Sharh: 12 -jild - Gollandiya tarixi

Sharh: 12 -jild - Gollandiya tarixi


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1572 yilda Gollandiya provinsiyasidagi Uilyam Oranj boshchiligidagi shaharlar Gollandiyaning Xabsburg hukumatiga qarshi isyon ko'tarishdi. Gollandiyalik qo'zg'olonning hikoyasi, odatda, Oranjning izchil dasturni tuzish harakatlarini puchga chiqargan bo'linib ketgan viloyatlar bilan bog'liq. Bu kitobda Jeyms D. Treysi urushning izchil strategiyasi borligini, lekin uni Gollandiya shaharlari belgilaganini ta'kidlaydi. Garchi Gollandiya shtatlari nazariy jihatdan General shtatlarga bo'ysunsa -da, Gollandiya soliqlarning 60 foizdan ko'prog'ini va urush kreditlarining yanada katta qismini ta'minlagan. Shunga ko'ra, mablag 'Gollandiya chegaralarini qo'riqlashga va keyinchalik bu qo'riqlanadigan chegarani qo'shni viloyatlarga tarqatishga yo'naltirildi. Urushdan himoyalangan sanitariya shifoxonasi tomonidan himoyalangan Gollandiya favqulodda iqtisodiy yuksalishni boshidan kechirdi, bu esa soliqlar va qarzlarning oqishini davom ettirishga imkon berdi. Maqsad, agar 1588 yilgacha erishilmasa, Gollandiyaning janubidagi Ispaniya hukmronligi ostida qoladigan, shimoldagi birlashgan provinsiyalar edi. hali ham fuqarolar o'zlarini boshqarishi kerak deb hisoblaganlar uchun va'da chirog'i.


Faqat Charlotte Mason tarixi seriyasi

Simply Charlotte Mason tarixi seriyasi birinchi sinfdan o'n ikkinchi sinfgacha bo'lgan bolalar uchun Injil, tarix va geografiyani o'z ichiga oladi. Har bir jild o'sha darajadagi barcha bosqichlarga, yoshga mos mashg'ulotlarga to'g'ri keladi. Olti yillik kurslarni taqdim etadigan kitoblarning sarlavhalari:

  • Ibtido - Qonunlar& amp; Qadimgi Misr (Miloddan avvalgi 332 yil)
  • Yoshua - Malachi va boshqalarQadimgi Yunoniston (Miloddan avvalgi 1856-miloddan avvalgi 146 yil)
  • Matto - Havoriylar va Qadimgi Rim (Miloddan avvalgi 753-milodiy 476)
  • O'rta asrlar, Uyg'onish davri, islohotlar va xatlar (394-1550)
  • Erta zamonaviy va ampulalar (1550-1850)
  • Zamonaviy zamon va maktublar, Vahiy (1850-2012)

Kitoblar, birinchi navbatda, siz olishingiz kerak bo'lgan boshqa manbalar to'plamidan foydalanish uchun o'qituvchilar uchun qo'llanmalardir. Har bir yo'riqchida dars rejalari, shuningdek, butun oila va har bir yosh guruhi uchun maxsus topshiriqlar berilgan kundalik rejalar mavjud. Oltita qo'llanma bosma kitoblar yoki PDF formatida yuklab olish mumkin.

Har bir fan sohasiga bag'ishlangan vaqt har xil o'qishga, yoshga qarab farq qiladi. Sarlavhalardan ko'rinib turibdiki, Injil mazmuni katta rol o'ynaydi, ayniqsa birinchi uchta tadqiqotda. Birinchi kurs Bibliya tarixiga nisbatan yanada og'irroqdir, chunki u Eski Ahdning dastlabki beshta kitobidagi voqealarni o'rganadi, ular bir oz tarixni o'z ichiga oladi. Muqaddas Kitobdan tashqari, undan foydalaniladi Chiqish: Bolalar uchun sharh va Raqamlar: Bolalar uchun sharh butun oila uchun. Katta yoshdagi o'quvchilar ham o'qiydilar Odam va uning qarindoshi, Levilar: Bolalar uchun sharh, o'sha paytdagi va hozir Injil xaritalari, Jashub jurnaliva Doktrinani kashf qilish. Oxirgi ikkita element - bu oddiygina Charlotte Mason nashrlari, ular Bibliyadagi tadqiqotlarimizni qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. (Eslab qoling Odam va uning qarindoshi Bibliya hikoyalarining juda spekulyativ talqinini taqdim etadi.) Qadimgi Misr tarixning ko'p qismini o'z ichiga oladi, lekin talabalar oilaviy "Qadimgi Misr va uning qo'shnilari" kitobi bilan boshqa qadimgi tsivilizatsiyalar haqida ham bilib olishadi. Boshqa oilalar tarix va geografiya bo'yicha ovoz chiqarib o'qiladi Buyuk Piramida, Fir'avn qayig'i, ular qoldirgan narsalar, Afrikaga tashriflar daftar, Moddiy dunyova Och sayyora. Oxirgi uchta element rasmga asoslangan madaniy tadqiqotlar va xaritalar tuzish uchun birgalikda ishlaydi. To'rt darajali qo'shimcha o'qish uchun aniq tavsiyalar berilgan: 1-3-sinflar, 4-6-sinflar, 7-9-sinflar va 10-12-sinflar. Masalan, eng yosh guruh o'qiydi Nuh kemasining haqiqiy hikoyasi Tom Dulining yozishicha, ikkita eng keksa guruhdagi talabalar a uchun vaqt jadvalini yaratadilar Asrlar kitobi, orqali ishlash Doktrinani kashf qilish, va o'qish Odam va uning qarindoshi.

Ikkinchi kurs Eski Ahdning qolgan qismini o'rganish bilan davom etadi va Qadimgi Yunoniston tarixiga kiradi. Uchinchi kurs Bibliya diqqatini to'rtta Xushxabarga qisqartiradi va tarixiy tadqiqotlar Qadimgi Rimga o'tadi. Kerakli manbalar - bu birinchi kurs uchun ishlatilgan kitoblarga o'xshash aralashma. Dastlabki uchta kursda har biri Sonya Shaferning tashrifi kitobidan foydalaniladi ... xaritada ishlash, fotosuratlar, sayohatchilarning hisoblari, tavsiya etilgan kitoblar va tadbirlarni o'z ichiga olgan geografiya kurslari.

Oxirgi uchta kursda, Bibliya diqqat tarixni yoritishda ikkinchi o'rinni egallaydi, chunki har bir kurs tarixning katta qismini qamrab oladi, lekin ular Yangi Ahdni qamrab oladi. Josh amakining rejali xaritalari Ushbu uchta kurs uchun xaritada ishlash uchun ishlatiladi, lekin geografiya tarixni o'rganishga geografiyani o'z ichiga olgan boshqa manbalar orqali ham e'tiborni tortadi.

To'rtinchi kurs, O'rta asrlar, Uyg'onish davri, islohotlar va xatlar, islohotlarga katta e'tibor berilgan kuchli protestant nuqtai nazariga ega. U islohotlarni qo'llab -quvvatlovchi manbalardan foydalanadi, masalan Reformatsiya vaqt chizig'i, Gadoyning Injili (Jon Uiklif haqidagi hikoya), Bibliya kontrabandachisi (Uilyam Tyndale haqidagi hikoya) va Uyg'onish va islohotning mashhur odamlari. Kabi boshqa manbalardan ham foydalanadi O'rta asrlarning taniqli odamlari, qal'a, sobor, barmoqlaridagi siyoh, va Yuz yil ichida butun dunyo bo'ylab. Shaxsiy sinflar uchun tavsiya etilgan manbalarning aksariyati dunyoviydir. Bu yil o'rganilgan maktublar - Yoqub, Galatiyaliklar, 1 va 2 Salonikaliklar va 1 va 2 Korinfliklar.

Erta zamonaviy va ampulalar bilan bir oz mos keladi O'rta yosh chunki u Kolumb bilan boshlanadi. U 1800 -yillarning boshigacha Amerika mustamlakasi davridan jahon va Amerika tarixini qamrab oladi. Tarixni qamrab oladigan faqat bitta o'quv yili bo'lsa, buni amalga oshirishning yagona yo'li - tanlab hikoya qilish, asosiy odamlar va voqealarni ajratib ko'rsatish.

