olgan birinchi o'yinlar bilan ajralib turardi. 1928 yilgi o'yinlarda XOQ standart medallar dizaynini kiritdi, unda Juzeppe Kassioli yunon ma'budasi Nike va g'olibni ko'plab odamlar olib ketishdi. Bu dizayn 1972 yilgacha ishlatilgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

1932 yildagi Los -Anjeles o'yinlariga Buyuk Depressiya ta'sir ko'rsatdi, bu esa raqobatchilar sonining kamligiga hissa qo'shdi.

1936 yilgi Berlin o'yinlari Germaniya hukumati tomonidan o'z mafkurasini targ'ib qilishning oltin imkoniyati sifatida ko'rildi. Hukmron fashistlar partiyasi o'yinlarni suratga olishni kinorejissyor Leni Riefenstaxlga topshirdi. Natija, Olimpiya, Gitlerning oriylarning irqiy ustunligi haqidagi nazariyalariga "oriy bo'lmagan" sportchilar tomonidan bir necha bor ko'rsatilganiga qaramay, u eng yaxshi asar deb hisoblanardi. Xususan, afro-amerikalik yuguruvchi va uzunlikka sakrash bo'yicha Jessi Ouens to'rtta oltin medalni qo'lga kiritdi. 1936 yilgi Berlin o'yinlarida "Mash'ala estafetasi" ham joriy qilingan. [12]

Ikkinchi jahon urushi tufayli 1940 yilgi o'yinlar (Tokioda bo'lib o'tadi va urush boshlanishi bilan vaqtincha Xelsinkiga ko'chiriladi) bekor qilindi. 1944 yilgi o'yinlar Londonda bo'lib o'tishi kerak edi, lekin buning o'rniga bekor qilindi, London urush tugaganidan keyin birinchi o'yinlarni 1948 yilda o'tkazdi.

Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin tahrir

Urushdan keyingi birinchi o'yinlar 1948 yilda Londonda bo'lib o'tdi, Germaniya ham, Yaponiya ham bundan mustasno. Gollandiyalik yuguruvchi Fanny Blankers-Koen trekda to'rtta oltin medalni qo'lga kiritdi va Ouensning Berlindagi yutug'iga taqlid qildi.

1952 yil Xelsinkida bo'lib o'tgan o'yinlarda SSSR terma jamoasi birinchi marta qatnashdi va darhol ustun jamoalardan biriga aylandi (oltin va umumiy medallar soni bo'yicha ikkinchi o'rinni egalladi). Sovet Ittifoqining muvaffaqiyatini davlat tomonidan homiylik qilinadigan "to'la vaqtli havaskor sportchi" ning paydo bo'lishi bilan izohlash mumkin. SSSR talabalar, askarlar yoki kasb-hunar bilan shug'ullanadigan sportchilar jamoalariga kirdi, lekin ularning aksariyatiga to'la vaqtli mashg'ulotlar uchun davlat to'lagan, shuning uchun havaskorlar qoidalarini buzgan. [13] [14] Finlyandiya Chexoslovakiya armiyasi leytenanti Emil Zatopek haqida afsona yaratdi, u 1948 yildan yakkalik oltin va kumush medallarini yaxshilash niyatida edi. Birinchi bo'lib 10,000 va 5000 metrga yugurishda g'olib bo'lgan. marafon, ilgari hech qachon bu masofaga yugurmagan bo'lsa ham. Boshqa etakchilar bilan suhbatlashib, o'zini bosib o'tgan Zatopek yarim yo'ldan boshlab, qolgan da'vogarlarni ikki yarim daqiqaga sekinlik bilan qo'yib yubordi va g'alaba uchligini yakunladi.

1956 yilgi Melburn o'yinlari asosan Vengriya va Sovet Ittifoqi o'rtasidagi suv polosi musobaqasini taqiqlab qo'ydi va natijada Sovet Vengriyaga bostirib kirishi jamoalar o'rtasidagi jang sifatida yakunlandi. O'sha paytda Buyuk Britaniyada yalang'och kasallikning avj olishi va Avstraliyaning qattiq karantin qonunlari tufayli ot sporti musobaqalari Stokgolmda o'tkazildi.

