Issus jangi

Issus jangi


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Miloddan avvalgi 333 yil 5-noyabrda Issus jangi Iskandar Zulqarnaynning fors qo'shinlariga qarshi ikkinchi jangi va hozirgi Turkiyaning janubidagi Issus qishlog'i yaqinida podshoh Doro III bilan birinchi to'g'ridan-to'g'ri ishtiroki edi. Bu Aleksandr uchun katta g'alaba bo'lib, Axamaniylar imperiyasini mag'lubiyatga uchratdi va Doro IIIni jang maydonidan qochib ketishiga sabab bo'ldi.

Prelude

Otasi vafot etib, Makedoniya taxtiga o'tirgandan so'ng, Aleksandrning birinchi ish tartibi otasining orzusi - Fors imperiyasini zabt etish edi. Aleksandr Doro I va Kserks Yunonistonga bostirib kirgani uchun qasos olmoqchi ekanini bahona qilib, Gellespontdan Kichik Osiyoga o'tdi. U janubga qarab harakatlanar ekan, Granik va Galikarnasdagi fors qo'shinlarini mag'lub etdi. Uning navbatdagi yirik to'qnashuvi miloddan avvalgi 333 yil noyabrda Issusda bo'ladi. Bu jang Aleksandr Makedonskiy bilan Fors shohi Doro o'rtasidagi ikki uchrashuvning birinchisi bo'lardi; ikkalasi ham fors qo'shinlarining mag'lubiyati bilan tugaydi.

Aleksandr Doro Isus atrofidagi qishloq xo'jaligiga boy erlarda bo'lganini bilgach, tezda Gordiumdan Kilikiya darvozalari orqali Isus port shaharchasiga ko'chib o'tdi. Jangning o'zi janubda, O'rta er dengizi va Amanus tog'lari orasidagi tor tekislikda bo'lsa -da, port Aleksandr qo'shinlari uchun tayanch lager bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Aynan o'sha erda u sog'ayib ketishi uchun bir qancha yarador va kasallarni qoldirgan. Keyinchalik, Doro o'z qo'shinlarini Penarus daryosi bo'ylab Aleksandr bilan uchrashish uchun yurganida, fors shohi yunon tayanch lagerida to'xtadi, u erda tuzalib ketgan makedoniyalik askarlarni qiynoqqa soladi va o'ldiradi, yashashga ruxsat berilganlarning o'ng qo'lini kesib tashlaydi. Bu harakat Iskandar qo'shinini forslarni mag'lub etish uchun yana bir turtki bo'ladi.

Ikki qo'shin Penarus daryosida uchrashdi; havo yomg'irli va sovuq edi.

Doro Aleksandr bilan uchrashuviga e'tibor qaratib, Bobildan shimolda Issus daryosining sharqiy qismiga ko'chib o'tdi. Tarixchi Rut Sheppard qadimgi manbalarga asoslanib, 300 dan 600 minggacha qo'shinlari bo'lgan Dariusga, shuningdek, 30 ming yunon yollanma askariga ega, zamonaviy raqamlar esa 25 mingdan 100 minggacha, atigi 10 ming yunon yollanma askariga ega. U o'sha erda Aleksandrni kutishni o'ylagan bo'lsa -da, Doro Iskandarni Issusdagi bazasidan ajratish va shu tariqa uni izolyatsiya qilish umididan qaytdi. Iskandar Isusdan janubga qarab Suriya tomon yo'l oldi, lekin Doro Isusda bo'lganini tasdiqlagach, shimolga burildi. Doro janubdan Amanus g'arbidagi tor erga ko'chib o'tdi va shu tariqa o'z kuchlarini noqulay ahvolga solib qo'ydi. Ikki qo'shin Penarus daryosida uchrashdi; havo yomg'irli va sovuq edi. Bu hudud Iskandarga alohida ustunlik berdi, chunki u nafaqat Doro harakatini kamaytiribgina qolmay, balki o'z qo'shinlarini ham tarqatishi mumkin edi.

Plutarx, uning qo'lida Buyuk Aleksandrning hayoti, bu afzallik va g'alaba haqida gapirganda, u tez orada:

Erni tanlashda Fortune Aleksandrga unchalik mehribon emas edi, chunki u uni o'z foydasiga yaxshilash uchun ehtiyot bo'lgan. Raqamlardan ancha past bo'lgani uchun, o'zini chetga olib chiqishga ruxsat bermaguncha, u o'ng qanotini dushmanlarining chap qanotidan ancha uzoqroqqa cho'zdi va u erda eng yuqori saflarda jang qilib, barbarlarni qochib ketdi.

Jang

Afsuski, Doro uchun, u o'zining ishonchli yunon generallaridan biri Charidamusning maslahatlarini e'tiborsiz qoldirgan edi, u Doroga kuchlarini bo'linib, unga (Charidamus) Iskandarga qarshi yolg'iz kurashishga ruxsat berishni aytgan edi. Doro bu taklifni e'tiborsiz qoldirdi, chunki ba'zilar buni ego va obro 'deb bilishadi. U bu yosh yunon ustidan yutqazolmadi. E'tibor berilmagandan so'ng, Charidamus forslar haqida noto'g'ri tanlangan bir nechta fikrlarni xato qildi. Yunon tilida gapirgan va sharhlarni yaxshi tushungan Doro xafa bo'ldi va darhol generalini qatl qilishdi - ko'pchilik buni aqlsiz deb bilishadi, chunki Charidamus Dorining eng qobiliyatli generallaridan birida ko'rib chiqilgan.

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Butun jang Doro uchun yaxshi ketmadi. Raqamlarning ustunligiga qaramay, u va uning odamlari tez orada himoyaga kirishdi, xohlaganidek manevr qila olmadilar. Dorining chap qanotiga daryo vodiysi, chapda tog'lar va o'ngdagi dengiz to'sqinlik qildi.

Boshqa tomondan, Aleksandr o'zining ishonchli falanks shakllanishidan foydalana oldi. Uning o'ng qanoti tog'larga, chap tomoni dengizga cho'zilgan. Uning o'ngda uchta bataloni bor edi va to'rtta chapda, o'rtalarida og'ir piyoda askarlari bor edi. Aleksandrning shakllanishini ko'rib, Doro otliq askarlarini Iskandarning o'ng qanotini sindirish umidida hujumga o'tkazdi. Daryo qirg'og'i va Doro qurgan shtamplar to'sqinlik qilsa -da, Aleksandr va uning sherigi otliq qo'shinlari Dorining chap qanoti orqali tezlik bilan harakat qilishdi. Aleksandrni Pinarus bo'ylab qaytarishga urinishlar muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. Tarixchi Arrian o'z asarida Aleksandrning yurishlari aytdi:

Doro yunonlari makedoniyaliklarni suvga qaytarish va kunni chap qanotlari uchun saqlab qolish uchun kurashdilar, o'z navbatida, Aleksandrning g'alabali rejasi ularning ko'z o'ngida, uning muvaffaqiyatiga tenglashishga va shu paytgacha mag'lub bo'lmagan mag'rur unvonidan mahrum bo'lishga qaror qilishdi. ularga berilgan.

