Kamerun inson huquqlari 2017 hisoboti 2018 yil aprel - Tarix

Kamerun inson huquqlari 2017 hisoboti 2018 yil aprel - Tarix


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Qonunda ishchilarning mustaqil kasaba uyushmalari tuzish va ularga qo'shilish, jamoaviy savdolashish va qonuniy ish tashlashlar o'tkazish huquqlari ko'zda tutilgan. Qonun, shuningdek, ittifoqqa qarshi kamsitishni taqiqlaydi va kasaba uyushmalari faoliyati uchun ishdan bo'shatilgan ishchilarni qayta tiklashni talab qiladi. Qonuniy cheklovlar va boshqa amaliyotlar bu huquqlarni sezilarli darajada cheklab qo'ydi. Qonun davlat va xususiy sektor ishchilarini o'z ichiga olgan kasaba uyushmasini tuzishga yoki turli sohalarni o'z ichiga olgan kasaba uyushmasini tuzishga ruxsat bermaydi. Qonunga ko'ra, kasaba uyushmalari 20 kishidan kam bo'lmagan ishchilar guruhlariga konstitutsiya va qonun hujjatlarini yuborish orqali kasaba uyushmasini tashkil etish uchun ruxsat berib, hukumatda ro'yxatdan o'tishni talab qiladi; ta'sischi a'zolar ham toza politsiya yozuvlariga ega bo'lishi kerak. Qonun kasaba uyushmasini tuzgan va kasaba uyushmasi faoliyatini ro'yxatdan o'tkazmasdan amalga oshirgan ishchilar uchun katta jarimalarni nazarda tutadi. Kasaba uyushmalari yoki davlat xizmatchilari uyushmalari "jamoat erkinliklarini nazorat qilish" uchun mas'ul vazirning ruxsatisiz chet ellik kasb yoki mehnat tashkilotiga qo'shilishlari mumkin emas.

Konstitutsiya va qonun ishchilar va rahbariyat o'rtasida, shuningdek, iqtisodiyotning har bir sohasida mehnat federatsiyalari va xo`jalik birlashmalari o`rtasida jamoaviy bitim tuzishni nazarda tutadi. Qonun qishloq xo'jaligi yoki norasmiy sohalarga taalluqli emas, ular ishchi kuchlarining ko'p qismini o'z ichiga olgan.

Huquqiy ish tashlashlar yoki blokirovkalar faqat yarashuv va arbitraj protseduralari tugagandan so'ng chaqirilishi mumkin. Qonuniy ish tashlash tartib -qoidalariga rioya qilmagan ishchilar ishdan bo'shatilishi yoki jarimaga tortilishi mumkin. Ish tashlashdan oldin ishchilar Mehnat va aholini ijtimoiy muhofaza qilish vazirligidan mahalliy, mintaqaviy va vazirlik darajasida vositachilik qilishlari kerak. Faqat uchta darajadagi vositachilik muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan taqdirda, ishchilar rasman ish tashlash to'g'risida ogohlantirish berishi va keyinchalik ish tashlashi mumkin. Shaxsga ish tashlashga ruxsat beruvchi qonunning qoidasi davlat xizmatchilariga, penitentsiar tizim xodimlariga yoki milliy xavfsizlikka mas'ul ishchilarga, shu jumladan politsiya, jandarma va armiya xodimlariga taalluqli emas. Ish tashlashlar o'rniga, davlat xizmatchilari shikoyatlarni mehnat va aholini ijtimoiy muhofaza qilish vaziridan tashqari, tegishli bo'lim vaziri bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri muhokama qilishlari shart. Arbitraj qarorlari qonuniy kuchga ega, lekin agar bir tomon hamkorlik qilishdan bosh tortsa, ular ko'pincha bajarilmaydi.

Birlashmaslikka qarshi kamsitishda aybdor bo'lgan ish beruvchilarga taxminan bir million CFA franki (1,866 dollar) miqdorida jarima solinadi.

Erkin sanoat zonalari mehnat qonunchiligiga bo'ysunadi, quyidagi qoidalar bundan mustasno: ish beruvchilarning ish haqini mehnat unumdorligiga qarab belgilash huquqi, mehnat shartnomalarini erkin muzokara qilish va chet ellik ishchilar uchun ishga ruxsatnomalarni avtomatik berish.