1960 yilgi Rim o'yinlarida sahnaga keyinchalik Muhammad Ali nomi bilan tanilgan Kassius Kley ismli engil vaznli yosh bokschi keldi. Ali keyinchalik o'z uyini, Kentukki, Luisvill shahridagi oq tanli restoranda xizmat ko'rsatishni rad etganidan so'ng, nafrat bilan oltin medalini tashlab yuboradi. [15] U 36 yil o'tib, 1996 yil Atlanta Olimpiadasida yangi medal bilan taqdirlandi. 1960 yildagi boshqa diqqatga sazovor ijrochilar qatoriga 100 metr, 200 metr va 4 × 100 metrlik estafeta musobaqalarida oltin medal sohibasi Vilma Rudolf kirdi.

1964 yil Tokioda bo'lib o'tgan o'yinlar telekommunikatsiyalarning zamonaviy davrini e'lon qilishi bilan ajralib turadi. These games were the first to be broadcast worldwide on television, enabled by the recent advent of communication satellites. The 1964 Games were thus a turning point in the global visibility and popularity of the Olympics. Judo debuted as an official sport, and Dutch judoka Anton Geesink created quite a stir when he won the final of the open weight division, defeating Akio Kaminaga in front of his home crowd.

Performances at the 1968 Mexico City games were affected by the altitude of the host city. [16] The 1968 Games also introduced the now-universal Fosbury flop, a technique which won American high jumper Dick Fosbury the gold medal. In the medal award ceremony for the men's 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith (gold) and John Carlos (bronze) took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. They were banned by the IOC. Věra Čáslavská, in protest to the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia and the controversial decision by the judges on the Balance Beam and Floor, turned her head down and away from the Soviet flag whilst the anthem played during the medal ceremony. She returned home as a heroine of the Czechoslovak people but was made an outcast by the Soviet-dominated government.

Politics again intervened at Munich in 1972, with lethal consequences. A Palestinian terrorist group named Black September invaded the Olympic village and broke into the apartment of the Israeli delegation. They killed two Israelis and held 9 others as hostages. The terrorists demanded that Israel release numerous prisoners. When the Israeli government refused their demand, a tense stand-off ensued while negotiations continued. Eventually, the captors, still holding their hostages, were offered safe passage and taken to an airport, where they were ambushed by German security forces. In the firefight that followed, 15 people, including the nine Israeli athletes and five of the terrorists, were killed. After much debate, it was decided that the Games would continue, but proceedings were obviously dominated by these events. [17] Some memorable athletic achievements did occur during these Games, notably the winning of a then-record seven gold medals by United States swimmer Mark Spitz, Lasse Virén (of Finland)'s back-to-back gold in the 5,000 meters and 10,000 meters, and the winning of three gold medals by Soviet gymnastic star Olga Korbut - who achieved a historic backflip off the high bar. Korbut, however, failed to win the all-around, losing to her teammate Ludmilla Tourischeva.

There was no such tragedy in Montreal in 1976, but bad planning and fraud led to the Games' cost far exceeding the budget. The Montreal Games were the most expensive in Olympic history, until the 2014 Winter Olympics, costing over $5 billion (equivalent to $22.03 billion in 2020). For a time, it seemed that the Olympics might no longer be a viable financial proposition. In retrospect, the belief that contractors (suspected of being members of the Montreal Mafia) skimmed large sums of money from all levels of contracts while also profiting from the substitution of cheaper building materials of lesser quality, may have contributed to the delays, poor construction and excessive costs. In 1988, one such contractor, Giuseppe Zappia "was cleared of fraud charges that resulted from his work on Olympic facilities after two key witnesses died before testifying at his trial". [18] There was also a boycott by many African nations to protest against a recent tour of apartheid-run South Africa by the New Zealand national rugby union team. The Romanian gymnast Nadia Comăneci won the women's individual all-around gold medal with two of four possible perfect scores, this giving birth to a gymnastics dynasty in Romania. She also won two other individual events, with two perfect scores in the balance beam and all perfect scores in the uneven bars. Lasse Virén repeated his double gold in the 5,000 meters and 10,000 meters, making him the first athlete to ever win the distance double twice.