Aleksandr va uning qo'shinlari fors markaziga burilishdi, u erda Doriyni ko'rdi. Garchi Dorining ukasi Oxatres Iskandarning aybiga to'sqinlik qilishga urinsa ham, u muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Doro jangdan dastlab aravasida, keyin otda qochib ketdi. Sonining jiddiy jarohati bo'lganiga qaramay, Aleksandr kechgacha uni ta'qib qilardi, lekin quruq qaytdi. Bu orada Aleksandrning chap qanotida, Parmenion boshchiligida, Doro o'ng tomonida muammolar bor edi. Biroq, fors kuchlari o'z rahbarining qochib ketganini ko'rib, ular ham qochib ketishdi; ko'pchilik ommaviy chiqishda oyoq osti qilindi. Umuman olganda, forslar 100000 piyoda askarini va 10 ming otliq askarini, Aleksandr esa atigi 1200 askarini yo'qotdi. Bu raqamlar, avvalgidek, yunoncha taxminlar. Zamonaviy hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Doro 20000 va Aleksandr 7000 atrofida yo'qotilgan. Forslar shu qadar tez ketdilarki, Aleksandr va uning odamlarini ko'p talon -taroj kutar edi. Plutarx aytdi:

... Dorusning chodirlari oltin va kumushdan yasalgan ajoyib mebellar bilan jihozlangan edi, ular Aleksandrning o'zi uchun ajratilgan edi, u qo'llarini echib bo'lgach, cho'milishga ketdi: "Keling, o'zimizni tozalaylik. Doro hammomidagi urush mashaqqatlari.

Oltin va kumushdan ko'proq narsa qoldi - Dariyning onasi, rafiqasi va ikkita qizi Dorining chodiridan topildi, lekin Aleksandr ularga hech qanday zarar etkazmasligini va'da qildi. Plutarx yozgan:

… (Iskandar) ularga Doro o'lmaganligini va unga faqat hukmronlik uchun urush qilgan Iskandarning yomonligidan qo'rqmasliklarini bildirsin. ular o'zlarini Doridan olgan hamma narsasi bilan ta'minlashlari kerak.

Garchi Doro Aleksandrga o'z shohligining yarmini va'da qilib, oilasini qaytarishni xohlagan bo'lsa -da, Aleksandr rad etdi. Buning o'rniga, Aleksandr uni turishga va jang qilishga chaqirdi va ular ikkinchi marta Gogamelada uchrashishdi, u erda Doro yana qochib ketdi, lekin bu safar u o'z o'limi - Bessus bilan uchrashdi.


Miloddan avvalgi 340 yildan boshlab Makedoniya va Fors imperiyasi o'rtasidagi to'qnashuv muqarrar edi. O'sha yili Makedoniya qiroli Filipp Yunoniston va Forsning hayotiy manfaatlariga (Bosfor va Hellespont orqali aniq tranzit) tahdid soluvchi Perinfni qamal qildi. Forslar bunga javoban Evropaga qo'shin yuborishdi. eslatma [Diodor, Jahon tarixi 16.75.2.] Kserksdan beri birinchi marta forslar g'arbga aralashdilar va makedoniyaliklar buni kechirilmaydigan bosqinchilik harakati deb hisoblashdi. Filipp birinchi navbatda To'rtinchi Muqaddas Urushni qo'zg'atib, yunonlarni Chaeroneada mag'lub etdi (338) va ularni Korinf ligasiga majbur qildi. Endi u sharqqa zarba berishga tayyor edi.

Taxminan bir vaqtning o'zida, Fors shohi Artaxerxes III Oxus vafot etdi va Fors imperiyasini kuchli vorissiz qoldirdi. Uning o'g'li Artaxerxes IV Asses Bobil (Nidin-Bel), Misr (Chababash) va Armanistonda (Artašata) qo'zg'olonlarni engishga majbur bo'ldi. Makedoniyaliklar uchun hamma narsa hozir hujumga tayyor edi - bundan tashqari 336 yilda qirol Filipp o'ldirilgan (bundan ko'prog'i), Assesning o'limi va Arastataning qo'shilishi bilan Darius III Kodomannus nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan.

334 yilda Filippning o'g'li va vorisi Aleksandr Osiyoga bostirib kirdi, u hali Fors fuqarolik urushi tufayli kam himoyalangan edi. U Granikda mahalliy yig'imlarni mag'lub etdi, bu unga Anatoliyani zabt etish imkonini berdi. Qarshilik ko'rsatadigan yagona fors kuchlari Finnika kemalaridan iborat Memnon va Pharnabazus tomonidan boshqarilgan flot edi. Dengiz flotini mag'lub etish uchun makedoniyaliklar Finikiya portlariga hujum qilishga qaror qilishdi. Miloddan avvalgi 333 yil kuzida ular Kilikiya darvozasi orqali Kilikiyaga kirdilar.


Tarkibi

Aleksandr Makedonskiy nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan Makedoniyalik Aleksandr III (miloddan avvalgi 356–323) - Makedoniyaning qadimgi shohi, miloddan avvalgi 336 yildan vafotigacha hukmronlik qilgan. U tarixdagi eng buyuk harbiy taktik va strateglardan biri sifatida tan olingan [1] va jangda mag'lubiyatsiz deb hisoblanadi. [2] [3] U o'zining harbiy etakchiligi va xarizmasi bilan mashhur bo'lgan, u har doim o'z qo'shinlarini shaxsan boshqargan va janglarning oldingi saflariga chiqqan. [4] [5] Fors imperiyasini zabt etib, Yunoniston, Misr va Bobilni birlashtirib, qadimgi dunyoning eng yirik imperiyasini tuzdi [6] va ellinizmning butun Evropa va Shimoliy Afrikada tarqalishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. [7]

Iskandar miloddan avvalgi 334 yil bahorida [8] Fors imperiyasini zabt etish uchun ekspeditsiyasini boshladi, urushayotgan yunon davlatlarini tinchlantirdi va harbiy qudratini mustahkamladi. [9] Makedoniya Kichik Osiyoga o'tishining birinchi oylarida, Fors shohi Doro III Iskandarning 40 ming askarlari borligiga umuman e'tibor bermadi. May oyida bo'lib o'tgan Granicus jangi [8] Forsning bosqinchilarga qarshi birinchi katta urinishi edi, lekin natijada Aleksandr oson g'alabaga erishdi. Keyingi yil Aleksandr g'arbiy va qirg'oq bo'yi Kichik Osiyoning ko'p qismini egallab oldi. [10] U ichki yo'lni davom ettirdi, Frigiya orqali shimoli -sharqda, Kilikiyaga qarab janubi -sharqqa burildi. Oktyabr oyida Kilikiya Geytsidan o'tib, Aleksandr Tarsusda isitma bilan kechikdi. [11] Bu orada Doro 100000 kishigacha qo'shin yig'di (ba'zi qadimiy manbalarda 600 mingdan oshgan raqamlar ko'rsatilgan) [12] va uni shaxsan Amanus tog'larining sharqiy yonbag'irlariga yo'naltirgan. Noyabr oyining boshlarida, Aleksandr Isus orqali Mallusdan Issus ko'rfazi bo'ylab harakatlanayotganda, ikkita qo'shin tasodifan tog'larning qarama -qarshi tomonlaridan o'tib ketishdi. [13] Bu aniq Doro foydasiga edi: endi Aleksandrning orqa tarafida, u chekinishni oldini oldi va Iskandar Issusda o'rnatgan ta'minot liniyalarini to'sib qo'ydi. [14] Iskandar ko'rfazining janubi -sharqiy qirg'og'idagi dengiz porti Myriandrda qarorgoh qurganidan keyingina, forslarning pozitsiyasini bilib oldi. U zudlik bilan Isusning janubidagi Pinarus daryosiga borib, Doro kuchini shimoliy qirg'oq bo'ylab to'planganini topdi. [13] Issus jangi boshlandi.