Zamonaviy zamon va maktublar, Vahiy AQSh va jahon tarixini yoritishga harakat qiladi. U AQSh tarixini 1800-yillarning o'rtalarida ishlatadi Amerika hikoyalari: 2 -jild, Avraam Linkoln, Oregon shtati va Kaliforniya Gold Rush haqidagi hikoyalar bilan. Xuddi shunday, foydalanish Xalqlar hikoyalari: 2 -jild, Jahon tarixi ham 1800 -yillarda Bismark, Bur urushi va Mari Kurining hikoyalari bilan boshlanadi va Sputnik va Berlin devorining qulashi haqidagi hikoyalar orqali davom etadi. Injil tadqiqotlari 1 va 2 Butrusni, Yahudoni, Yuhannoning uchta maktubini va Vahiyni o'z ichiga oladi. Tarix qamrovi, yana, juda tanlangan. Bundan tashqari, Jorj Myuller va Billi Gremning tarjimai hollari kabi nasroniylik tarixi manbalaridan foydalanish uchun zarur bo'lgan katta vaqt ham tarixning kengroq mavzulariga ajratilgan vaqtni kamaytiradi. Tarixiy ma'lumotlarning qamrovini kengaytirish nuqtai nazaridan, har bir daraja uchun qo'shimcha kitoblarni tanlashingiz ushbu kursda ayniqsa muhimdir. Shu bilan birga, siz o'quvchilarni o'qish hajmidan osonlikcha mahrum qilishingiz mumkin. Masalan, o'n va undan yuqori sinf o'quvchilari uchun Uilyam Bennetning ikkita uzun kitobi (Amerika: Oxirgi eng yaxshi umid: 2 -jild va 3 -jild) jahon tarixi bo'yicha muhim o'qish bilan birga o'qish qiyin bo'ladi. Tavsiya etilgan kitobni qo'shing Keyin qanday yashashimiz kerak? Frensis Schaeffer tomonidan yozilgan va men har qanday talaba o'qishni boshqarishi mumkinligiga shubha qilaman. (E'tibor bering, Schaefferning kitobiga muqobil, 7 Dunyoni qabrdan boshqaradigan erkaklar, O'rta maktab o'quvchilari uchun ancha qulayroq, lekin bu yo'riqnomadagi ma'lumotlardan aniq emas.) Gap shundaki, siz to'g'ri kitoblarni tanlab, nisbatan to'liq qamrovni ta'minlay olasiz, agar sizda vaqt o'tishi kerak. ular.

Metodologiya

Siz kutganingizdek, Charlotte Meysonning usullarihikoya, tirik kitoblar va vaqt jadvalidagi ishlarbarcha tadqiqotlar davomida qo'llaniladi. Ba'zi kitoblar uchun qisqacha tavsiflar berilgan, lekin hammasi emas. O'ylaymanki, o'qish darajasi va sahifalar sonini o'z ichiga olgan yanada kengroq tavsiflar, oxirgi paragrafda tasvirlangan vaziyat kabi ortiqcha yuklamaslik uchun juda foydali bo'ladi.

Har bir kurs uch davrda taqdim etilgan va bir o'quv yilida osonlik bilan tugallanishi kerak. Har bir davr imtihon savollari bilan bir nechta darslar va bir yoki ikkita ixtiyoriy, amaliy loyihalar bilan yakunlanadi. Imtihon savollari har bir darajadagi savollar bilan og'zaki bayonot javoblarini olish uchun mo'ljallangan. Katta yoshdagi talabalar yozma javob berishlari mumkin. Agar har bir davr uchun taklif qilingan loyihalar jozibali bo'lmasa, nashriyot veb -saytidagi kursingiz uchun "Mahsulotlar bo'yicha havolalar, maslahatlar va qo'shimcha ma'lumotlar" sahifasiga qarang, u erda siz ko'rsatmalar bilan ko'proq g'oyalarni topasiz.

Har bir davr va xaritalar bo'yicha amaliy loyiha bo'lsa ham, kurslar asosan o'qishga asoslangan. Shu bilan birga, darsning moslashuvchanligi sizga har bir bolaga qancha sinf kitoblarini berish kerakligini hal qilish imkonini beradi (yoki ular bilan o'qish). Katta yoshdagi talabalar necha soat sarflaganiga qarab, siz olgan kurs kreditlari sonini aniqlashingiz mumkin.

Simply Charlotte Mason tarixi seriyasi Meyson usullarini har tomonlama tatbiq etishni taklif qiladi. Agar siz tarixning barcha muhim voqealarini keng qamrovli yoritishni xohlasangiz, boshqa narsani afzal ko'rishingiz mumkin. Ammo tarixni tirik kitoblar bilan o'rgatmoqchi bo'lganlar ushbu turkumdan bahramand bo'lishlari kerak.

Narxlar haqida ma'lumot

Narxlar paydo bo'lganda, ular o'zgarishi mumkinligini yodda tuting. Narxlarning to'g'riligini tekshirish uchun havolalarni bosing.


Qul qo'zg'olonlarining aksariyati tarixda yo'qoladi. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, bu hujjatlashtirilgan.

Jon Braun 1859 yilda Harpers Feribotiga qilingan hujumda Frederik Duglass unga qo'shilishdan bosh tortganida, hayron qoldi va hafsalasi pir bo'ldi. Duglass, xuddi Braun kabi, ozodlikka sodiq emasmidi?

Duglass haqiqatan ham sodiq edi, lekin sobiq qul bo'lgan odam sifatida Braun bilmagan narsalarni bilardi. U Virjiniya qullari Braunning bayrog'iga shoshilmasligini bilardi. Ular erkinlik istiqbollarini Braun rejalashtirgan kampaniya xavfi bilan baholaydilar va ko'pchilik uchun, ehtimol, xavflar taqiqlovchi bo'lardi.

Bu turdagi tortish Marjolayn Karsning 1763 yilda Gollandiyaning Berbits koloniyasida Guyanaga aylangan qul odamlar qo'zg'oloni haqidagi ajoyib hikoyasini ochib beradi. Tarixiy adabiyotda qullar qo'zg'olonlari kam uchraydi, chunki ularning aksariyati tarixchilar bilan ishlash uchun juda kam dalil qoldirgan. Qo'zg'olonlarni bostiruvchilar - qullar va ularning ittifoqchilari - qo'zg'olon haqidagi xabarni boshqalarga qo'zg'atmaslik uchun, ular chiqib ketmaslikka harakat qilishdi.

Berbis qo'zg'oloni muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, deb aytish bejiz emas, aks holda Janubiy Amerika bugun boshqacha ko'rinishi mumkin. Haqiqatan ham, bu kamdan -kam hollarda, hujjatlar katta hajmda bo'ladi. Baltimor okrugining Merilend universitetida dars beradigan Kars, Gollandiya milliy arxivida qul bo'lgan odamlarning qo'zg'olondan keyingi guvohliklari va qo'zg'olon rahbarlari bilan Gollandiya rasmiylari o'rtasidagi yozishmalardan iborat yozuvlar keshini topdi. Kars bu dalillarni nafaqat odamlarning dahshatli hikoyasi haqida batafsil ma'lumot berish uchun, balki qullikdagi ba'zi odamlar nima uchun ozodlik uchun qurol olishgani, boshqalari esa yo'qligi haqidagi umumiy savolni ochib berish uchun ishlatgan.

Berbice 1760 -yillarda bir necha yuz yevropaliklar va, ehtimol, qul bo'lgan 5 ming odam, asosan afrikaliklar va ularning avlodlari bo'lgan Gollandiya imperiyasining kichik, marjinal daromadli posti edi, lekin mahalliy aholining ayrim vakillari. Oziq -ovqat ekinlarining etishmasligi, kasallik epidemiyasi bilan birgalikda 1762 yilda qo'zg'olonni keltirib chiqardi.