End of the 20th century Edit

Following the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, 66 nations, including the United States, Canada, West Germany, and Japan, boycotted the 1980 games held in Moscow. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. The boycott contributed to the 1980 Games being a less publicised and less competitive affair, which was dominated by the host country.

In 1984 the Soviet Union and 13 Soviet allies reciprocated by boycotting the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Romania, notably, was one of the nations in the Eastern Bloc that did attend the 1984 Olympics. These games were perhaps the first games of a new era to make a profit. Although a boycott led by the Soviet Union depleted the field in certain sports, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time. [19] The Games were also the first time mainland China (People's Republic) participated.

According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the IOC to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts". [20] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games." [20]

Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the programme, along with suggestions for further enhancements. [21] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping programme prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics. [21]

The 1988 games, in Seoul, was very well planned but the games were tainted when many of the athletes, most notably men's 100 metres winner Ben Johnson, failed mandatory drug tests. Despite splendid drug-free performances by many individuals, the number of people who failed screenings for performance-enhancing chemicals overshadowed the games.

The 1992 Barcelona Games featured the admittance of players from one of the North American top leagues, the NBA, exemplified by but not limited to US basketball's "Dream Team". The 1992 games also saw the reintroduction to the Games of several smaller European states which had been incorporated into the Soviet Union since World War II. At these games, gymnast Vitaly Scherbo set an inaugural medal record of five individual gold medals at a Summer Olympics, and equaled the inaugural record set by Eric Heiden at the 1980 Winter Olympics.

By then the process of choosing a location for the Games had become a commercial concern there were widespread allegations of corruption potentially affecting the IOC's decision process.

An the Atlanta 1996 Summer Olympics, the highlight was 200 meters runner Michael Johnson annihilating the world record in front of a home crowd. Canadians savoured Donovan Bailey's recording gold medal run in the 100-meter dash. This was popularly felt to be an appropriate recompense for the previous national disgrace involving Ben Johnson. There were also emotional scenes, such as when Muhammad Ali, clearly affected by Parkinson's disease, lit the Olympic torch and received a replacement medal for the one he had discarded in 1960. The latter event took place in the basketball arena. The atmosphere at the Games was marred, however, when a bomb exploded during the celebration in Centennial Olympic Park. In June 2003, the principal suspect in this bombing, Eric Robert Rudolph, was arrested.

The 2000 Summer Olympics was held in Sydney, Australia, and showcased individual performances by local favorite Ian Thorpe in the pool, Briton Steve Redgrave who won a rowing gold medal in an unprecedented fifth consecutive Olympics, and Cathy Freeman, an Indigenous Australian whose triumph in the 400 meters united a packed stadium. Eric "the Eel" Moussambani, a swimmer from Equatorial Guinea, received wide media coverage when he completed the 100 meter freestyle swim in by far the slowest time in Olympic history. He nevertheless won the heat as both his opponents had been disqualified for false starts. His female compatriot Paula Barila Bolopa also received media attention for her record-slow and struggling but courageous performance. The Sydney Games also saw the first appearance of a joint North and South Korean contingent at the opening ceremonies, though they competed as different countries. Controversy occurred in the Women's Artistic Gymnastics when the vaulting horse was set to the wrong height during the All-Around Competition.

Start of the 21st century and new millennium Edit

In 2004, the Olympic Games returned to their birthplace in Athens, Greece. At least $7.2 billion was spent on the 2004 Games, including $1.5 billion on security. Michael Phelps won his first Olympic medals, tallying six gold and two bronze medals. Pyrros Dimas, winning a bronze medal, became the most decorated weightlifter of all time with four Olympic medals, three gold and one bronze. Although unfounded reports of potential terrorism drove crowds away from the preliminary competitions at the first weekend of the Olympics (14–15 August 2004), attendance picked up as the Games progressed. A third of the tickets failed to sell, [22] but ticket sales still topped figures from the Seoul and Barcelona Olympics (1988 and 1992). [ iqtibos kerak ] IOC President Jacques Rogge characterised Greece's organisation as outstanding and its security precautions as flawless. [23] All 202 NOCs participated at the Athens Games with over 11,000 participants.