Dorining dastlabki javobi mudofaa edi: u dushmanning o'tishiga to'sqinlik qilish uchun darhol daryo bo'yini qoziqlar bilan to'ldirdi. Fors podshohlari uchun odatdagidek xoin yunon yollanma askarlari va fors qirollik gvardiyasining asosiy avangardlari tuzildi, Darius buyuk armiyasining istalgan qismiga buyruq yuborishi uchun o'zini bu avangardning markaziga qo'ydi. [15] Iskandar qirg'oqdan o'ngdan, yaqinlashib keladi, deb gumon qilinib, tez orada tog 'etagiga fors yengil piyoda askarlari yuborildi. Nabarsanes boshchiligidagi ko'plab otliq askarlar fors o'ngini egalladi. [16]

Iskandar ehtiyotkor va sekin harakat qilib, strategiyasini fors kuchlarining tuzilishiga tayanmoqchi edi. U o'ng tarafdagi sherik otliqlarining bir qanotini boshqargan, Salonik otliqlari esa Nabarsanesning bo'linmasiga hisoblagich sifatida chapga yuborilgan. [17] O'ng tomondagi tog 'etagining ahamiyatini bilib, Aleksandr Doriy o'sha erda turgan mudofaani joyidan chiqarish uchun engil piyoda, kamonchilar va otliq askarlarni yubordi. Korxona muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi - o'ldirilmagan forslar tog'lardan balandroq panoh topishga majbur bo'lishdi. [17] [18]

Dushman raketa masofasida bo'lganida, Aleksandr zaryad olishni buyurdi. [17] [19] U o'zining qurollangan sahobali otliq askarlariga hujum qildi, u tezda fors chap qanotini chuqur kesib tashladi. Parmenion [18] boshchiligidagi Makedoniya chap qanotini Nabarsanesning katta otliqlari orqaga qaytarishdi. Makedoniyaliklarning markaziy falanksi daryodan o'tib, Doro avangardini oldiga olib kelgan xiyonatkor yunon yollanma askarlari bilan to'qnashdi. Sahobaning otliq qo'shinlari forslar chap tomonga surilgach, Doro Iskandar va boshqa qo'shinlari o'rtasida hosil bo'lgan bo'shliqni ishlatishi xavfi tug'ildi. Chap qanot nogiron bo'lib qolganiga va endi tahdid emasligiga ishonch hosil qilganida, Iskandar vaziyatni to'g'irlab, sahobalarni qanotdagi fors markaziga hujum qilishga majbur qildi. Qo'shimcha bosimga dosh berolmay, fors avangardlari daryo bo'yidan chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi, bu esa Makedoniya falanksining oldinga siljishini davom ettirishga imkon berdi va Parmenionning chap qanotiga bosimni ko'tardi. [19]

Iskandarning sherigi otliqlarining hujumi to'xtab bo'lmasligini bilib, Doro va uning qo'shini qochib ketishdi. Ko'pchilik shoshilinch ravishda o'ldirildi, ular bilan birga qochganlar yoki oyoqlari bilan yiqilganlar oyoq osti qilindi. [20] Ba'zilar Misr kabi olis hududlarga qochib ketishdi, boshqalari esa shimolda Doro bilan birlashishdi. [21] Qorong'ilik boshlanishi, taxminan 20 km (12 milya) dan keyin ta'qibni tugatdi, keyin Aleksandr o'z qo'shinini esladi va o'liklarni dafn qilishni boshladi. Doro oilasi fors lagerida qolib ketishgan, xabarlarga ko'ra, Iskandar ularga yaxshi munosabatda bo'lgan va Dorining xavfsizligiga ishontirgan. [21] [22] Dariyning qirollik aravasi, ariqda, uning kamon va qalqoni tashlangan holda topilgan. [21]

Qadimgi manbalarda Issus jangida qurbon bo'lganlar haqida har xil ma'lumotlar keltirilgan. Plutarx va Diodor Siculus taxminan 100,000 Fors o'limini bildiradi, Kvint Kurtiy Rufus xabar bergan 450 Makedoniya o'limidan farqli o'laroq. [23] Qanday bo'lmasin, forslar qochish paytida jangdan ko'ra ko'proq o'ldirilgan bo'lishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas [24] Jang paytida Aleksandr bilan birga xizmat qilgan Ptolomey I makedoniyaliklar dushmanlari jasadidagi jarlikdan qanday o'tib o'tganlarini aytib berishadi. ta'qib qilish. [23] [25]

Makedoniyaning Forsni bosib olishi miloddan avvalgi 330 yilgacha davom etdi, Doro o'ldirildi va Aleksandr o'z taxtini oldi. [26] Aleksandr miloddan avvalgi 323 yilda vafot etdi va yaqinda Hindiston yarim orolidagi kampaniyadan qaytdi. O'lim sababi munozara mavzusi bo'lib qolmoqda. [27] [28]

Oldingi ish Tahrirlash

Albrecht Altdorfer G'arb peyzaj san'atining asoschilaridan biri hisoblanadi. [29] U rassom, etcher, me'mor va gravürchi, Dunay nemis san'ati maktabining etakchisi edi. Kabi rasmlardan dalolat beradi Aziz Jorj va ajdaho (1510) va Allegoriya (1531), Altdorfer ishining ko'p qismi, ulardagi figuralarni mitti qiladigan, keng tarqalgan landshaftlarga bog'lanish bilan tavsiflanadi [30]. Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi uslubining bu qirrasini aks ettiradi. Malumot bilan Sent -Jorj va ajdaho xususan, san'atshunos Mark U. Roskill "[Altdorfer ijodida] peyzaj aksessuarlari o'ynalgan va bezakli tarzda ishlab chiqilgan, shuning uchun u muhofaza qilingan va noqulay muhitni aks ettiradi", deb izoh beradi. [31] Avstriya Alp tog'lari va Dunay daryosi bo'ylab sayohatlaridan ilhomlanib, [32] Altdorfer bir qancha peyzajlarni chizgan, ular tarkibida umuman rasm yo'q, shu jumladan. Ko'prikli peyzaj (taxminan 1516) va Regensburg yaqinidagi Dunay manzarasi (taxminan 1522–25). Bu antik davrdan beri birinchi "toza" landshaftlar edi. [33] Altdorfer peyzajlarining aksariyati janr haqidagi zamonaviy kontseptsiyadan farqli o'laroq, vertikal formatda qilingan. Landshaft manzara Altdorferning zamonaviy flamandlik Yoaxim Patinir va uning izdoshlarining yangiliklari edi. [34]

Altdorfer, shuningdek, o'zining dindor katolikligini aks ettiruvchi, ko'plab diniy san'at asarlarini yaratdi. Uning eng tez -tez uchraydigan mavzulari Bokira Maryam va Masihning hayoti va xochga mixlanishi edi. Xuddi Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi, bu rasmlarda ko'pincha buyuk ulug'vorlik sozlamalari tasvirlangan va ramziy ma'no berish uchun osmondan foydalanilgan. Bu ma'no Altdorfer korpusida bir xil emas - masalan, botayotgan quyoshning ko'rinishi yo'qolish va fojiani anglatadi. Bog'dagi azob, lekin "kuch va shon -shuhrat timsoli" bo'lib xizmat qiladi Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi. [35]

Larri Kumush San'at byulleteni buni tushuntiradi Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi Altdorferning oldingi ishiga o'xshash va undan farqli o'laroq: "Bu xristian voqealari yoki muqaddas shaxslar uchun chekinishning tinch manzarasi o'rniga, aksincha, aksincha: qadimiy tarixning davriy uchrashuvlaridan biri uchun jang maydonini taklif qiladi. uning global yoki kosmik o'lchamlari Issus jangi hali ham kabi ko'rinadi Altdorferning cheksiz cho'qqilar, suv havzalari va uzoq qasrlarga to'la cheksiz chekinish landshaftlari. "[36]

Garchi Aleksandr jangi uning o'lchamiga ko'ra Altdorferga xos bo'lmagan va u urushni tasvirlaydi Tantanali yurish - Muqaddas Rim imperiyasi Maksimilian I tomonidan buyurtma qilingan 1512–16 yillardagi yoritilgan qo'lyozma - kontseptual o'tmish sifatida tasvirlangan. [37] Jarayon bilan parallel ravishda ishlab chiqarilgan Maksimilian g'alabasi, Altdorfer, Xans Sprinkinkli, Albrecht Dyurer, Leonhard Bek va Xans Shaufelin tomonidan birgalikda bajarilgan 137 ta yog'och kesish. [38]