Tarkibi

Erta Evropa tarixi tahrir

XVII asrda guruch ingliz idishlari va uy anjomlari uchun eng afzal qilingan metall edi va Gollandiyaliklar uni eng arzon narxda ishlab chiqarishdi, lekin shunga qaramay ular qimmat edi. [1] 1702 yilda Ibrohim Darbi Bristolning Brass Works kompaniyasining sherigi bo'lgan, u pivo zavodlari uchun solod tegirmonlarini ishlab chiqargan. [2] Ko'rinib turibdiki, 1704 yilda Darbi Gollandiyaga tashrif buyurdi, u erda guruch ishining golland usullarini, shu jumladan, guruch qozonlarini quyishni o'rgandi. [3] Darbi, quyma yasashda gollandlar an'anaviy qum va loydan emas, balki qumdan yasalgan qoliplardan foydalanganini bilib oldi va bu yangilik ularning guruch idishlaridagi eng yaxshi qoplamani yaratdi. [4] 1706 yilda u Bristolning Baptist Mills qismida yangi guruch tegirmonini ishga tushirdi. [5] U erda Darbi, agar guruchni arzonroq metallga, ya'ni quyma temirga almashtirsa, oshxona buyumlarini ko'proq sotishi mumkinligini tushundi. [6] Qum qoliplarida temir quyish bo'yicha dastlabki tajribalar muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, lekin u ishchilaridan biri, uelslik Jeyms Tomas yordamida temirdan yasalgan idishlar quyishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. [7] 1707 yilda u Gollandiya jarayonidan olingan temirni qumga quyish jarayoniga patent oldi. [8] Shunday qilib, "Gollandiyalik o'choq" atamasi kamida 1710 yildan buyon 300 yildan ortiq davom etadi. [9] [10] Merriam-Vebster lug'ati va Oziq-ovqat tarixini tadqiq qilish [11] bir nechta turli xil pishirish moslamalari "Gollandiyalik pechlar" deb nomlanganiga rozi bo'ldilar-oyoqlari va qopqog'i quyma temir pan, bir tomondan ochilgan va go'sht qovurish uchun ishlatilgan to'rtburchaklar quti. pishirish uchun ishlatilgan g'isht o'chog'idagi bo'linma.

Amerika tarixi tahrir

Gollandiyalik Amerika pechlari vaqt o'tishi bilan mustamlaka davrida o'zgardi. Bu o'zgarishlarga sayozroq idish, pechni ko'mir ustida ushlab turish uchun oyoqlar va ko'mirni qopqog'ida va ovqatdan tashqarida ushlab turish uchun qopqog'i gardishi kiradi. [12] Pol Revere ko'mirni ushlab turish uchun tizmasi bo'lgan tekis qopqoqning dizayni va qozonlarga oyoq qo'shilishi bilan bog'liq. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Kolonistlar va ko'chmanchilar quyma temir idishlarni ko'p qirrali va chidamliligi tufayli qadrlashgan. Oshpazlar ularni qaynatish, pishirish, pishirish, qovurish va qovurish uchun ishlatgan. Nonvoyxonalar shunchalik qimmat ediki, 18-19 -asrlarda vasiyatnomalarda tez -tez kerakli merosxo'r yozilgan. Masalan, Mary Ball Vashington (Prezident Jorj Vashingtonning onasi) 1788 yil 20-maydagi vasiyatnomasida uning "temir oshxona mebellari" ning yarmi nabirasi Fielding Lyuisga, qolgan yarmi esa Betti Karterga o'tishi kerakligini ko'rsatgan. , nabirasi. Bu meros Gollandiyalik bir nechta pechlarni o'z ichiga olgan. [13]

G'arbga qaragan ko'chmanchilar Gollandiyalik pechlarni o'zlari bilan olib ketishdi. Gollandiyalik o'choq Lyuis va Klark 1804 va 1806 yillar oralig'ida Amerikaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismini kashf qilganlarida, G'arbiy Amerikani joylashtirgan mormon kashshoflari Gollandiyalik pechlarini ham olib ketishgan. Aslida, 1850 -yillarda Yuta shtatining Solt -Leyk vodiysiga kirgan Mormon qo'l ishi kompaniyalarini sharaflash uchun ko'tarilgan haykal qo'l aravasining old tomonida osilib turgan golland pechini faxr bilan namoyish etadi. Gollandiyalik pech, shuningdek, Texas, [14] Yuta va Arkanzas shtatlarining rasmiy shtatidir. [15] [16]

Amerika chegarasini o'rganayotgan tog 'odamlari XIX asr oxirlarida Gollandiyalik pechlardan foydalanganlar. G'arbiy chorva haydovchilariga hamroh bo'lgan chakvagonlar 19-asr o'rtalaridan 20-asr boshlariga qadar Gollandiyalik pechlarni olib yurishgan. [17]

Gollandiya tarixi tahrir

Gollandiyada Gollandiyalik o'choq a deb nomlanadi bradpan, bu tom ma'noda qovurilgan idish degan ma'noni anglatadi. Buning yana bir nomi sudderpan, bu so'zma -so'z "qaynab ketish" yoki "qaynab turgan qozon" deb tarjima qilinadi. Bugungi kunda eng ko'p ishlatiladigan dizayn - bu qora emalli po'latdan yasalgan idish bo'lib, u gaz va indüksiyon isitish uchun mos keladi. Model 1891 yilda Gollandiyaning taniqli kostryulkalar ishlab chiqaruvchisi BK tomonidan taqdim etilgan. Og'irligi quyma temirdan ko'ra arzonroq va engilroq, bu oshxonada inqilob bo'lganini isbotladi. [18] Bradpan asosan faqat go'shtni qovurish uchun ishlatiladi, lekin uni an'anaviy pishiriqlarni tayyorlashda ham ishlatish mumkin, masalan, hachée. Quyma temirdan yasalgan modellar mavjud, lekin kam ishlatiladi.

Lagerni tahrirlash

Lager, kovboy yoki chuckwagon Gollandiyalik pechda odatda uchta ajralmas oyoqlari, simi panjasi va ozgina konkav, qopqog'i bor, shuning uchun pishirish olovidan ko'mirlarni tepaga va pastga qo'yish mumkin. Bu bir xil ichki issiqlikni ta'minlaydi va ichini o'choq vazifasini bajaradi. Oyoqlari bo'lmaganda Gollandiyalik pechni pechka ustidagi an'anaviy qozon sifatida ishlatish mumkin, yoki uni alohida payvandlangan po'lat yoki quyma temir shtativ stendiga yoki issiq ko'mirda pishirganda kichik toshlarga o'rnatish mumkin. Bu pechlar odatda yalang'och quyma temirdan yasalgan bo'lsa -da, ba'zilari alyuminiydir. Garov dastasi metall ilgak yordamida Gollandiyalik pechni ko'mirga ko'tarish va tushirishni osonlashtiradi. Gollandiyalik pechlar ko'pincha skautda ochiq havoda ishlatiladi.

Bedourie pechini tahrirlash

Avstraliyada, a bedoriya lagerli pech - bu po'latdan yasalgan idish, Gollandiyalik pechga o'xshaydi va ishlatiladi. Bedourie, Kvinslend shtatining sharafiga nomlangan, Bedourie pechlari Gollandiyalik quyma temir pechlariga yanada mustahkam, sindirilmaydigan muqobil sifatida ishlab chiqilgan. [19] [20]

Ibhodwe tahrirlash

Janubiy Afrikada, a potji ( / ˈ p ɔɪ k i / POY -ko'rish), [ Afrikaans IPA kerak ] to'g'ridan-to'g'ri tarjima qilingan "qozon yoki kichik idish" [21] afrikaans yoki golland tilidan, boshqa Gollandiyalik pechlardan farqli o'laroq, dumaloq dipli. An'anaga ko'ra, bu quyma temirdan yasalgan qozon, tashqi ikki yoki uchburchak qovurg'alar bilan mustahkamlangan, qozonni to'xtatib qo'yish uchun garov dastasi va qozonni dam olish uchun uchta qisqa oyoq. Tashqi ko'rinishida u qozonga o'xshaydi. Qopqog'i mos keladigan, ochilgan va tepada issiq ko'mirni yotqizish uchun konveks, yuqoridan qo'shimcha issiqlik beradi. Agar idish uzoq vaqt saqlansa, ziravorlar bilan zang paydo bo'lishining oldini olish kerak. "Potjie" pishirish texnikasiga ham murojaat qilishi mumkin potjiekos. Potjie kerak bo'lgan retseptlar orasida "potbrood" deb nomlangan nonning bir turi bor, bu so'zma -so'z "qozon noni" degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Janubiy Afrikaning tub aholisi, xususan Zulus orasida, bu qozonlar mashhur taomdan so'ng, ular futu qozonlari sifatida ham tanilgan. Katta idishlar odatda katta yig'ilishlar uchun ishlatiladi. masalan, dafn marosimlari yoki to'ylar, katta miqdorda ovqat tayyorlash uchun. Yog'och qoshiqlar chaqiriladi kombe Tsonga tilida aralashtirish va aralashtirish uchun ishlatiladi.