The 2008 Summer Olympics was held in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Several new events were held, including the new discipline of BMX for both men and women. Women competed in the steeplechase for the first time. The fencing programme was expanded to include all six events for both men and women previously, women had not been able to compete in team foil or sabre events, although women's team épée and men's team foil were dropped for these Games. Marathon swimming events were added, over the distance of 10 km (6.2 mi). Also, the doubles events in table tennis were replaced by team events. [24] American swimmer Michael Phelps set a record for gold medals at a single Games with eight, and tied the record of most gold medals by a single competitor previously held by both Eric Heiden and Vitaly Scherbo. Another notable star of the Games was Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt, who became the first male athlete ever to set world records in the finals of both the 100 and 200 metres in the same Games. Equestrian events were held in Hong Kong.

London held the 2012 Summer Olympics, becoming the first city to host the Olympic Games three times. In his closing address, Jacques Rogge described the Games as "Happy and glorious". The host nation won 29 gold medals, the best haul for Great Britain since the 1908 Games in London. The United States returned to the top of the medal table after China dominated in 2008. The IOC had removed baseball and softball from the 2012 programme. The London Games were successful on a commercial level because they were the first in history to completely sell out every ticket, with as many as 1 million applications for 40,000 tickets for both the Opening Ceremony and the 100m Men's Sprint Final. Such was the demand for tickets to all levels of each event that there was controversy over seats being set aside for sponsors and National Delegations which went unused in the early days. A system of reallocation was put in place so the empty seats were filled throughout the Games.

Rio de Janeiro in Brazil hosted the 2016 Summer Olympics, becoming the first South American city to host the Olympics, the second Olympic host city in Latin America, after Mexico City in 1968, as well as the third city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the Olympics after Melbourne, Australia, in 1956 and Sydney, Australia, in 2000. The preparation for these Games was overshadowed by controversies, including the political instability of Brazil's federal government the country's economic crisis health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay and a state-sponsored doping scandal involving Russia, which affected the participation of its athletes in the Games. [25]

The 2020 Summer Olympics were originally scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan. The city will be the fifth in history to host the Games twice, and the first Asian city to have this title. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe, the IOC and the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced that the 2020 Games were to be delayed until 2021, marking the first time that the Olympic Games have been postponed. [26] [27]

There has been a total of 42 sports, spanning 55 disciplines, included in the Olympic programme at one point or another in the history of the Games. The schedule has comprised 28 sports for three of the most recent Summer Olympics (2004, 2008, and 2016) the 2012 Games featured 26 sports because of the removal of baseball and softball. [28]

The various Olympic Sports federations are grouped under a common umbrella association, called the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF).

Qualification Edit

Qualification rules for each of the Olympic sports are set by the International Sports Federation (IF) that governs that sport's international competition. [29]

For individual sports, competitors typically qualify by attaining a certain place in a major international event or on the IF's ranking list. There is a general rule that a maximum of three individual athletes may represent each nation per competition. National Olympic Committees (NOCs) may enter a limited number of qualified competitors in each event, and the NOC decides which qualified competitors to select as representatives in each event if more have attained the benchmark than can be entered. [29] [30]

Nations most often qualify teams for team sports through continental qualifying tournaments, in which each continental association is given a certain number of spots in the Olympic tournament. Each nation may be represented by no more than one team per competition a team consists of just two people in some sports.

Popularity of Olympic sports Edit

Summer Olympic sports are divided into five categories (A – E) based on popularity, gauged by six criteria: television viewing figures (40%), internet popularity (20%), public surveys (15%), ticket requests (10%), press coverage (10%), and number of national federations (5%). The category of a sport determines the share of Olympic revenue received by that sport's International Federation. [31] [32] Sports that were new to the 2016 Olympics (rugby and golf) have been placed in Category E.