Ta'sir va komissiya tahrirlash

Altdorferning hozirgi zamondagi eng muhim ta'siri Matias Grunewald edi (taxminan 1470–1528). San'atshunos Xorst V. Jansonning ta'kidlashicha, ularning rasmlari "xuddi shunday" tartibsiz "tasavvurni ko'rsatadi". [39] ning elementlari Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi - ayniqsa osmon - Gryunewaldnikiga o'xshatilgan Bokira va bola ustidagi samoviy uy egasi, bu uning eng yaxshi asari Isenxaym qurbongohining bir qismini tashkil qiladi. Dundor maktabi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan oqsoqol Lukas Kranach (1472–1553) Altdorfer uchun yana bir muhim ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Roskillning so'zlariga ko'ra, Cranachning 1500 ga yaqin asarlari "landshaft sozlamalarida muhim rol o'ynaydi, bu ularni portretlar, zohidlar va ko'radigan azizlarning tasvirlari uchun kayfiyatni ko'taruvchi fon sifatida ishlatadi" va "tayyorgarlik rolini" o'ynaydi. toza landshaftning boshlanishi. [40] Altdorfer o'z uslubining ko'p qismini, xususan, diniy san'at asarida, Albrecht Dyurerga (1471-1528) qarzdor edi [41] Larri Silver, Altdorferning "ishonarli nemis landshaftlarini samoviy hodisalar bilan birgalikda o'zining diniy hikoyasi uchun ishlatishi" haqida yozadi. Albrecht Dyurer tomonidan yaratilgan "an'anaga" mustahkam bog'langan. [42]

Uilyam IV, Bavariya gersogi Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi 1528 yilda [43] Altdorfer o'sha paytda taxminan 50 yoshda edi va erkin imperator Regensburg shahrida yashar edi. [44] Regensburg shahar kengashi bilan o'n yildan oshiq vaqt mobaynida 1528 yil 18 sentyabrda Altdorferga Burgomaster lavozimini taklif qilishdi. U o'z bayonotini shunday yozgan: "U maxsus ishni bajarishni juda xohlaydi. Bavariyada, oliy martabali va rahmdil Lord, Dyuk [Uilyam] uchun. " [44] Uilyam, ehtimol, rasmni yangi qurilgan yozi uchun xohlagan Lusthaus ("zavq uyi") Myunxendagi saroyi hududida, Regensburgdan taxminan 97 mil janubda. [43] [44] [45] U erda shunga o'xshash format va mavzuga ega bo'lgan ettita rasm, shu jumladan Lyudvig Refingerning rasmlari osilgan edi. Markus Kurtiyning matronomiyasi, Melchior Feselen Qaysar tomonidan Alesiyani qamal qilish, va rasm Kanna jangi Hans Burgkmair (1473–1531). [46] [47] Yana sakkiztasi, ularning har biri tarixda mashhur ayol tasvirlangan, keyinchalik gersogning rafiqasi, Badenli Yakobeya buyrug'i bilan, to'plamga qo'shilgan. [47] Altdorferniki Susanna va oqsoqollar (1526) shular jumlasidandir. [48]

Oldingi tasvirlar Tahrir

Issus jangining oldingi tasvirlari kam. Issus jangi, Eretriya Filoksenining freskasi, ehtimol, birinchi shunday. Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 310 yillarda Aleksandr Makedonskiyning vorislaridan biri bo'lgan Kassander (mil. Av. 350–297 yillar) uchun chizilgan. [49] Aleksandr va Doro - har birining uzunligi nayzali - otilgan va tushgan askarlarning yirtqich janglari orasida tasvirlangan. Iskandar o'ziga ishongan aurani saqlasa -da, qo'rquv Dariusning yuzida muhrlangan va uning aravachisi allaqachon otlarini jilovlab, qochishga burilgan. [49] Rim muallifi va tabiatshunos faylasufi Pliniy oqsoqol Filoksen jangini "hech kimdan kam emas" deb da'vo qilgan. [49] Ba'zi zamonaviy tanqidchilar shunday fikrda Issus jangi Balki bu Filoksen emas, balki Misrlik Yelenaning ishi bo'lishi mumkin. Qadimgi Yunonistonda ishlagan sanoqli ayol rassomlardan biri [50] [51] u Vespasian davrida Tinchlik ibodatxonasida osilgan Issus jangi tasvirini yaratgani bilan mashhur. [52]

Aleksandr mozaikasi, v. Miloddan avvalgi 100 yil, "ishonchli" nusxasi deb ishoniladi Issus jangi, [49] boshqa fikrga ko'ra, uning o'rniga Aleksandr Makedonskiyning bir nechta portretlarini yaratgan Kos apellesining rasmlari bo'lishi mumkin [53]. [54] Uning o'lchami 5,82 m × 3,13 m (19 fut 1 dyuym, 10 fut 3 dyuym) va har biri taxminan 3 mm (0,12 dyuym) kvadratga yaqin, taxminan 1,5 million tesseradan (rangli plitkalar) iborat. Mozaikachi noma'lum. Mozaika 1831 yilgacha qayta kashf qilinmaganligi sababli, Pompey Faunlar uyini qazish paytida [55] Altdorfer uni hech qachon ko'rmagan bo'lardi. Keyinchalik u Italiyaning Neapol shahridagi Neapol milliy arxeologiya muzeyiga ko'chirildi va hozirda u erda.

Ta'rif Tahrirlash

Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi 158,4 sm × 120,3 sm (62,4 dyuym × 47,4 dyuym) o'lchamdagi ohak taxtasida bo'yalgan, [56] va Aleksandr Makedonskiyning g'alabasi lahzasi tasvirlangan. Vertikal format rasm chizilgan xonadagi bo'sh joy bilan belgilanadi - Uilyamning sakkiz kishilik to'plamining har biri bir xil o'lchamda qilingan. Noma'lum sanada panel har tomondan, ayniqsa tepada kesilgan, shuning uchun dastlab osmon kattaroq va oy sahnaning burchagidan nariroqda edi. [57] Sahnaga imkonsiz nuqtai nazardan yondashish mumkin - dastlab jangdan atigi bir necha qadam narida, nuqtai nazar asta -sekin ko'tarilib, orqa fonda dengizlar va qit'alarni, oxir -oqibat Yerning egilishini o'z ichiga oladi. [58] [59]

Minglab nayzalar va nayzalar dengiziga cho'mgan minglab ot va piyoda askarlar birinchi o'rinda. Ikki qo'shin liboslari bilan ajralib turadi, garchi anaxronik bo'lsa -da: Aleksandrning odamlari o'zlarini va otlarini og'ir qurol -yarog 'kiyib olgan bo'lsa, Dorining ko'plari salla kiyib, yalang'och tog'da yurishadi. [60] Ko'plab halok bo'lgan askarlarning jasadlari oyoq ostida yotibdi. Markazda Makedoniya jangchilarining old qismi chap burchakdagi jang maydonidan qochib ketayotgan dushmanlarning qulab tushayotgan kuchlariga qarshi turishadi. Fors shohi uchta otli aravasida o'z qo'shiniga qo'shiladi va Iskandar va uning kiyimlarini kiygan sahoba otliqlari tomonidan ta'qib qilinadi. [47] Askarlar trakti jang maydonidan pastga qarab, lager va shahar manzarasi bo'ylab davom etmoqda va voqea joyining markazidagi tog'li ko'tarilishga qarab harakatlanmoqda.

Undan narida O'rta er dengizi va Kipr oroli joylashgan. [61] Bu erda, rasmning pastki yarmida joylashgan jigarrang ranglardan, yuqori yarmini to'yingan akvalarga qadar rang o'zgarishi amalga oshiriladi. Nil daryosi uzoq masofada, ettita qo'lini Nil deltasida O'rta er dengiziga bo'shatadi. [61] Kiprning janubi - Sinay yarim oroli, u Afrika va Janubi -G'arbiy Osiyo o'rtasidagi quruqlik ko'prigini tashkil qiladi. Qizil dengiz tashqarida, [61] oxir -oqibat - tog 'tizmalarining chap va o'ng tomonida - egri ufq bilan birlashadi.