Bu an'ana Gollandiyada Leydenni qamal qilish paytida paydo bo'lgan va Gollandiyalik muhojirlar tomonidan Janubiy Afrikaga olib kelingan. [22] Bu yillar davomida Voortrekkers bilan davom etdi va an'anaviy Afrikaner pishirish usuli sifatida saqlanib qoldi. [21] U hanuzgacha mahalliy va xalqaro miqyosda Janubiy Afrikalik lagerlar tomonidan qo'llaniladi.

Chugunok tahrirlash

Sharqiy Evropada, lekin asosan Rossiyada, a chugunok -bu zamonaviy pechda yoki an'anaviy ruscha o'choqda, o'choqda yoki gulxanda ishlatiladigan quyma temir qozon. Chugunok turli xil pishirish usullarida ishlatiladi, jumladan yuqori haroratda pishirish, past haroratda pishirish, termal pishirish, sekin pishirish, bug'lash, qovurish, pishirish, qovurish va pishirish.

Chugunokning shakli an'anaviy tepaga o'xshaydi, uning yuqori va pastki qismi tor, o'rtasi kengroq. An'anaviy o'choq ichida ishlatilganda, uzun tutqichli ushlab turish vositasi og'ir chugunokni o'choqqa olib chiqish uchun dastak vazifasini bajaradigan rulo bilan ishlatiladi. Hech qanday tutqich yo'qligi sababli, oshxonadagi pechkada chugunokdan foydalanish noqulay.

Ko'pincha butun taomni tayyorlash uchun pechda bir vaqtning o'zida har xil o'lchamdagi bir nechta chugunoklar ishlatiladi. Odatda chugunokda pishiriladigan idishlar - "Zharkoye" deb nomlangan sabzavotli qovurilgan go'sht, holubtsi, kartoshka babka, to'ldirilgan qalampir va pishirilgan sut.


Kofe do'konlari?

Qahva do'koni - bu qahva topishingiz mumkin bo'lgan joy, lekin bu erga Gollandiyaliklar iste'mol qilish uchun kelmagan.

Agar siz notanish bo'lsangiz, Gollandiyadagi giyohvand moddalar to'g'risidagi qonunlar biroz sust. Marixuana qonunlari quyidagicha: sotish noqonuniy, lekin qonun bilan jazolanmaydi. Juda zo'r, to'g'rimi?

Kofe do'koni - bu "yuqori darajaga ko'tarilish" kodi.

Biroq, biroz qo'lga olish bor. Qonun tomonidan jazosiz qolmaslik uchun siz quyidagi qoidalarga amal qilishingiz kerak:

  1. Reklama yo'q
  2. Giyohvand moddalarni qattiq sotish yo'q
  3. 18 yoshdan kichiklarga sotilmaydi
  4. 5 grammdan ortiq sotilmaydi
  5. Ommaviy tartibsizliklar yo'q

Ushbu qoidalarga rioya qiling va sizning "qahva" ichuvchilaringiz o'zlarining shovqinidan zavqlanishlari mumkin.

Shunday qilib, endi siz "qahvaxonaning" asl ma'nosini bilganingizdan so'ng, marixuana qo'shilgan qahva ichimligi bormi, deb o'ylaysiz.

Xo'sh, siz bilish uchun Amsterdamga sayohat qilishingiz kerak (agar bo'lsa, bu haqda bizga ayting).


1. Templar ritsarlari

Templar ritsarlarining birinchi muhri.

Tasviriy san'at tasvirlari/meros tasvirlari/Getty Images

Templar ritsarlari salib yurishlari paytida Muqaddas Erga nasroniy ziyoratchilarni himoya qilishga bag'ishlangan jangchilar edi. Harbiy buyurtma 1118 yilga kelib, frantsuz ritsari Hugues de Payens Masihning kambag'al askarlari va Sulaymon ibodatxonasini yoki qisqacha "Ritsarlar ibodatxonasi" ni yaratganida tashkil etilgan. Bosh qarorgohi Quddusdagi Ma'bad tog'ida joylashgan, a'zolari poklik, itoatkorlik va qashshoqlik bilan yashashga, qimor, alkogol va hatto qasam ichishdan voz kechishga va'da berishgan.

Templar ritsarlari o'zlarining harbiy jasorati va axloqiy turmush tarzidan ko'ra ko'proq mashhur edilar. Ular ziyoratchilarga o'z mamlakatlarida pul qo'yib, Muqaddas Vatanga olib ketishga ruxsat beruvchi bank tashkil etgandan so'ng, Evropadagi eng boy va qudratli kuchlardan biriga aylandi.  

1139 yilda Papa Innocent II Papa buqasini chiqarib, ularni soliq to'lashdan ozod qildi va ular javob berishlari kerak bo'lgan yagona hokimiyat Papa edi, degan qaror chiqarilganda, ularning ta'siri yangi darajaga ko'tarildi. Qudrat tepasida, Templar ritsarlari Kipr oroliga, kemalar parkiga va qirollarga pul qarziga egalik qilishgan. Ammo hamma shohlar ham baxtli mijozlar emas edi.

Templar ritsarlari bilan nima sodir bo'ldi?

Akr qulaganidan keyin salib yurishlari tugagach, Templar ritsarlari Parijga chekinishdi va u erda o'z bank ishlariga e'tibor qaratishdi. 1307 yil 13 oktyabrda Templar ritsarlari qo'shimcha qarz berishdan bosh tortgan Frantsiya qiroli Filipp IV bir guruh ritsarlar hibsga olinib, yolg'onchilikni tan olmaguncha qiynoqqa solingan. 1309 yilda Parij shahri kuzatganidek, o'nlab Templar ritsarlari sodir etilgan jinoyatlari uchun ustunda yoqib yuborilgan.

Frantsiya tojining bosimi ostida Papa Klement V 1312 yilda buyurtmani rasman tarqatib yubordi va o'z boyliklarini qayta taqsimladi. Templar ritsarlari Muqaddas Grail va Turin kafanlari kabi artefaktlarni qo'riqlayotgani haqidagi mish -mishlar fitna nazariyotchilari orasida avj olib ketdi. Mashhur kitoblar va filmlar Da Vinchi kodi bugun ham Knights Templar haqidagi qiziqishni uyg'otishda davom eting.

KO'RING: Amerikaning to'liq qismlari va "Sirlar kitobi" ning to'liq qismlarini hozir onlaynda va seshanba kuni soat 10:00 da, yangi qismlarini tinglang.

Templar ritsarlarining ramzi: Lotaringiya xochi

Rasmda Lotaringiya xochi tasvirlangan Templar ritsarlari askari.

Hulton arxivi/Getty Images

Lotaringiya xochi (Croix de Lorraine frantsuz tilida)-ikki panjarali xoch, u Lotaringiya gersogi gerbida aks ettirilgan. Birinchi salib yurishi paytida Lotaringiya zodagonlari Godfri de Buillon Quddus shohi bo'lganidan so'ng, ramz "Quddus xochi" nomi bilan mashhur bo'ldi.

Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Lotaringiya xochi frantsuzlarning fashistlar hukmronligiga qarshilik ko'rsatganining ramzi edi. Ba'zi burgut ko'zli kuzatuvchilar Exxon va Nabisco logotiplarida Lotaringiya xochini payqashganini da'vo qilishdi va hatto Oreo kukilariga muhr qo'yishdi.


Tarkibi

Men Bizning Sharq merosi (1935) Tahrir

Bu jild miloddan avvalgi 330 -yillarda Axamaniylar imperiyasi qulagunga qadar Yaqin Sharq tarixini, 1930 -yillargacha Hindiston, Xitoy va Yaponiya tarixini o'z ichiga oladi.

  1. Sivilizatsiyaning o'rnatilishi
    1. Sivilizatsiya shartlari
    2. Sivilizatsiyaning iqtisodiy elementlari
    3. Sivilizatsiyaning siyosiy elementlari
    4. Sivilizatsiyaning axloqiy elementlari
    5. Sivilizatsiyaning ruhiy elementlari
    6. Sivilizatsiyaning tarixdan oldingi boshlanishi
      "Dunyo afsonalarini ishlab chiqaruvchilar muvaffaqiyatsiz erlar edi, chunki ular barcha yomonliklarning manbai ayol ekanligiga rozi bo'lishdi." (70 -bet)
    1. Hindiston asoslari
    2. Aleksandrdan Aurangzebgacha
    3. Xalq hayoti
    4. Xudolar jannatidir
    5. Aql hayoti
    6. Hindiston adabiyoti
    7. Xristian epilogi
      Hindistonning mo'g'ullarga qulashi haqida: "Bu fojeadan olinadigan achchiq saboq shundaki, abadiy hushyorlik tsivilizatsiyaning bahosidir. Millat tinchlikni sevishi kerak, lekin uning kukunini quruq holda saqlashi kerak". (463 -bet)
    1. Faylasuflar davri
    2. Shoirlar davri
    3. Rassomlar davri
    4. Xalq va davlat
    5. Inqilob va yangilanish
      1935 yildagi Xitoy to'g'risida: "Hech qanday qurolli g'alabalar yoki begona moliya zulmi, resurslarga va hayotiylikka boy xalqni uzoq vaqt bostirolmaydi. Bosqinchi pul yoki sabr -toqatini yo'qotadi, chunki Xitoy bir asr ichida kuchini yo'qotadi" u o'z fath qiluvchilarini o'ziga singdirdi va madaniyatli qildi va zamonaviy sanoat yo'llari va kommunikatsiyalari nomini olgan narsaning barcha texnikasini o'rganadi, unga birlik, iqtisod va tejamkorlik bilan pul beradi, kuchli hukumat esa unga tartib va ​​tinchlik beradi ". (823 -bet)
    1. Yaponiya ishlab chiqaruvchilari
    2. Siyosiy va axloqiy asoslar
    3. Eski Yaponiyaning aqli va san'ati
    4. Yangi Yaponiya
      1935 yildagi Yaponiya haqida: "Har bir tarixiy pretsedent bo'yicha keyingi harakat urush bo'ladi".

    II. Gretsiya hayoti (1939) Tahrir

    Bu kitob Qadimgi Yunoniston va ellinistik Yaqin Sharqni Rim istilosigacha qamrab oladi.

    1. Egey Preludiyasi: miloddan avvalgi 3500-1000 yillar
    2. Agamemnondan oldin
    3. Qahramonlik davri
      va demokratik tajriba
  2. Afinada ish va boylik
  3. Afinaliklarning axloqi va odobi
  4. Periklean Yunoniston san'ati
  5. Ta'limning rivojlanishi
  6. Falsafa va din ziddiyatlari
  7. Oltin asr adabiyoti
  8. Gretsiyaning o'z joniga qasd qilishi
    "Bu tsivilizatsiyadagi hamma narsadan ajablanarlisi shundaki, bu ayollarning yordamisiz yoki rag'batlantirilmasdan ajoyib edi." (305 -bet)
    1. Gretsiya va Makedoniya
    2. Ellinizm, Sharq va G'arb
    3. Kitoblar
    4. Tarqoqlik san'ati
    5. Yunon ilmining cho'qqisi
    6. Falsafaning taslim bo'lishi
    7. Rimning kelishi
      "Biz Rimning Yunonistonni bosib olishining asosiy sababi yunon tsivilizatsiyasining ichkaridan parchalanishi bo'lganini ko'rsatishga harakat qildik. Hech bir buyuk xalq o'zini yo'q qilmaguncha hech qachon mag'lub bo'la olmaydi". (659 -bet)

    III. Qaysar va Masih (1944) Tahrir

    Kitob Buyuk Konstantin davrigacha Rim va nasroniylik tarixini o'z ichiga oladi.

    1. Demokratiya uchun kurash: miloddan avvalgi 508–264 yillar Rimga qarshi: miloddan avvalgi 264 yil-miloddan avvalgi 202 yil Rim: miloddan avvalgi 508–202 yillar
    2. Yunonlarning fathi: miloddan avvalgi 201-miloddan avvalgi 146 yil
      "Dunyo mahoratini meros qilib olgan yangi avlod, uni himoya qilish uchun vaqt va moyillikka ega emas edi, chunki Rim er egasiga xos bo'lgan urushga tayyorlik yo'q bo'lib ketdi, chunki mulkchilik bir necha oilalarda to'plangan va mamlakatda ulushi bo'lmagan proletariat uy -joylar xarobalarini to'ldirdi. Rim ". (90 -bet)
    1. Agrar qo'zg'olon: miloddan avvalgi 145–78
    2. Oligarxiya reaktsiyasi: Miloddan avvalgi 77–60 yillar Inqilob davrida: miloddan avvalgi 145–30: miloddan avvalgi 100–44: miloddan avvalgi 44–30
      "Bolalar endi faqat kambag'allar oladigan hashamat edi." (134 -bet)
      Davlat boshqaruvi: miloddan avvalgi 30-milodiy 14
    1. Oltin asr: miloddan avvalgi 30-milodiy 18
    2. Monarxiyaning boshqa tomoni: milodiy 14–96
    3. Kumush asr: milodiy 14–96
    4. Rim ishda: milodiy 14–96
    5. Rim va uning san'ati: miloddan avvalgi 30-milodiy 96-yil Rim: miloddan avvalgi 30-eramizning 96-yillari: miloddan avvalgi 146-eramizning 192-yillari
    6. Faylasuf shohlar: milodiy 96-180
    7. Ikkinchi asrdagi hayot va fikr: milodiy 96–192
      "Agar Rim qisqa vaqt ichida juda ko'p begona qonli odamlarni o'z ichiga olmaganida edi, agar u bu yangi kelganlarning barchasini o'z mahallalaridan emas, balki maktablaridan o'tkazganida, agar ularga yuzlab a'lo darajadagi erkaklardek muomala qilsa, vaqti -vaqti bilan assimilyatsiya infiltratsiyani ushlab turishi uchun u o'z eshiklarini yopdi, ehtimol u infuziyadan yangi irqiy va adabiy hayotiy kuchga ega bo'lardi va G'arbning ovozi va qal'asi bo'lgan Rim Rimida qolishi mumkin edi. (366 -bet)
      : Miloddan avvalgi 4-milodiy 30-yil
    1. Havoriylar: milodiy 30-95
    2. Cherkovning o'sishi: milodiy 96-305 yillar
    3. Imperiyaning qulashi: milodiy 193–305
    4. Xristianlik zafari: milodiy 306-325 yillar

    IV. Imon davri (1950) Tartibga solish

    Bu kitob Evropada ham, Yaqin Sharqda ham O'rta asrlarni, Konstantin I davridan Dante Aligeri davrigacha o'z ichiga oladi.