The current categories are:

Mushuk Yo'q Sport
A 3 athletics, aquatics, [a] gymnastics
B 5 basketball, cycling, football, tennis, volleyball
C 8 archery, badminton, boxing, judo, rowing, shooting, table tennis, weightlifting
D 9 canoe/kayaking, equestrian, fencing, handball, field hockey, sailing, taekwondo, triathlon, wrestling
E 3 modern pentathlon, golf, rugby
F 6 baseball/softball, breaking, karate, skateboarding, sport climbing, surfing

a Aquatics encompasses artistic swimming, diving, swimming, and water polo.


Olympia - History

Édouard Manet. 1863 C.E. Oil on canvas. Realism, movement towards impressionism

Imperfect, harsh style depicting a woman in a manner that does not fit the classical “ideal” and ethereal image of the body

Flatly painted, poorly contoured, abrupt shift in tonality, lacking depth and washed out

No vanishing point or recognizable perspective- hard to understand in space

Loose, choppy brush strokes (clearly a painted representation)

Rebel from previous convention and depict harsh realities of Parisian life

Ordinary people and unglamorous prostitution

Commentary on racial divisions and the class system in Paris

Nude woman reclining on a chaise lounge with a black cat at her feet

She stares with a cold, stark, indifferent expression at the viewer

A black female servant stands behind her holding a bouquet of flowers (a gift for the prostitute from a client)

Highlights the french colonial mindset and injustice in society

the stark contrast of the black skin from the white highlighted racial division

Depicts the world of Parisian prostitution

Depicted marginalized people in society rather than the traditional Bourgeois and aristocratic subjects

This is a salon painting (academic painting) that defied tradition creating an artistic revolution

This received extreme negative reviews from critics in 1865 at the Parisian Salon

It “bewildered” the Parisians and was seen as scandalous and an insult to tradition, caused unease amongst viewers because he shamelessly and obviously depicts a defiant looking prostitute, which unnerved viewers

Both a nude prostitute and a black maid was seen as inferior and animalistic sexuality

Manet mocked the revitalization of classical style by using a contemporary, ordinary subject. He suggested that the classical past no longer had relevance in the modern world.

Manet rejected controlled brush strokes and seamless illusionism

Time of the industrial revolution (linked to the separation from the outdated, classical past)

He recreated the Venus of Urbino but Manet’s creation was believed to be disrespectful and insulting to it

Manet referred to as the father of impressionism, his “rebellious” style inspired future work

Considered the first modernist painter in his technique and subjects

Manet’s realist predecessor was Gustave Courbet and drew inspiration from Velasquez and Goya and Dutch painters

The model was Victorine Meurent

Manet highlighted the injustice of colonial viewpoints, the anxieties of the class system (since many rural people moved to the growing cities), and the uncertainty of the modern world


The History of the Olympic Games

Compare the ancient Olympics to the modern games. Plus, learn how money, politics, and performance-enhancing drugs have become major influences, often causing controversy.

The Olympic Games are an international sports festival that began in ancient Greece. The original Greek games were staged every fourth year for several hundred years, until they were abolished in the early Christian era. The revival of the Olympic Games took place in 1896, and since then they have been staged every fourth year, except during World War I and World War II (1916, 1940, 1944).

Perhaps the basic difference between the ancient and modern Olympics is that the former was the ancient Greeks' way of saluting their gods, whereas the modern Games are a manner of saluting the athletic talents of citizens of all nations. The original Olympics featured competition in music, oratory, and theater performances as well. The modern Games have a more expansive athletic agenda, and for 2 and a half weeks they are supposed to replace the rancor of international conflict with friendly competition. In recent times, however, that lofty ideal has not always been attained.

The Ancient Olympics

The earliest reliable date that recorded history gives for the first Olympics is 776 B.C., although virtually all historians presume that the Games began well before then.