Rasmning uchdan biridan ko'prog'ini botayotgan quyosh va yarim oy o'rtasidagi ikkiyuzlamachilikda tutilgan shiddatli osmon hukmronlik qiladi. [57] Har bir samoviy jism atrofida ayanchli aylanayotgan yomg'irli bulutlar tinchlik ko'rfazi bilan ajralib turadi, bu kontrastni kuchaytiradi va osmonga beqiyos nur sochadi. [62] Osmondan yorug'lik manzara ustiga tushadi: g'arbiy qit'a va Nil quyosh nurida cho'milganda, sharq va Bobil minorasi soyada yashiringan.

Rasmning mavzusi osmondan osilgan planshetda tushuntirilgan. Uilyam saroyining tarixchisi Yoxannes Aventinus tomonidan berilgan so'zlar [63] dastlab nemis tilida bo'lgan, lekin keyinchalik uning o'rniga lotincha yozuv yozilgan. U tarjima qiladi:

Iskandar Zulqarnayn oxirgi Dorini mag'lub etdi, 100000 piyoda askar va 10 mingdan ortiq otliq askarlar forslar safida o'ldirilganidan keyin. Qirol Doro mingdan oshmagan otliq bilan qochishga muvaffaq bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, onasi, xotini va bolalari asirga olindi.

Jabrlanganlar haqida ma'lumot berilmagan. Pastki chap burchakda Altdorfer monogrammasi-"A" ichida "A"-planshetning pastki chetida "bilan yozilgan.ALBRECHT ALTORFER ZU REGENSPVRG FECIT"(" Regensburglik Albrecht Altdorfer [buni] qildi "). Ularning aravachasi va jabduqlaridagi kichik yozuvlar navbati bilan Doro va Iskandarni aniqlab beradi. [64] Har bir armiya o'zining umumiy kuchi va kelajakdagi qurbonlari haqida xabar beruvchi bannerga ega. [43] [60]

Tahlil va talqin Tahrirlash

Anaxronizm uning asosiy tarkibiy qismi hisoblanadi Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi. Altdorfer Aleksandrning 16-asr po'lat zirhlarini va Doro erkaklarini turk jang kiyimida kiyib, Makedoniya kampaniyasi va zamonaviy Evropa-Usmonli mojarosi o'rtasida ataylab o'xshashliklarni keltirib chiqaradi. [44] [59] [64] 1529 yilda - rasm ishga tushirilgan yili - Buyuk Sulaymon boshchiligidagi Usmonli kuchlari Avstriyaning Vena shahrini qamal qilishdi, [64] keyin Muqaddas Rim imperiyasining poytaxti va Sultonlarning oltin olma. Vani himoya qilish uchun marshallashtirilgan avstriyalik, nemis, chex va ispan askarlari soni jihatidan ancha past bo'lsa -da, dushmanni chekinishga majbur qilib, Usmonlilarning markaziy Evropaga yurishini to'xtatdilar. Ehtimol, Aleksandrning Issusdagi g'alabasiga o'xshashligini hisobga olsak, rasmning asosiy allejiyasi Vena qamalidan ilhomlangan. Ba'zi tanqidchilar, anaxronizmning kiritilishi Altdorfer komissiyasining elementi bo'lishi mumkin, degan fikrni ilgari suradilar. [47] [59]

Uning ichida O'tmish fyucherslari: Tarixiy davr semantikasi haqida, tarixchi Reynxart Kosellek Altdorferning vaqt tasvirini yanada falsafiy nuqtai nazardan muhokama qiladi. Armiya bannerlaridagi qurbonlar raqamidagi yuzaki anaxronizm va rasmning zamonaviy kontekstida chuqurroq anaxronizmni farqlaganidan so'ng, u oxirgi turni bir tarixiy hodisaning boshqasidan ustun qo'yilishi va rekursiv tabiatning e'tirofi ekanligini ta'kidlaydi. tarixdan. Kosellekka ishora qilib, Ketlin Devis bahs yuritadi: ". [Altdorfer] uchun 4-asr forslari 16-asr turklariga o'xshaydi, chunki u farqni bilmaydi, lekin farq muhim emas. AlexanderschlachtBoshqacha aytganda, zamonaviy zamonaviylikni misol qilib keltiradi. zamonaviy bo'lmagan vaqt hissi va tarixiy ongning etishmasligi. Altdorferning tarixiy qoplamalari tarixni esxatologik tasavvuridan dalolat beradi, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, 16 -asr (va XVII -XVIII asrlar ham) har doimgidek takrorlanuvchi bo'lib, kelajakni proleptik tarzda to'ydiradigan, doimiy, vaqtinchalik davrda saqlanib qolgan. Bunday tizimda yo'q bo'lishi mumkin emas voqea Masalan: kutish va kelish muqaddas tarixning qora tuynugiga singib ketadi, bu vaqtinchalik emas, chunki uning vaqti umuman farqlanmagan. "[65]

Anaxronizm bilan bir qatorda Issusdagi Aleksandr jangi haqiqiy tarixiylik yo'qligi. Altdorfer, jangni tadqiq qilishda olib borgan iztiroblariga qaramay, qahramonlik uslubi uchun rasmning tarixiy yaxlitligini e'tiborsiz qoldirishda minimal ikkilanishni namoyish etadi. Fors qo'shini Makedoniya armiyasidan ikki baravar ko'p bo'lganligi aniq emas va qadimgi manbalarda aytilganidek, askarlarning nisbiy joylashuvi e'tiborga olinmagan. San'atshunos Rouz-Mari Xeygenning so'zlariga ko'ra, "Rassom tarixiy haqiqat unga mos kelganda, tarixiy faktlar uning kompozitsiyasi talablariga mos kelganda, sodiq edi". [60] Xeygen, shuningdek, ayollarni jang maydoniga joylashtirilishini Altdorferning "ixtiroga bo'lgan ishtiyoqi" bilan izohlaydi, [60] chunki Darining xotini, onasi va qizlari Dariyni lagerda emas, lagerda kutishgan. qalin jang. [66] Haqiqatan ham, Altdorfer aristokrat xonimlarni tukli toklarida "ovchi ziyofati uchun kiyingan nemis xonim xonimlariga o'xshatdi": [60]

Altdorferning tadqiqotida asosiy nuqta, ehtimol, Xartmann Shhedel edi Nyurnberg yilnomasi (Schedelsche Weltchronik), tasvirlangan dunyo tarixi 1493 yilda Nyurnbergda nashr etilgan. Shhedel - shifokor, gumanist, tarixchi va kartograf va Xronika bosmaxonada chiqarilgan birinchi kitoblardan biri edi. Injilga qattiq tayanib, u insoniyat tarixining etti davrini, [67] Yaratilishdan Masihning tug'ilishigacha va Apokalipsis bilan tugashini hikoya qiladi. [68] Altdorferning Issus jangi haqidagi statistikasi Schedel statistikasini aks ettiradi. Bundan tashqari, Schedel O'rta er dengizi va Shimoliy Afrikaning xaritalaridagi xatolar ham mavjud Issusdagi Aleksandr jangiKipr oroli juda katta bo'lib, rasm markazida tog 'ko'tarilishi ham, Nilga tutash diapazon ham mavjud emas. [61] O'shandan beri Xronika Iskandarning forslar ustidan qozongan g'alabasini Tarsusga yaqinligi va Issus haqida eslatib o'tishni ta'riflaydi, ehtimol dengiz bo'yidagi shahar manzarasi ikkinchisiga emas, balki oldingi shaharga mo'ljallangan bo'lishi mumkin. 16 -asrda Issus kichik va nisbatan noma'lum edi, Tarsus esa Rim davrida asosiy ta'lim va falsafa markazi bo'lganligi bilan mashhur edi. Tarsus, shuningdek, Havoriy Pavlusning tug'ilgan joyi deb aytilgan, bu Altdorfer tasvirida cherkov minoralari borligini tushuntirishi mumkin. [61] Yana bir manba I asrda yashagan Rim tarixchisi Kvint Kurtiy Rufning yozganlari bo'lishi mumkin, u o'ldirilgan va asir olinganlarning soni va qo'shinlar sonini ko'rsatgan. [60]