    1. Vizantiya Zeniti: milodiy 325-565 yillar
        : 332-63
    2. Barbarlarning g'alabasi: 325–476
    3. Xristianlikning taraqqiyoti: 364-451
    4. Evropa shaklini oladi: 325–529: 527-65 Sivilizatsiya: 337–565
    5. Forslar: 224-641
      "Tarixiy jihatdan, fath, ichkaridan chirigan narsaning tashqi ko'rinishini vayron qildi, afsuski, shafqatsizlik va puxtalik bilan, tartib, madaniyat va qonunning barcha in'omlari bilan o'zini qarilikdan mahrum qilib qo'ydi. yangilanish va o'sish qobiliyatini yo'qotdi ". (43 -bet)
      1. : 569–632
      2. Qur'on
      3. Islom qilichi: 632-1058
      4. Islom sahnasi: 632-1058
      5. Sharqiy islomda fikr va san'at: 632-1058
      6. G'arbiy Islom: 641-1086
      7. Islomning buyukligi va tanazzuli: 1058–1258
        "Musulmonlar o'z tengdoshlariga qaraganda, o'z so'zlarini tez -tez bajarib turadigan, mag'lub bo'lganlarga rahm -shafqat ko'rsatgan va kamdan -kam hollarda 1099 yilda nasroniylar Quddusni bosib olgani kabi shafqatsizlikda aybdor bo'lishgan." (341 -bet)
      1. Talmud: 135-500
      2. O'rta asr yahudiylari: 500-1300
      3. Yahudiylarning aqli va yuragi: 500-1300
      1. Vizantiya dunyosi: 566-1095
      2. G'arbning tanazzuli: 566–1066
      3. Shimolning yuksalishi: 566–1066
      4. Qarama -qarshilikdagi xristianlik: 529–1085 va Chivalry: 600–1200
        "E'tiqodlar tarixni yaratadi, ayniqsa, ular xato qilganlarida, odamlar xato qilganlari uchun eng olijanoblari". (p.458)
      1. Salib yurishlari: 1095–1291
      2. Iqtisodiy inqilob: 1066-1300
      3. Evropaning tiklanishi: 1095-1300
      4. Uyg'onish davridan oldingi Italiya: 1057-1308
      5. Rim -katolik cherkovi: 1095–1294
      6. Erta inkvizitsiya: 1000–1300 va Friars: 1095–1300
      7. Xristian olamining axloqi va odobi: 700–1300
      8. San'atning tirilishi: 1095–1300
      9. Gotik gullash: 1095–1300: 326–1300
      10. Bilimlarning uzatilishi: 1000–1300: 1079–1142
      11. Aql sarguzashtlari: 1120-1308
      12. Xristian fani: 1095-1300
      13. Romantika davri: 1100–1300: 1265–1321
        "Umuman olganda, biz O'rta asr Lotin cherkovining rasmini olamizki, uning tarafdorlari va etakchilarining insoniy zaifliklariga qaramay, axloqiy va ijtimoiy tartibni o'rnatish, ruhni ko'taruvchi va tasalli beruvchi dinni tarqatish uchun qo'lidan kelganicha harakat qilmoqda. eski tsivilizatsiya vayronalari va o'smirlar jamiyatining ehtiroslari o'rtasida ". (818 -bet)

      V. Uyg'onish davri (1953) Tahrir

      Bu jild 1300 yildan 16 -asr o'rtalariga qadar Italiya tarixini o'z ichiga oladi, asosan Italiya Uyg'onish davriga bag'ishlangan.

      1. Prelude: 1300–77
        1. Petrarka va Bokkachcho davri: 1304–75: 1309–77
          "Venetsiyalik savdogarlar Quddusdan Antverpengacha bo'lgan har bir bozorga bostirib kirishdi, ular xristianlar va Muhammadlar bilan xolis savdo qilishdi va er yuzidagi shudring kuchi bilan papaliklardan qutulishdi". (39 -bet)
        1. Medichining yuksalishi: 1378-1464
        2. Oltin asr: 1464–92 va respublika: 1492–1534
          "Ammo Uyg'onish davri uchun qadimgi davrni qayta tiklashdan ko'ra ko'proq narsa kerak edi. Birinchi navbatda pul - burjua pullari: puxta hisob -kitoblar, sarmoyalar va ssudalar, foizlar va dividendlar, ortiqcha pullar zavqdan qutulmaguncha to'plangan. go'sht, senat, belgi va bekalarni sotib olishdan tortib, Mikelanjelo yoki Titianga pul to'lash, boylikni go'zallikka aylantirish va san'at nafasi bilan boylik atirlash. Pul - barcha tsivilizatsiyaning ildizi. " (67-68-betlar)
        1. Cherkovdagi inqiroz: 1378-1521
        2. Uyg'onish davri Rimni egalladi: 1447–92: 1503–13: 1513–21
        1. Intellektual qo'zg'olon
        2. Axloqiy ozodlik
        3. Siyosiy inqiroz: 1494-1534
          "The historian acquainted with the pervasive pertinacity of nonsense reconciles himself to a glorious future for superstition he does not expect perfect states to arise out of imperfect men he perceives that only a small proportion of any generation can be so freed from economic harassments as to have leisure and energy to think their own thoughts instead of those of their forebears or their environment and he learns to rejoice if he can find in each period a few men and women who have lifted themselves, by the bootstraps of their brains, or by some boon of birth or circumstance, out of superstition, occultism, and credulity to an informed and friendly intelligence conscious of its infinite ignorance." (p. 525)
        1. Sunset in Venice
        2. The Waning of The Renaissance

        VI. The Reformation (1957) Edit

        This volume covers the history of Europe outside of Italy from around 1300 to 1564, focusing on the Protestant Reformation.

        1. From John Wyclif to Martin Luther: 1300–1517
          1. The Roman Catholic Church: 1300–1517 , Wyclif, Chaucer, and the Great Revolt: 1308–1400 Besieged: 1300–1461 Phoenix: 1453–1515
          2. England in the Fifteenth Century: 1399–1509
          3. Episode in Burgundy: 1363–1515 : 1300–1460
          4. The Western Slavs: 1300–1516
          5. The Ottoman Tide: 1300–1516 Inaugurates the Commercial Revolution: 1300–1517 : 1300–1517
          6. The Growth of Knowledge: 1300–1517
          7. The Conquest of the Sea: 1492–1517 the Forerunner: 1469–1517
          8. Germany on the Eve of Luther: 1453–1517
            : The Reformation in Germany: 1517–24
        2. The Social Revolution: 1522–36 : The Reformation in Switzerland: 1477–1531
        3. Luther and Erasmus: 1517–36
        4. The Faiths at War: 1525–60 : 1509–64 and the Reformation in France: 1515–59 and Cardinal Wolsey: 1509–29
        5. Henry VIII and Thomas More: 1529–35
        6. Henry VIII and the Monasteries: 1535–47 and Mary Tudor: 1547–58
        7. From Robert Bruce to John Knox: 1300–1561
        8. The Migrations of Reform: 1517–60
          1. The Unification of Russia: 1300–1584
          2. The Genius of Islam: 1258–1520 : 1520–66
          3. The Jews: 1300–1564
          1. The Life of the People
          2. Music: 1300–1564
          3. Literature in the Age of Rabelais
          4. Art in the Age of Holbein
          5. Science in the Age of Copernicus
            "People then, as now, were judged more by their manners than by their morals the world forgave more readily the sins that were committed with the least vulgarity and the greatest grace. Here, as in everything but artillery and theology, Italy led the way." (p. 766)
          1. The Church and Reform
          2. The Popes and the Council

          VII. The Age of Reason Begins (1961) Edit

          This volume covers the history of Europe and the Near East from 1559 to 1648.