It is certain that during the midsummer of 776 B.C. a festival was held at Olympia on the highly civilized eastern coast of the Peloponnesian peninsula. That festival remained a regularly scheduled event, taking place during the pre-Christian golden age of Greece. As a testimony to the religious nature of the Games (which were held in honor of Zeus, the most important god in the ancient Greek pantheon), all wars would cease during the contests. According to the earliest records, only one athletic event was held in the ancient Olympics &mdash a footrace of about 183 m (200 yd), or the length of the stadium. A cook, Coroibus of Elis, was the first recorded winner. The first few Olympics had only local appeal and were limited to one race on one day only men were allowed to compete or attend. A second race &mdash twice the length of the stadium &mdash was added in the 14th Olympics, and a still longer race was added to the next competition, four years later.

When the powerful, warlike Spartans began to compete, they influenced the agenda. The 18th Olympiad included wrestling and a pentathlon consisting of running, jumping, spear throwing (the javelin), discus throwing, and wrestling. Boxing was added at the 23rd Olympiad, and the Games continued to expand, with the addition of chariot racing and other sports. In the 37th Olympiad (632 B.C.) the format was extended to five days of competition.

The growth of the Games fostered "professionalism" among the competitors, and the Olympic ideals waned as royalty began to compete for personal gain, particularly in the chariot events. Human beings were being glorified as well as the gods many winners erected statues to deify themselves. In A.D. 394 the Games were officially ended by the Roman emperor Theodosius I, who felt that they had pagan connotations.

The Modern Olympics

The revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, unlike the original Games, has a clear, concise history. Pierre de Coubertin (1863&ndash1937), a young French nobleman, felt that he could institute an educational program in France that approximated the ancient Greek notion of a balanced development of mind and body. The Greeks themselves had tried to revive the Olympics by holding local athletic games in Athens during the 1800s, but without lasting success. It was Baron de Coubertin's determination and organizational genius, however, that gave impetus to the modern Olympic movement. In 1892 he addressed a meeting of the Union des Sports Athlétiques in Paris. Despite meager response he persisted, and an international sports congress eventually convened on June 16, 1894. With delegates from Belgium, England, France, Greece, Italy, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and the United States in attendance, he advocated the revival of the Olympic Games. He found ready and unanimous support from the nine countries. De Coubertin had initially planned to hold the Olympic Games in France, but the representatives convinced him that Greece was the appropriate country to host the first modern Olympics. The council did agree that the Olympics would move every four years to other great cities of the world.

Thirteen countries competed at the Athens Games in 1896. Nine sports were on the agenda: cycling, fencing, gymnastics, lawn tennis, shooting, swimming, track and field, weight lifting, and wrestling. The 14-man U.S. team dominated the track and field events, taking first place in 9 of the 12 events. The Games were a success, and a second Olympiad, to be held in France, was scheduled. Olympic Games were held in 1900 and 1904, and by 1908 the number of competitors more than quadrupled the number at Athens &mdash from 311 to 2,082.

Beginning in 1924, a Winter Olympics was included &mdash to be held at a separate cold-weather sports site in the same year as the Summer Games &mdash the first held at Chamonix, France. In 1980 about 1,600 athletes from 38 nations competed at Lake Placid, N.Y., in a program that included Alpine and Nordic skiing, biathlon, ice hockey, figure skating and speed skating, bobsled, and luge.

But the Summer Games, with its wide array of events, are still the focal point of the modern Olympics. Among the standard events are basketball, boxing, canoeing and kayaking, cycling, equestrian arts, fencing, field hockey, gymnastics, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball, water polo, weight lifting, wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), and yachting. New sports are added to the roster at every Olympic Games among the more prominent are baseball, martial arts, and most recently triathlon, which was first contested at the 2000 Games. The Games are governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), whose headquarters is in Lausanne, Switzerland.