Osmon aniq metaforik ahamiyatga ega va rasm ramziyligining markazidir. Alexander, identified by the Egyptians and others as a god of the sun, finds his victory in the sun's rays and the Persians are routed into the darkness beneath the crescent moon, a symbol of the Near East. [69] Considered in terms of the painting's contemporary context, the sun's triumph over the moon represents Christendom's victory over the Islamism of the Ottomans. [35] Eschatological meaning, probably inspired by prophecies in the Book of Daniel, is imbued in the heavenly setting. In particular, Daniel 7 predicts the rise and fall of four kingdoms before the Second Coming these were thought to be Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome at the time of the painting's creation. Altdorfer saw the Battle of Issus as a principal indicator of the transition of power from Persia to Greece, and thus as an event of cosmic significance. [35] [57] The battle also marked a progression toward the end of the world – an important theological concern in the 16th century, given that the last traces of Rome were diminishing with the papacy. As a member of the Regensburg council and a practising Catholic, Altdorfer frequently interacted with the Church and was surely aware of this trend of eschatological thought. Schedel, too, had calculated that the final age of the seven he identified was nigh. [67] It may therefore be inferred that the sky's expression of the momentous event at Issus was intended to be of contemporary relevance as well. [57]

The Battle of Alexander at Issus remained part of the royal collection of the Dukes of Bavaria for centuries. By the late 18th century, it was regularly featured in public galleries at the Schleissheim Palace. The painting was one of 72 taken to Paris in 1800 by the invading armies of Napoleon I (1769–1821), [70] who was a noted admirer of Alexander the Great. [60] [71] The Louvre held it until 1804, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France and took it for his own use. When the Prussians captured the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1814 as part of the War of the Sixth Coalition, they supposedly found the painting hanging in Napoleon's bathroom. [72]

The Battle of Alexander at Issus and 26 others taken in the 1800 invasion were subsequently restored to the King of Bavaria in 1815. [70] Five of the paintings in William IV's original set of eight – including The Battle of Alexander at Issus – later passed from the royal collection to the Alte Pinakothek art museum in Munich, Germany, where they remain the other three are in the National Museum of Fine Arts in Stockholm, having been looted by the Swedish army in the Thirty Years War of 1618–1648. [73] Susannah and the Elders is the only other work by Altdorfer in the Alte Pinakothek.

Contextually, the painting forms part of the Northern Renaissance, a resurgence of classical humanism and culture in northern Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Renaissance induced a new kind of social individualism which Altdorfer expressed through the heroic emphasis on Alexander and Darius, and which is reflected in the specifics of the painting's commission and by the subjects of its companion pieces: "During the Renaissance people no longer saw themselves solely as members of a social group, as the citizens of a town, or as sinners before God in whose eyes all were equal. They had become aware of the unique qualities that distinguished one person from another. Unlike the Middle Ages, the Renaissance celebrated the individual. Altdorfer may have painted row after row of apparently identical warriors, but the spectators themselves would identify with Alexander and Darius, figures who had names, whose significance was indicated by the cord which hung down from the tablet above them." [47]

Altdorfer was not only a pioneer of landscape, but also a practitioner of early incarnations of the Romanticism and expressionism which impacted the arts so greatly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Kenneth Clark writes of Altdorfer and contemporaries Grünewald and Bosch, "They are what we now call 'expressionist' artists, a term which is not as worthless as it sounds, because, in fact, the symbols of expressionism are remarkably consistent, and we find in the work of these early 16th-century landscape painters not only the same spirit but the same shapes and iconographical motives which recur in the work of such recent expressionists as van Gogh, Max Ernst, Graham Sutherland and Walt Disney." [74] According to art critic Pia F. Cuneo, "Altdorfer's construction of landscape on a cosmic scale" in the Battle of Alexander at Issus, and his "spiritual and aesthetic affinities with Romanticism and Modern art (in particular, German Expressionism)", "have been especially singled out for praise". [75]

The Battle of Alexander at Issus is typically considered to be Altdorfer's masterpiece. Cuneo states that the painting is usually "considered in splendid isolation from its fifteen other companion pieces, based on the assumption that it either metonymically stands in for the entire cycle, or that its perceived aesthetic predominance merits exclusive focus." [75] German writer Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829) was one of many who saw the painting in the Louvre and marvelled, calling it a "small painted Iliad". [72] Reinhart Koselleck comments that Altdorfer's depiction of the thousands of soldiers was executed with "a mastery previously unknown", [65] and Kathleen Davis describes the painting as "epochal in every sense". [65]


The Grand Master: Alexander’s Genius in the Battle of Issus

King Darius planned on fighting Alexander on the wide Syrian plains.This tactic would have allowed Darius the opportunity of surrounding Alexander’s greatly outnumbered army.

Darius decided to rest his troops at the Pinarus river during his pursuit of Alexander. Alexander learned of Darius’s location and immediately executed his strategy of fighting Darius on the plains of the Pinarus, which was shut in by the mountains and sea.

Statue of Alexander the Great. By Carole Raddato / CC BY-SA 3.0

This tactical move prevented Darius from surrounding the Macedonian’s outnumbered army and Alexander’s eventual probable defeat.

Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus happened in 333 B.C was Alexander the Great’s second battle against the Persian army and his first direct engagement against King Darius III, King of Persia. The battle transpired near the village of Issus wherein Alexander defeated the Persian Army thereby causing Darius III to flee the battlefield. In history, the Battle of Issus has gone down as one of the most pivotal battles to occur.

Battle of Issus. Darius III portrayed (in the middle) in battle against Alexander in a Greek depiction. By Berthold Werner / CC BY-SA 3.0

Upon hearing that Darius III along with his Persian army was approaching the agricultural rich land surrounding Issus, Alexander the Great immediately called together his team of advisors to discuss strategy and tactic. The agreement was to advance to meet the Persians in battle – but not immediately.

Battle of Issus Movements – Persians in Red & Macedonians in Blue.

Because of the delay in action, Darius advisors’ assumed that Alexander did not intend to continue further into Asia. Darius was convinced by his advisors that his troop could easily take over the Macedonian forces. Unfortunately, the Persians were entirely wrong. Darius’s location in a flat and wide open field was the perfect position for his massive cavalry. Had Darius and his troop remained in their original position and not pressed forward, he may have won the battle.

Darius III of Persia

Macedonian soldiers who were injured and ill were left in the port which served as recovery camp. As Darius’s troop advanced forward to meet Alexander at the River Penarus, he stopped at the camp and tortured and slaughtered the recuperating Macedonian soldiers. Word of the massacre reached Alexander, probing him to send the Hetaeri, the elite Macedonian cavalry, to investigate what truly happened.

The Hetaeri returned to Alexander confirming the reports about the slaughter as well as with information about Darius’s current location at Issus. Alexander the Great immediately took action and began rallying his forces – leading his invincible army out to meet Darius III.

Hetaeri – A heavy cavalryman of Alexander the Great’s army, By Marsyas / CC BY-SA 3.0

At Issus, Darius sent 30,000 cavalry with 20,000 light infantry across the Pinarus River. He sent another 20,000 Persians to corner Alexander on the rear. Meanwhile, Alexander brought the Hetaeri along with the cavalry of Thessalians and Macedonians in his own command to the right. The Peloponnesians, under the command of Parmenio, veered to the left.

Darius moved his cavalry to the right pushing the Macedonian left to the seaward side of the battlefield. Alexander responded by moving his Thessalian troop to meet the Persians. He moved slowly and precisely as if he had all the time in the world while waiting for his army to conduct a strike in the distance.