          1. The English Ecstasy: 1558–1648
              : 1558–1603
          2. Merrie England: 1558–1625
          3. On the Slopes of Parnassus: 1558–1603 : 1564–1616 : 1542–87 : 1567–1625
          4. The Summons to Reason: 1558–1649 : 1625–49
            "Witches were burned, and Jesuits were taken down from the scaffold to be cut to pieces alive. The milk of human kindness flowed sluggishly in the days of Good Queen Bess." (p. 54)
            1. Alma Mater Italia: 1564–1648
            2. Grandeur and Decadence of Spain: 1556–1665
            3. The Golden Age of Spanish Literature: 1556–1665
            4. The Golden Age of Spanish Art: 1556–1682
            5. The Duel for France: 1559–74 : 1553–1610 : 1585–1642
            6. France Beneath the Wars: 1559–1643 : 1558–1648
            7. From Rubens to Rembrandt: 1555–1660
            8. The Rise of the North: 1559–1648
            9. The Islamic Challenge: 1566–1648
            10. Imperial Armageddon: 1564–1648
              "As long as he fears or remembers insecurity, man is a competitive animal. Groups, classes, nations, and races similarly insecure compete as covetously as their constituent individuals, and more violently, as knowing less law and having less protection Nature calls all living things to the fray." (p. 333)
            1. Science in the Age of Galileo: 1558–1648
            2. Philosophy Reborn: 1564–1648
              "Is Christianity dying? . If this is so, it is the basic event of modern times, for the soul of a civilization is its religion, and it dies with its faith." (p. 613)

            VIII. The Age of Louis XIV (1963) Edit

            This volume covers the period of Louis XIV of France in Europe and the Near East.

            1. The French Zenith: 1643–1715
              1. The Sun Rises: 1643–84
              2. The Crucible of Faith: 1643–1715
              3. The King and the Arts: 1643–1715 : 1622–73
              4. The Classic Zenith in French Literature: 1643–1715
              5. Tragedy in the Netherlands: 1649–1715
                "It was an age of strict manners and loose morals." (27 -bet)
                "Like the others, he came from the middle class the aristocracy is too interested in the art of life to spare time for the life of art." (p. 144)
                : 1649–60 : 1608–74 : 1660–85 : 1685–1714
            2. From Dryden to Swift: 1660–1714
              1. The Struggle for the Baltic: 1648–1721 : 1698–1725
              2. The Changing Empire: 1648–1715
              3. The Fallow South: 1648–1715
              4. The Jewish Enclaves: 1564–1715
              1. From Superstition to Scholarship: 1648–1715
              2. The Scientific Quest: 1648–1715 : 1642–1727
              3. English Philosophy: 1648–1715
              4. Faith and Reason in France: 1648–1715 : 1632–77 : 1646–1716
              1. The Sun Sets
                "For in modern states the men who can manage men manage the men who can manage only things and the men who can manage money manage all." (p. 720)

              IX. The Age of Voltaire (1965) Tahrir

              This volume covers the period of the Age of Enlightenment, as exemplified by Voltaire, focusing on the period between 1715 and 1756 in France, Britain, and Germany.

              1. France: The Regency
              2. England: 1714–56
                1. Odamlar
                2. The Rulers and Philosophy and the Stage and Music
                1. The People and the State
                2. Morals and Manners
                3. The Worship of Beauty
                4. The Play of the Mind in France
                  "Women, when on display, dressed as in our wondering youth, when the female structure was a breathless mystery costly to behold." (p. 75)
                1. The Germany of Bach and Maria Theresa
                2. Switzerland and Voltaire
                1. The Scholars
                2. The Scientific Advance
                  "It was no small adjustment that the human mind had to make after discovering that man was not the center of the universe but an atom and moment in the baffling immensities of space and time." (p. 585)

                X. Rousseau and Revolution (1967) Edit

                This volume centers on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his times. It received the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction in 1968. [2]

                1. Prelude
                  1. Rousseau Wanderer: 1712–56 : 1756–63
                  1. The Life of the State
                  2. The Art of Life Patriarch: 1758–78
                  3. Rousseau Romantic: 1756–62
                  4. Rousseau Philosopher
                  5. Rousseau Outcast: 1762–67
                  1. Italia Felix: 1715–59
                  2. Portugal and Pombal: 1706–82 : 1700–88
                  3. Vale, Italia: 1760–89
                  4. The Enlightenment in Austria: 1756–90
                  5. Music Reformed
                    "Lovers under a window plucked at a guitar or mandolin and a maiden’s heart." (p. 220)
                  1. Islam: 1715–96
                  2. Russian Interlude: 1725–62 : 1762–96
                  3. The Rape of Poland: 1715–95
                    "But limitation is the essence of liberty, for as soon as liberty is complete it dies in anarchy." (p. 472)
                    Germany: 1756–86 : 1724–1804
                2. Roads to Weimar: 1733–87 in Flower: 1775–1805 Nestor: 1805–32
                3. The Jews: 1715–89
                4. From Geneva to Stockholm
                  "He concluded that history is an excellent teacher with few pupils." (p. 529)
                  "As everywhere, the majority of abilities was contained in a minority of men, and led to a concentration of wealth." (p. 643)
                  1. The Final Glory: 1774–83
                  2. Death and the Philosophers: 1774–1807
                  3. On the Eve: 1774–89
                  4. The Anatomy of Revolution: 1774–89
                  5. The Political Debacle: 1783–89

                  XI. Napoleon davri (1975) Edit

                  This volume centers on Napoleon I of France and his times.

                  1. The French Revolution: 1789–99
                    1. The Background of Revolution: 1774–89 : May 4, 1789 – September 30, 1791 : October 1, 1791 – September 20, 1792 : September 21, 1792 – October 26, 1795 : November 2, 1795 – November 9, 1799
                    2. Life Under the Revolution: 1789–99
                      : November 11, 1799 – May 18, 1804
                  2. The New Empire: 1804–07
                  3. The Mortal Realm: 1807–11 Himself
                  4. Napoleonic France: 1800–1815
                  5. Napoleon and the Arts
                  6. Literature versus Napoleon
                  7. Science and Philosophy under Napoleon
                    "It was a typical Napoleonic campaign: swift, victorious, and futile." (p. 228)
                    1. England at Work
                    2. English Life
                    3. The Arts in England
                    4. Science in England
                    5. English Philosophy
                    6. Literature in Transition : 1770–1850
                    7. The Rebel Poets: 1788–1824
                    8. England's Neighbors: 1789–1815 , Nelson, and Napoleon: 1789–1812
                    1. To Moscow: 1811–12
                    2. To Elba: 1813–14
                    3. To Waterloo: 1814–15
                    4. To St. Helena
                    5. To the End
                    6. Afterward: 1815–40

                    Durant said his purpose in writing the series was not to create a definitive scholarly production but to make a large amount of information accessible and comprehensible to the educated public in the form of a comprehensive "composite history." Given the massive undertaking in creating 11 volumes over 50 years, errors and incompleteness were inevitable by Durant's own reckoning but he claimed that no other historical survey matches, let alone exceeds, the breadth and depth of his project.

                    As Durant says in the preface to his first work, Our Oriental Heritage:

                    I wish to tell as much as I can, in as little space as I can, of the contributions that genius and labor have made to the cultural heritage of mankind – to chronicle and contemplate, in their causes, character and effects, the advances of invention, the varieties of economic organization, the experiments in government, the aspirations of religion, the mutations of morals and manners, the masterpieces of literature, the development of science, the wisdom of philosophy, and the achievements of art. I do not need to be told how absurd this enterprise is, nor how immodest is its very conception … Nevertheless I have dreamed that despite the many errors inevitable in this undertaking, it may be of some use to those upon whom the passion for philosophy has laid the compulsion to try to see things whole, to pursue perspective, unity and understanding through history in time, as well as to seek them through science in space. … Like philosophy, such a venture [as the creation of these 11 volumes] has no rational excuse, and is at best but a brave stupidity but let us hope that, like philosophy, it will always lure some rash spirits into its fatal depths.