The Summer and Winter Games were traditionally held in the same year, but because of the increasing size of both Olympics, the Winter Games were shifted to a different schedule after 1992. They were held in Lillehammer, Norway in 1994, in Nagano, Japan in 1998, in Salt Lake City, Utah in 2002, in Turin, Italy in 2006, and in 2010, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Politics and the Olympics

The ideology of nationalism, which swept the world during the early 20th century, left its mark on the Olympics. Athletic nationalism was brought to a peak by Nazi Germany, which staged the 1936 Games in Berlin and used the Olympics to propagandize its cause. The Germans built a powerful team through nationalized training and scientific advances and dominated the Games in terms of medals won.

The political overtones of the Olympics did not lessen with the fall of Nazi Germany. In 1956, Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon boycotted the Melbourne Games to protest the Anglo-French seizure of the Suez Canal, and the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland boycotted as well to protest the USSR's invasion of Hungary. In Mexico City in 1968, two African American runners used the victory pedestal to protest U.S. racial policies. In the Munich Olympics in 1972, 11 Israeli athletes were massacred by Palestinian terrorists. And in 1976 in Montreal, 33 African nations, to be represented by about 400 athletes, boycotted the Games to protest South Africa's apartheid policies.

The most serious disruptions to the modern Olympics, however, occurred in 1980 and 1984. In 1980, under strong pressure from the Carter administration, the U.S. Olympic Committee voted to boycott the Summer Games in Moscow to protest the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 40 nations followed suit, including West Germany, China, and Japan, depriving the Soviets of their chief athletic competition and raising doubts about the future of the Olympic movement. Although the 1984 Winter Games, in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, proceeded without boycotts, the Summer Games, in Los Angeles, were undercut by an Eastern-bloc boycott led by the USSR. Fear of an openly hostile environment in Los Angeles was cited by the Soviet Olympic Committee as the reason for nonparticipation, but most commentators believed the reasons to be political: the poor state of recent U.S.-Soviet relations, revenge for the U.S. boycott in 1980, and possible embarrassment to the Soviets on worldwide television caused by planned anti-Soviet demonstrations and defections of Eastern-bloc athletes. The popularity and financial success of the 1984 Los Angeles Games were, however, greater than anticipated.

In 1988 the Winter Games &mdash in Calgary, Alberta, Canada &mdash went on without incident. At the Summer Games, in Seoul, South Korea, only six nations (including Cuba and North Korea) boycotted, and the focus returned to the athletes.The 1992 Winter and Summer Games (in Albertville, France, and Barcelona, Spain, respectively) were the first Olympics without the Eastern-bloc sports machine, were the last for the "Unified Teams" from the former USSR, and marked the return of South Africa to Olympic competition. The 1996 Summer Games, in Atlanta, Ga., were the largest ever they were marred by a bombing that took the lives of two people. The 1994 and 1998 Winter Games transpired without incident. The 2000 Summer Games were held in Sydney, Australia, to great acclaim. In Sydney, politics took a back seat to the competition, although North and South Korea were temporarily reunited as their athletes marched as one country in the opening ceremonies. Athens, Greece &mdash site of the first modern Olympics &mdash was the site of the Summer Games in 2004. Though it has potential for political controversies due to its rapid modernization and its communist state-Beijing, China was selected for the 2008 Summer Games.

Money and the Olympics

The biggest influence on the modern Olympic Games is money. Commercialism exists side by side with the outstanding athleticism and the spirit of friendship imbuing competitors from around the world. Since the 1984 Games in Los Angeles, it has become clear that a city hosting the Games can anticipate a financial windfall, as spectators and sponsors converge for the event. Because of the tremendous potential for profit, the process of selecting host cities has become politicized, and there is a large potential for corruption. In fact, a scandal erupted in late 1998, when it was found that promoters involved with Salt Lake City's (winning) bid for the 2002 Winter Games had bribed IOC members, who were forced to resign the Nagano and Sydney bids were also under suspicion of bribery.