The other Macedonian troops quickly engaged in battle as soon as the Persian forces were within range leaving the Persians helpless against the Macedonian’s full cavalry force. Alexander then moved his men to the center to prevent the Persians from breaking through the line.

From afar, Darius III watched as his forces slowly crumble against the Macedonian force. The Persians, led by Darius retreated.

King Darius Learned From the Battle of Granicus

Battle of the Granicus.

The Pinarus had steep banks in its upper and middle course. The Persians used this as an obstacle to defend their front in the same manner that they did at the Granicus.

The mistake that Darius made at the Battle of Granicus was not repeated at the Battle of Issus. Darius’s best troops, the Greek Mercenaries, were positioned in front of the center of the battle. The cavalry was on the right of the Greek mercenaries at the lower part of the Pinarus river.

Initial Positions of Forces.

At Granicus, Darius mistakenly placed his cavalry in front next to the steep bank of the river Granicus which prohibited his cavalry from charging Alexander’s army.

The banks of the Pinarus river were flat and the stream did not form an obstacle. The ground was level enough for a cavalry approach. Darius’s remaining troops were placed behind this front. Darius positioned himself in his impressive chariot in the center in back of his Greek mercenaries.

Alexander Demonstrates His Military Genius

The Macedonian Phalanx in a perfect position. it would never have looked like this in battle, and Alexander showed that in an interesting and engaging way.

Ulrich Wilken points out in his book, Alexander the Great, that the Pinarus was one of Alexander’s most memorable battles. Alexander began the battle, using the oblique formation, by charging with his heavy cavalry over the Pinarus and attacking the left wing of the enemy.

The Persians began to weaken from the terrific impact Alexander made with his heavy cavalry. However, Alexander’s phalangites were thrown back while they attempted to climb the steep bank of the river. The Greek mercenaries immediately recognized this weakness and threw themselves fiercely into the battle at the edge of the river.

Alexander s Attack.

Subsequently, both the Macedonians and Greek mercenaries fought each other fiercely, demonstrating their ethnic prejudices towards each other. Fortunately for the Macedonians, assistance was provided them from the nearby phalangites and Alexander himself.

Apparently after overcoming the left wing of the Persians, Alexander had executed the decisive turn and was successfully attacking the Persian center. This decided the battle of Issus. Darius, recognized Alexander’s successful defeating of his main force and retreated northwards in a frantic escape.

Painting of the battle of Issus by Jan Brueghel the Elder

Darius’s Escape Caused Great Disaster to His Army

The Persian cavalry continued to fight steadfastly until they learned of Darius’s escape from the battlefield. Then they turned around and commenced a frantic run for their lives. Alexander’s army pursued the fleeing Persians with a vengeance.

The historian, Ptolemy, who rode beside Alexander, recorded that in their pursuit they passed by a ravine, which was filled to the top with the dead bodies of the enemies.

Alexander the Great proved to the world his superior military mind in defeating Darius’s vastly numbered army. He did this by deciding to fight Darius on the plains of the Pinarus which prevented Alexander from being surrounded by King Darius’s heavily numbered army.

The victory at Issus marked the realization of Alexander’s dream of Persian domination.


MyIndiamyGlory

Alexander, having won all the kingdoms west of Greece up to Bacteria (Persia), proceeded to India, defeated many kings and finally met his foe Porus in Punjab. Alexander entered into a pact with Ambhi, a sworn enemy of Porus with whom he attended Taxila as a student.

Alexander defeated Porus and in appreciation of his valor, Alexander gave the kingdom back to Porus and left Selecus Nicator as his representative in India. This is utter lie. Facts lie below.

Strabo, the Greek historian wrote: “Generally speaking, the men who have written on the affairs of India were a set of liars…Of this we became the more convinced whilst writing the history of Alexander.”

“After Alexander’s failure to gain a position in India and the defeat of Seleucus Nicator, relationships between the Indians and the Greeks and the Romans later, was mainly through trade and diplomacy. The Greeks and other ancient peoples didn’t see themselves as in any way superior, only different.”

This statement by Russia’s Marshal Gregory Zhukov on the Macedonian invasion of India in 326 BCE is significant because unlike the prejudiced colonial and Western historians, the Greeks and later Romans viewed Indians differently.

For instance, Arrian writes in Alexander Anabasis that the Indians were the noblest among all Asians. In fact, Arrian and other Greeks say the Indians were relentless in their attacks on the invaders.

They say if the people of Punjab and Sindh were fierce, then in the eastern part of India “the men were superior in stature and courage”. All this is glossed over by Western historians, in whose view the one victory over king Porus amounted to the “conquest of India”.

But the Greeks made no such claim. Greek contemporary writers describe the Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) as the hardest fought of all Alexander’s battles.

Frank Lee Holt, a prof of ancient history at the University of Houston,writes in his book, Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions: “The only reference in Arrian’s history to a victory celebration by Alexander’s army was after the battle with Porus.”

Alexander’s army did not indulge in celebrations after the Battle of Gaugamela where they defeated 200,000 Persians. No wild festivities were announced after the Battle of Issus where they defeated a mixed force of Persian cavalry and Greek mercenaries.

The fact they celebrated after the Battle of Hydaspes suggests they considered themselves extremely lucky to survive after the clash with the Hindu army, with its elephant corps.

According to the Greeks, Alexander was apparently so impressed by Porus that he gave back his kingdom plus the territories of king Ambhi of Taxila who had fought alongside the Macedonians.

This is counterintuitive. Ambhi had become Alexander’s ally on the condition he would be given Porus’ kingdom. So why reward the enemy, whose army had just mauled the Macedonians?

The only possible answer is at the Battle of Hydaspes, the Macedonians realised they were dealing with an enemy of uncommon valour. Sensing defeat they called for a truce, which Porus accepted.

The Indian king struck a bargain in return for Ambhi’s territories, which would secure his frontiers, Porus would assist the Macedonians in leaving India safely. Alexander’s post-Hydaspes charitable behaviour, as per Greek accounts, is uncharacteristic and unlikely.

For, in battles before and after, he massacred everyone in the cities he subdued. Description of the War: The Greek force, after having lost several thousand soldiers fighting much smaller Indian mountain cities, were terrified at the prospect of fighting the Paurava army.

They had also heard about the havoc that Indian war elephants were supposed to create among enemy ranks. The modern equivalent of battle tanks, the war elephants also scared the wits out of the horses in the Greek cavalry.

According to the Roman historian Marcus Justinus, the battle was savagely fought. Puru challenged Alexander, who charged him on horseback.

In the ensuing duel, Alexander fell off his horse and was at the mercy of the Indian king’s spear (and this is where legend meets history) when Puru perhaps remembered his promise to his rakhi sister (probably a Trojan horse sent in by the Greeks).

He spared the Macedonian’s life, and Alexander’s bodyguards quickly carried off their king. The Greeks may claim victory but if Alexander’s troops were so badly mauled by the petty regional fiefdoms, how could they have crushed the comparatively stronger army of Puru?

An unbiased re-examination suggests the Greeks had lost the battle. In his epic, The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, a series of translations of the Ethiopic histories of Alexander, E.A.W. Budge, Egyptologist, orientalist and philologist,has given a vivid account of same.

According to Budge, in the Battle of Hydaspes, the Indians destroyed the majority of Alexander’s cavalry. Realising that if he were to continue fighting he would be completely ruined, the Macedonian requested Puru to stop fighting.

True to Hindu traditions, the magnanimous Indian king spared the life of the surrendered enemy. A peace treaty was signed and Alexander helped Puru in annexing other territories to his kingdom.

Featured image courtesy: Quora.

Note: The above article is an exact (with very minor changes) reproduction of a twitter thread on Puru and Alexander by Aabhas Maldahiyar.