Amalda, hukumat va ish beruvchilar uyushish erkinligi va jamoaviy bitim tuzish huquqi to'g'risidagi amaldagi qonunchilikni samarali amalga oshirmadilar. Qoidabuzarliklar uchun jazo choralari kamdan -kam hollarda bajarilgan va to'xtatuvchi vosita sifatida foydasiz bo'lgan. Ma'muriy sud protseduralari kamdan -kam uchradi va uzoq muddat kechiktirilishi va shikoyat qilinishi mumkin edi. Hukumat va ish beruvchilar ko'pincha ishchilar tashkilotlarining faoliyatiga aralashadilar. Hukumat vaqti -vaqti bilan vakillik qilmaydigan kasaba uyushmalari rahbarlari bilan saylangan rahbarlarga zarar etkazish uchun ishlagan, ish beruvchilar esa ishchilarni savdolashish huquqiga ega bo'lishdan qochish uchun yollash usullarini, masalan, subpudratchilikdan foydalanishgan. Kasaba uyushmasi a'zolarini qora ro'yxatga olish, nohaqlik bilan ishdan bo'shatish, ish beruvchilar nazoratidagi kasaba uyushmalarini rag'batlantirish va kasaba uyushmalari bilan birlashmoqchi bo'lgan ishchilarni qo'rqitish odatiy hol edi.

Yangi kasaba uyushmalari ro'yxatdan o'tishga oson kirishmagan. 30 -iyuldagi maktubida, Litoral viloyati, Vouri bo'limida yangi tashkil etilgan Xususiy xavfsizlik xodimlari kasaba uyushmasi rasmiylari kasaba uyushmalari ro'yxatga oluvchisiga o'z tashkilotini 2016 yil aprelida tashkil etish to'g'risida xabar berishdi va shu bilan birga uning Konfederatsiyaga a'zo bo'lishini so'rashdi. Kamerun ishchilar uyushmalari (CSTC). Ro'yxatga oluvchi taqdim etilgan hujjatlarni tasdiqlash uchun qo'shimcha vaqt talab qildi.

100 dan ortiq kasaba uyushmalari va 12 kasaba uyushmalari konfederatsiyasi, shu jumladan bitta davlat sektori konfederatsiyasi faoliyat ko'rsatdi.

Hukumat KXShTning sobiq rahbarlari bilan hamkorlikni davom ettirib, 2015 yilda saylangan KXShT rahbariyatiga putur etkazdi. Sobiq rahbar Jan Mari Zambo Amugu, 17 yanvarda sud qaroriga binoan, bu ishni darhol to'xtatishni buyurganiga qaramay, "KXShT Prezidenti" unvonidan foydalanishda davom etdi. Mehnat va aholini ijtimoiy muhofaza qilish vaziri Zambo Amuguni KXShTning rasmiy vakili deb hisoblashni davom ettirdi, uni uchrashuvlarga taklif qildi va KXShTning barcha yozishmalarini unga jo'natdi, KXShTning qonuniy rahbari Andre Mussi Nolla va boshqa yangi rahbarlarga zarar etkazdi. CSTC tomonidan ko'plab shikoyatlar. Vazir, shuningdek, Zamonaviy Amugu, Tsoungui Fidelin Kristelle, Beyala Jyul Dalamard, Nintcheu Uolla Charlz, Malloum Lamin va Hamadu Nassuruni KXShT sobiq boshqaruv guruhining barcha a'zolarini mamlakat delegatsiyasida ishchilarning vakillari etib tayinladi. Jenevada 5-16 iyun. 31 may kuni Xalqaro Mehnat Tashkilotining Ishonch yorliqlari qo'mitasiga yozgan maktubida, KXShTning yangi rahbarlari bu delegatlarni kiritishga qarshilik ko'rsatishga urinishdi.

2016 yildagidek, kasaba uyushmalari xodimlari, xususiy korxonalarida kasaba uyushmalari tuzishni taqiqlaydigan, jumladan, Fokou, Afrike Construction, Eko-Marche va Quifferou yoki kasaba uyushmalari faoliyatiga to'sqinlik qilayotgani haqida xabar berishdi. Masalan, Douala II, IV, V va Tiko (Janubi -G'arbiy mintaqa) da joylashgan ba'zi kompaniyalar kasaba uyushmalari ishchilarining maoshining 1 foizini saqlab qolishgan, lekin pulni kasaba uyushmalariga o'tkazishdan bosh tortishgan. Dastlab o'z ishchilarining kasaba uyushmasiga qarshi bo'lgan ba'zi kompaniyalar o'z fikrlarini o'zgartirib, o'z xodimlariga kasaba uyushmalariga kirishga ruxsat berishdi, masalan, DANGOTE Ciment Kamerun, bu ishchilar vakillarini saylash imkonini berdi.