Athletes, too, especially in the "glamour sports" such as gymnastics, ice skating, or track and field, can reap tremendous financial gains for winning performances, through product endorsements and personal appearances. Originally, Olympic athletes were expected to remain strictly amateurs and not earn money even for endorsing products. However, by the last decades of the 20th century, professionalism among competitors received official acceptance, as the IOC finally recognized that many world-class athletes were already functioning as professionals. At the elite level of competition in many Olympic sports, the athlete must devote him- or herself entirely to the sport, all but precluding the holding of a full-time job.

The end of amateurism began in 1960s in the Communist countries, where top athletes were supported by the state, but were officially considered amateurs. To counter this, in the 1970s and 1980s athletes in non-Communist countries sought out corporate sponsors, in effect becoming "employees" of the sponsor. By the late 1980s, restrictions were eased on athletes earning prize money at their sports, and professional athletes were permitted to represent their countries at the Olympics. This now includes the star athletes who play in the American professional leagues, such as the U.S. basketball "Dream Team" of National Basketball Association superstars who dominated the 1992 Olympic competition. In addition, with IOC rules concerning amateurism vacated, many medal-winning contestants have cashed in on their Olympic fame with product endorsements or performance tours.

Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Winning medals at the Olympic Games has always been considered the most prestigious mark of an athlete, and a source of glory for the athlete's country. This has led to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes, intentionally or otherwise, despite the health risks to the athlete and IOC rules prohibiting the use of these substances. The types of drugs banned include stimulants (which can be found in common cold and cough medications caffeine is also banned), narcotics, anabolic steroids, diuretics, certain hormones (such as human growth hormone), and in some sports, beta blockers. The testing of athletes for drug use began for the Olympics in 1968, at the Mexico City Games, but did not become widespread until the 1972 Games. Over the years, as drugs such as human growth hormone have been developed, tests have been added for newer drugs.

With such great rewards at stake, there are athletes and even national sports programs willing to use performance-enhancing drugs despite the risks to future health and the disgrace of getting caught. The best-known example of drug use is the East German sports federation, which had a systematic program for giving its athletes steroids from 1974 to 1989. During that time East German women suddenly dominated events such as swimming, winning medals in 11 of 13 events both in 1976 and 1980. Other swimmers suspected that the East German women were using steroids, because the drugs affected their physical appearance, but the team was never caught. After the reunification of Germany, the East German sports federation's records were opened and the program was exposed. In 2000 the former head of the federation and the doctor who developed and administered the drug plan were convicted of systematic and overall doping. The former athletes maintain that they never knew they were taking steroids, claiming that they were told that the various medications were vitamins. As drug testing procedures have improved, more athletes have been caught. In Seoul there was suspicion of widespread use of performance-enhancing drugs after Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson tested positive he was stripped of his gold medal. In the mid-1990s, China's female swimmers and runners quickly rose to the top of elite competition, arousing suspicions of drug use by the late 1990s many were caught through more diligent drug testing.

The IOC publicly decries the use of performance-enhancing drugs. However, it is commonly believed that even with out-of-competition testing, the drugs and masking agents available to athletes is far ahead of the tests used to detect these substances. A study released in September 2000 that was financed by the U.S. government accused the IOC of permitting drug use to persist in order to maintain the mystique of the Olympics and record-breaking performances. The IOC formed the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in late 1999 to test athletes at the upcoming Olympics and to increase drug testing standards, but how effective WADA will be in the long run is not yet known.

Bibliography: Finding, John E., and Pelle, Kimberly D., Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement (1996) Greenberg, Stan, Guinness Book of Olympic Records (1992) Guttmann, Allen, The Olympics (1992) Henry, Bill, et al., An Approved History of the Olympic Games (1984) Hill, Christopher, Olympic Politics: Athens to Atlanta, 1896&ndash1996, 2 -chi nashr. (1997) Swaddling, Judith, The Ancient Olympic Games, 2 -chi nashr. (2000) Wallechinsky, David, The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics: Sydney 2000 Edition (2000) Young, David C., The Modern Olympics: A Struggle for Revival (1996).


8. Simone Biles Debuts𠅊nd Dazzles

Simone Biles performs her routine during the artistic gymnastics women&aposs individual all-around final event at the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 11, 2016.


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