History Minds

The Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. was one of the greatest for Alexander the Great. As told from the Macedonian point of view it was a victorious, though violent, battle from which the Macedonians continued to carry their title of invincible. In history it has certainly gone down as one of the pivotal battles of antiquity.

As soon as news arrived that Darius of Persia was approaching the Macedonian forces, Alexander the Great immediately called together his advisors to discuss their options. The consensus was to advance to meet them in battle, though not immediately. Ever the strategist, Alexander was not quick to action.

Darius’s advisors claimed that the Macedonian slow response to their advance signaled that Alexander did not intend to continue further into Asia. They convinced him that the Persians could easily overtake the Macedonian forces the Persians should press forward, his advisors claimed. Had Darius remained in his original position, which was a flat and wide open battlefield, perfect for his numerous cavalry, he may have won the battle. Based on this advice, Darius advanced to Issus where he found Alexander’s rear detachment.

The Hetaeri returned to Alexander confirming that reports of the slaughter were true. The cavalry unit also reported that Darius was presently occupying Issus. Alexander immediately sprang to action and began to rally his troops. In typical fashion, Alexander cited other battles in which the Macedonians had been victorious. He compared the luxury-loving Persians who fought as slaves, to the free Macedonians who fought with their hearts dedicated to the battle – endowing them with a pre-nation patriotism that stood out against the forced conscription of the Persians. After his men ate a hearty meal, Alexander led the army out to meet Darius.

At Issus, Darius sent 30,000 cavalry and 20, 000 light infantry across the Pinarus River. He dispatched another 20,000 men went to Alexander’s rear. Meanwhile, Alexander brought the cavalry, composed of the Thessalians, Macedonians and the Hetaeri, on the right under his own command. The Peloponnesian troops made up the Macedonian left, under the command of Parmenio, a trusted advisor and general from the days of King Philip, Alexander’s father.

Darius then moved his cavalry to his right, threatening the Macedonian left on the seaward side of the battlefield. Darius continued to move his men around throughout the battle, though it seemed to his detriment. Alexander quickly responded by moving the Thessalian troops to meet the Persians. He led his forces slowly, but precisely, in order to give the appearance that he had all the time in the world, until the armies came within striking distance.

The Macedonians quickly fell into battle with the Persians as soon as they were within range. Their swift pace decreased casualties and left the Persians helpless. The Persian left fell almost immediately against the Macedonian cavalry forces. Alexander then moved his men to the Macedonian center to maintain stability and keep the Persians from breaking through the line. Alexander’s swift success encouraged the troops in the weakening center, and they began to fight harder.

Darius watched his forces from afar, preferring to remain outside of the battle. When the Macedonian cavalry became too much for them, the Persians retreated with Darius leading the way.

Alexander pursued Darius until the sun died that day. Although he did not capture him, Alexander and the Macedonian forces had decimated the Persian army at the battle of Issus.

Arrianus, Flavius. “The Battle of Issus.” The Art of War in World History: from Antiquity to the Nuclear Age. Ed. Gerard Chaliand. Berkli: Kaliforniya universiteti matbuoti, 1994 yil.


Battle of Issus - History

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The Battle of Issus shown on the Alexander Mosaic (c 100 BC) in the House of the Faun in Pompeii (Wikimedia Commons). It is believed to be a copy of a painting by Alexander&rsquos contemporary Apelles of Kos. Alexander is shown on the left on his horse Bucephalus. The mosaic representing the battle of Alexander the Great against Darius III, perhaps after an earlier Greek painting of Philoxenus of Eretria. This mosaic is now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples).


The Battle of Issus (or the Battle at Issus) occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. The invading troops, led by the young Alexander of Macedonia, defeated the army personally led by Darius III of Achaemenid Persia in the second great battle for primacy in Asia. After Alexander's forces successfully forced a crossing of the Hellespont (the Dardanelles) and defeated the Persian satraps in a prior encounter, the Battle of the Granicus, Darius took personal charge of his army, gathered a large army from the depths of the empire, and maneuvered to cut the Greek line of supply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and south of the village of Issus.

Eventual accounts tell of bodies piled within the waters high enough to dam its flow and that the river ran red with blood. So while Alexander is known to have repeatedly emphasized the importance of maintaining contact with the beach to his sub-commander on the left (seaward) flank, it is safe to assume a lot of action that day along all the water course in its 2.5 km travel through the small narrow rough hilly coastal plain that prevented the Persians, with their greater numbers, from outflanking the attacking Greeks.

Initially, Alexander chose what was apparently unfavorable ground to an attack across (rough, briar choked, uphill) which was in fact a feint meant to pin and hold the Persian forces. This surprised Darius who mistakenly elected to hold position while Alexander then led the true attack personally on the right while instructing the Macedonian phalanx trained infantry, his main body, to make contact and just hold the main Persian army in check thus in essence he advanced to take up a defensive posture. Meanwhile Alexander personally led the more elite Greek Companion cavalry against the Persian left up against the hills, and cut up the enemy on the less encumbering terrain generating a quick rout. After achieving a breakthrough, Alexander demonstrated he could do the difficult and held the cavalry successfully in check after it broke the Persian right. Alexander regrouped, then turned the body into the right flank of the Persian center, butchering Darius' body guard and under generals, provoking a panic and flight by that emperor himself, and causing a general rout. Any subsequent pursuit of Darius was delayed and generally impeded by the fleeing Persian troops and camp followers, although he managed to follow Darius' chariot until after dark some 24 to 25 km before giving up the chase.

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Added: 11 years ago.
Topic: Macedonia (800s BC-146 BC)


Jang

Alexander ordered a general advance. The tight formation of the Macedonian infantry phalanx lost cohesion moving forward over rough ground and crossing the stream. Darius's infantry were able to penetrate gaps in the bristling barrier of spears and to cut and stab at men in the exposed core of the phalanx. But on the left the Thessalian horsemen performed well against the strongest concentration of Darius's cavalry, while on the right, Alexander led a charge of the companion cavalry that swept all before it. Wheeling in from the flank, Alexander's horsemen bore down upon the rear of the enemy infantry who were driven onto the anvil of the Macedonian phalanx. Darius and his entourage fledthe battlefield to avoid capture. Much of the infantry was trapped and cut down where it stood, while large numbers of fleeing cavalry and skirmishers were pursued and massacred. 


Cavalry fight on the beach

On the Persian right wing, victory had already been achieved. Alexander's cavalry, which consisted of horsemen from the Greek allies and the Thessalian riders, had crossed the shallow delta of the Pinarus, but had had been blocked by the Persian horsemen, which were superior in numbers and were commanded by Darius' chiliarch, Nabarzanes.

They had now come within javelin-range when the Persian cavalry made a furious charge on the left wing of their enemy for Darius wanted the issue decided in a cavalry engagement since he presumed that the phalanx was the main strength of the Macedonian army. note [Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander of Macedonia, 3.11.1 tr. J. Yardley.]

Within a few minutes, one of the Thessalian squadrons had been annihilated. The Persians started to push back the other Thessalian riders and the Greek allies, into and across the river. Parmenion ordered them to regroup, but the enemies came across the river in great numbers, and were already winging to the left to attack the Macedonian phalanx in the rear. The regrouped Thessalians and Greek allies had to prevent the destruction of the infantry, and could count on the support of the small reserve that Alexander had, with this purpose in mind, placed behind his lines. However, it was a matter of time until the Persian cavalry would surround the reserve and reach the phalanx, which was already forced back by the Greek hoplites.


Experience and Execution

Alexander’s success came down to experience and execution.

Both commanders had sound plans. Alexander, however, had more expertise in the field and so did his men. They were able to execute their maneuvers more effectively.

Once the battle got going, Alexander was able to seize the opportunities he needed. He adapted to Darius’ moves, countering each one.

Issus was a close call for Alexander. His enemy got behind him, and his left flank almost collapsed. He pulled victory out of desperate circumstances, once more proving why he was the Great.

General Sir John Hackett, ed. (1989), Warfare in the Ancient World.


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