Ko'p ish beruvchilar savdolashish huquqiga ega bo'lgan ishchilarni yollamaslik uchun yollash amaliyotini tez -tez ishlatishadi. Ishchilar vakillari ENEO, CDE, Cimencam, Guinness, Alucam va boshqa ko'plab kompaniyalarga tayanib, ko'pchilik yirik kompaniyalar, shu jumladan parastatal kompaniyalar amaliyot bilan shug'ullanadilar. Xabar berilishicha, subpudrat ishiga barcha toifadagi xodimlar, eng pastdan yuqori darajagacha jalb qilingan. Natijada, teng tajriba va tajribaga ega bo'lgan ishchilar har doim ham xuddi shu biznesda ishlashda o'xshash afzalliklarga ega bo'la olishmagan; subpudratchilar odatda shikoyat qilish uchun qonuniy asosga ega emas edi.

Bir qator ish tashlashlar e'lon qilindi, ularning ba'zilari muvaffaqiyatli muzokaralardan so'ng to'xtatildi. Boshqalar esa muammosiz yoki qaysidir darajada qatag'onlar bilan olib borilgan. Ishchilarning shikoyatlari odatda yomon mehnat sharoitlari, jumladan shaxsiy himoya vositalarining etishmasligi, jamoaviy bitimlarning noto'g'ri bajarilishi, ish haqi bo'yicha qarz yoki pensiya to'lovlarining to'lanmasligi, shartnomalarning noqonuniy bekor qilinishi, ish haqining oshmasligi, ish beruvchilarning xodimlarni to'g'ri ro'yxatga olmasligi va maosh to'lamasligi. ish beruvchining sog'liqni saqlash va ijtimoiy ta'minot bo'yicha nafaqalarni ta'minlaydigan Milliy ijtimoiy sug'urta fondiga qo'shgan hissasi.

Hukumat 10 -aprel kuni bo'lib o'tgan ish tashlashdan keyin Vouri kengashi ishchilarining kasaba uyushmasiga a'zo 11 ishchi vakilining maoshini to'xtatdi. Douala shahar kengashi xodimlari o'zlari va yaqin qarindoshlari uchun tibbiy sug'urta talab qilishdi. Hukumat delegati shikoyat qiluvchilarni ishdan bo'shatdi, lekin uni Mehnat va aholini ijtimoiy muhofaza qilish vaziri boshqardi. Hukumat delegati dekabr oyidan boshlab xodimlarni qayta tiklamadi.

Yanvar oyida sog'liqni saqlash vaziri Andre Mama Fuda bilan muvaffaqiyatsiz muzokaralar muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lganidan so'ng, shifokorlar aprel va may oylarida ish sharoitlarini yaxshilash va ish haqini oshirish uchun bir qator ish tashlashlar uyushtirishdi. Vazir vazir Fuda shifokorlarni ish tashlashdan ogohlantirdi, buni u noqonuniy deb baholadi va shifokorlar kasaba uyushmasi ro'yxatga olinmaganligini aytdi. Aprel ish tashlashidan keyin harakatni zararsizlantirish maqsadida u kasaba uyushmalari rahbarlarini mamlakat shimolidagi chekka qishloqlardagi sog'liqni saqlash muassasalariga o'tkazdi. Hech bir transferda sog'liqni saqlash muassasasining texnik darajasi shifokorlar profiliga to'g'ri kelmagan.

Anglofon mintaqalaridagi o'qituvchilar va huquqshunoslar ham frantsuz tilida so'zlashuvchi ko'pchilikning marginallashuvi deb e'tiroz bildirish uchun ko'p oylik ish tashlash o'tkazdilar. Dastlab advokatlarni sezilarli darajada cheklab qo'yganidan so'ng, hukumat keyinchalik taranglikni tarqatishga qaratilgan qator chora -tadbirlarni amalga oshirdi. Huquqshunoslar va o'qituvchilar noyabr oyigacha ikki viloyatda ishlarini qayta tikladilar.