                    One volume, Rousseau and Revolution, won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1968. All eleven volumes were Book-of-the-Month Club selections and best-sellers with total sales of more than two million copies in nine languages. [4]


                    Author's Response

                    I am extremely happy with the review by Leslie Price. He seems to agree with many of my observations and to approve of my attempt at integrating the story of the Dutch slave trade into the wider framework of the Atlantic slave trade and of the early modern Atlantic in general. Right away, I would like to admit to a mistake regarding the demographic effects of the Thirty Years War. Price pointed out that the population of Central Europe could not have been reduced to only one third of its pre-1618 size. Mea culpa. I misread a sentence in an article saying that this war reduced the population of Central Europe tomonidan (and not ga) one third in general, albeit that in some areas the loss was certainly more than 50 per cent. However, this mistake leaves my argument that a reduction in the population density did not bring slavery back to Europe unaffected. Even when the decline in population was about a third, certain areas quickly needed substantial numbers of mobile, landless labourers in order to make them economically viable again. In spite of this, the ruling elite in Germany never considered forcing people into slavery after 1648, even when they possessed the physical means to do so. Similarly, the dramatic demographic decline of the American Indians resulted in severe labour shortages in the tropical colonies in the New World, but not in the subsequent re-institution of slavery in the various European mother countries, in spite of the fact that only slavery could have produced the number of European emigrants needed to develop the labour-intensive plantations. Indeed, some European powers exiled their political and religious minorities, as well as prisoners, to their colonies and forced them to work as field hands but only slavery would have made it possible to send a regular and sufficient number of labourers across the Atlantic. Only hereditary slavery would result in a permanent servile labour force as the children of slaves could also be employed as slaves, while the sons and daughters of exiled minorities and prisoners could not (1 ).

                    A more important issue raised by the reviewer pertains to the question as to whether racism was the basis of the Dutch participation in the slave trade, or whether it came into existence later. In my book I point out that the Europeans were racists long before they became involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In southern Europe, the Spanish and the Portuguese enslaved their Moslem enemies and also purchased black slaves from Africa, but they did not enslave their domestic opponents, such as the Jewish minority, or their European enemies, such as the Dutch and the English. Later, the Dutch, French, and English used the same double standards as the Iberians. Leslie Price, on the other hand, feels that the decision of the Dutch to participate in the Atlantic slave trade was not based on any pre-existing racism. He posits that the Dutch developed racism because they started trading in slaves, and suggests that the Dutch remained free of racism at home and strictly limited their racism to the overseas world. There is much to be said for the latter view. Unlike the Spanish and the Portuguese, the Dutch had no African or Arab slaves at home, and unlike the British, the Dutch did not even tolerate temporary slavery to exist in their republic in order to allow planters from the West Indies to come back to the Netherlands accompanied by their personal slaves. In the Netherlands, no Somerset case was needed to establish that slaves were free once they had set foot on Dutch soil (albeit that in actual practice very few slaves left their masters during their temporary stay in the Netherlands). Another argument in favour of the assumption that the Dutch knew no racism at home is the fact that during the sixteenth century, Dutch travellers and sailors, when confronted with slavery in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, were appalled by it. In fact, the Dutch West India Company instituted a special committee to look at the moral implications of the slave trade once the Company was faced with the choice of participating in that trade. And last, but not least, the Dutch seemed to have been more tolerant at home than most other countries in Europe, and accommodated, rather than excluded, outsiders. That explains why the Dutch never forced their religious minorities into exile. In France, on the other hand, Huguenots and criminals were sent overseas to perform forced labour in the West Indies for lengthy periods of time, while others were condemned to long years of forced labour at the galleys in conditions much akin to slavery. The English also sent their royalist and Irish prisoners of war to their West Indian colonies as forced labourers. Of course, the Huguenots, the Irish, and the royalists were not enslaved, but even such temporary recourse to forced labour was unknown in the Netherlands. In sum, there is much to be said for Leslie Price's idea that there was a two-tiered moral consciousness among the Dutch: one set of non-racist values for use at home, and another, racist one, solely for use in the world overseas.

                    However, there are also arguments that support my case. First of all, it would be a serious mistake to assume that before the end of the eighteenth century modern ideas about the equality of the human race had taken root in the Netherlands. The much-famed tolerance in the Netherlands was not based on modern principles, but on practical considerations enabling a population that was, and remained, deeply divided on religious matters to live together. Religious minorities such as the Catholics and Jews were discriminated against and barred from public office. That the Dutch did not resort to condemning criminals and prisoners of war to perform forced labour, as happened elsewhere, might not have been based on some uniquely tolerant and anti-racist attitude, but on the simple fact that the labour market in the Netherlands was far more supply-driven than elsewhere, as a constant influx of labour migrants from the neighbouring countries provided the labour required to perform the many dirty and dangerous jobs that needed to be done in the Dutch economy at the time. Perhaps we should conclude that the Dutch were racists just like everybody else at the time, but that they had less need than other nations to show it at home (2 ).

                    Another point the reviewer made concerns the abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of the slaves. He rightly labelled these actions as a jump into the dark that only countries such as Britain, with a dynamic economy, seemed to be able to afford. In fact, that is what I point out in my book. The question is, however, whether having a declining economy during the first half of the nineteenth century, as the Dutch did, constituted sufficient reason to keep quiet about the inhumanity of the slave trade and slavery. Are my moral standards in this case too high, as Price seems to feel, and should I have refrained from blaming the Dutch for being so reluctant even to talk about abolishing the slave trade and slavery? There is no doubt that the British government at the time had many more financial resources at its disposal than its Dutch counterpart, and that this fact weighed heavily as slave emancipation, and concomitant compensation for the slave owners, was a costly affair. However, I would like to point out that during the first half of the nineteenth century the Dutch seemed to have had sufficient funds to wage an expensive colonial war in Java as well as a prolonged military campaign against the secession of Belgium, and that only decades later the Dutch political elite made sufficient public money available to end colonial slavery and pay compensation to the slave owners. In addition, it has always been argued that the smaller countries of Europe, such as the Netherlands, were more democratic, more progressive, and more innovative than the larger countries where the established interests of the court, church, and nobility were usually much more opposed to change. The Dutch are rightly proud of their early modernity based on a long republican tradition, the absence of nobility, a virtually uncensored publishing industry, the wide circulation of newspapers, a comparatively generous welfare system, and religious pluriformity. In my book I simply noticed that this rose-coloured picture is badly marred by the fact that all these supposed advantages had no practical effect when it came to abolishing the slave trade and slavery, and that the Dutch did not even manage to organize a sizeable abolition movement. If that is not a moral shortcoming, what is? (3 )

                    As was to be expected, Leslie Price's main criticism is aimed at my last chapter, in which I discuss the hotly-debated heritage of the Dutch participation in the slave trade and of colonial slavery. I agree with most of what he writes. Price is absolutely right in pointing out that the present generation cannot be held responsible for what previous generations have done. Why then, he asks, do I bother to add a separate chapter arguing that Dutch feelings of guilt about their country's involvement in the slave trade, and the acceptance of slavery, are an a-historical projection of present-day moral attitudes into the past. Such projections frequently occur in public debates in the Netherlands, and that is why I felt the need to address these issues. These a-historical interpretations usually come into play when the German occupation of the Netherlands during the years 1940–1945 is discussed, or the slave trade, slavery, and the conquest and the decolonization of the Dutch East Indies. Are there no similarly sensitive areas in the history of Great Britain? Is the general public there really more interested in a purely scholarly approach? When that is the case, our reviewer, and other historians in the UK, should count their blessings. That professional historians attempt to write history without shame, pride, and other moral emotions is unfortunately not always accepted in the public debate on the Continent, and professional historians have to react to this, whether they like it or not. In Germany, for instance, the history of the national-socialist regime (1933–1945) stubbornly refuses to become a purely scholarly topic, in spite of the fact that the present generation Germans and Austrians were born after its demise. In France, matters seem even worse, as the French Parliament passed in quick succession three laws making it possible to prosecute anyone who does not consider the holocaust, the persecution of the Armenians in Turkey during and after World War I, and the Atlantic slave trade as crimes against humanity. After a right-wing majority had replaced a left-wing one, a fourth law was passed, suggesting that in the public education system of the country more attention should be paid to the positive side of French colonialism. No wonder that a committee of French professional historians is asking their Parliament to refrain from prescribing the way in which history should be interpreted. The committee was set up after a young French historian, Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, had published an award-winning study comparing the Atlantic, internal African, and Arab slave trades, and was subsequently accused of being racist and charged at a Paris court with denying the uniqueness of the Atlantic slave trade as stipulated in French law (4 ). In the Netherlands, professional historians of the slave trade and of slavery are also faced with the vicissitudes of a stereotyped public debate, but the case of France shows that it could be a lot worse.


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