HRW va ndash Human Rights Watch

Kamerun, ilgari barqarorligi bilan tanilgan mamlakat, 2018 yilda zo'ravonlik va inson huquqlarining jiddiy buzilishlariga duch keldi. Mamlakat Anglofonning uchta mintaqasida bo'linish qo'zg'oloniga qarshi qo'pol harbiy operatsiyalarni, Uzoq Shimoldagi islomiy jangari guruh Boko Haramning hujumlarini, va yomonlashgan gumanitar inqiroz. 85 yoshli Prezident Pol Biya 7 oktyabrda ettinchi etti yillik muddatni qo'lga kiritdi.

Janubi -G'arbiy va Shimoli -G'arbiy hududlarda hukumat xavfsizlik kuchlari sudsiz qatl qilish, mulkni yoqish, o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olishlar va mahbuslarni qiynoqqa solish. Human Rights Watch hisoboti Anglofon mintaqalarida har ikki tomonning bir qator huquqbuzarliklarini, jumladan, uylar va maktablarga o't qo'yishni hujjatlashtirgan. Xalqaro inqiroz guruhiga ko'ra, 2017 yilda inqiroz avj olganidan beri hukumat kuchlari va qurolli bo'linuvchilar 420 dan ortiq tinch aholini o'ldirgan.

"Boko Haram" hujumlari va ayirmachilar qo'zg'olonining gumanitar oqibatlari xavotirni kuchaytirmoqda. Noyabr oyi holatiga ko'ra, Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining hisob -kitoblariga ko'ra, Uzoq Shimolda 244,000 dan ortiq tinch aholi, Shimoliy G'arbiy va Janubi -G'arbiy Anglofon mintaqalarida 437,500 kishi ko'chirilgan. 32,600 ga yaqin kamerunlik Nigeriyadan boshpana topdi. Shuningdek, Kamerun Nigeriya shimoli -sharqidagi Boko Haram hujumlaridan qochib, nigeriyalik boshpana izlovchilarni majburan qaytarishni davom ettirdi.

Hukumat xavfsizlik kuchlari tomonidan sodir etilgan jiddiy jinoyatlarga toqat qilmasligini ta'kidlagan bo'lsa -da, ularni tergov qilish va jazolash borasida ilgarilashni ko'rsatolmadi.

22 -oktabr kuni Kamerunning Konstitutsiyaviy kengashi 71,28 foiz ovoz bilan Pol Biyaning qayta saylanishini tasdiqladi. Kengash qaroriga darhol Biyaning raqiblaridan biri Moris Kamto e'tiroz bildirdi, u natijalar o'zgartirilganligini aytdi. Noyabr oyi boshida G'arbiy mintaqaning Bafoussam shahrida Kamto tarafdorlari bo'lgan o'nlab namoyishchilar hibsga olindi. Biya 6 noyabrda ettinchi marta prezident sifatida qasamyod keltirdi.


Manbalar

Afrikadagi nizolarni konstruktiv hal qilish markazi (ACCORD). 21 iyul 2017. Ateki Seta Kaxton. "Kamerundagi ingliz tili muammosi - keng qamrovli muloqot va islohotlarga ehtiyoj". [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Afrikadagi nizolarni konstruktiv hal qilish markazi (ACCORD). N.d. "ACCORD haqida." [Kirish 13 avgust, 2018]

Al -Jazira 1 oktyabr 2017. Azad Essa. "Kamerunning ingliz tilida so'zlashuvchilari mustaqillikka chaqiradilar". [Kirish 9 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Britaniya radioeshittirish korporatsiyasi (BBC). 2017 yil 27-dekabr. "Kamerun AQShda yozuvchi Patris Nganangni deportatsiya qiladi". [Kirish 9 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Britaniya radioeshittirish korporatsiyasi (BBC). 2017 yil 9 -noyabr. "Kamerun separatistlar rahbarlarini hibsga olishga kafolat beradi". [Kirish 9 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Kabel yangiliklari tarmog'i (CNN). 2 yanvar 2018. Kieron rohiblar. "Anglofon qo'zg'olonidan keyin Kamerun oflayn rejimga o'tdi." [Kirish 13 avgust, 2018]

Caritas Internationalis (Caritas). 15 may 2018. Xarriet Paterson. Ular bizni ovlaydilar . [Kirish 3 avgust, 2018]

Deutsche Welle (DW). 25 yanvar 2017. Moki Kindzeka. "Kamerundagi ingliz tilida so'zlashuvchi ozchilik uchun Internet yopildi." [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Xalqaro inqiroz guruhi. 3 avgust 2018. Tadqiqot direktsiyasiga vakildan yozishmalar.

Xalqaro inqiroz guruhi. 27 iyul 2018. Tanda Teofil. Dialog Kamerunning turli ovozlarini birlashtirish uchun zarur . [Kirish 1 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Xalqaro inqiroz guruhi. 2017 yil 19 oktyabr. Kamerunning ingliz tili inqirozi keskin choralar ko'rishga chaqirmoqda . Inqiroz guruhi Afrika brifingi № 130. [Kirish 1 avgust 2018 yil]

Kamerun jurnali. 23 iyun 2018. Frensis Ajumane. "Kamerun hukumati hibsga olish uchun ko'proq separatist liderlarni nishonga olmoqda." [Kirish 9 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Kamerun jurnali. 29 may 2018. "Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining inqirozga uchragan Kamerundagi favqulodda choralar rejasi". [Kirish 3 avgust, 2018]

Ozchiliklar huquqlari guruhi International (MRG). [2017]. "Kamerun - Anglofonlar." [Kirish 8 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Nouveaux de l'homme Kamerun (NDH-Kamerun). 2018 yil avgust. Angliya yoki Kamerundagi vaziyat . Vakil tomonidan Tadqiqot direktsiyasiga yuborilgan, 2018 yil 9 -avgust.

Transmilliy Afrika migratsiyasi tadqiqotchisi. 9 avgust 2018. Tadqiqot boshqarmasi bilan yozishmalar.

Transmilliy Afrika migratsiyasi tadqiqotchisi. 7 avgust 2018. Tadqiqot boshqarmasi bilan yozishmalar.

Reuters. 29 yanvar 2018. Pol Karsten va Edvard Makalister. "2 -yangilanish - Kamerunlik separatistlar etakchisi Nigeriyadan Kamerunga deportatsiya qilindi." [Kirish 2 avgust, 2018]

Janubiy Kamerunlar Jamoatchilik bilan aloqalar qo'mitasi (SCAPAC) va AQShdagi Janubiy Kamerunlar diasporasi (Diaspora). Aprel-may 2018. Inson huquqlari kengashi. Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Janubiy Kamerunlar diasporasi a'zolari va Janubiy Kamerun jamoatchilik bilan aloqalar qo'mitasining qo'shma taqdimoti . [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Buyuk Britaniya (Buyuk Britaniya). 2018 yil 12 -iyul. GOV.UK. "Xorijiy sayohat bo'yicha maslahatlar: Kamerun." [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti (BMT). 29 may 2018. Gumanitar masalalarni muvofiqlashtirish boshqarmasi (OCHA). "Kamerun: Favqulodda choralar rejasi kelgusi uch oy ichida 160,000 ichki ko'chirilgan odamlarga erishish uchun 15 mln. [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti (BMT). May 2018. Gumanitar masalalarni muvofiqlashtirish boshqarmasi (OCHA). 2018 Favqulodda vaziyatlar joyi: Xulosa. Kamerun: shimoli-g'arbiy va janubi-g'arbiy . [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti (BMT). 20 mart 2018. Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining Qochoqlar bo'yicha Oliy Komissari. "Nigeriyadagi anglofon kamerunlar 20 ming belgidan oshib ketishdi." [Kirish 3 avgust, 2018]

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti (BMT). 2017 yil 17 -noyabr. Inson huquqlari bo'yicha Oliy komissar idorasi (OHCHR). "Kamerun: zo'ravonlik davrini tugatish uchun inson huquqlari hurmat qilinishi kerak" - BMT ekspertlari. [Kirish 3 avgust, 2018]

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari (AQSh). 20 aprel 2018. Davlat departamenti. "Kamerun." 2017 yil uchun inson huquqlari amaliyoti bo'yicha mamlakat hisobotlari . [Kirish 7 -avgust, 2018 -yil]


Amaldagi qonun

Mojaroning barcha tomonlari 1949 yilgi Jeneva konventsiyalari uchun umumiy bo'lgan 3 -moddaga bo'ysunadilar, bu minimal me'yorlarga rioya qilishni nazarda tutadi va urush harakatlarida faol qatnashmayotgan yoki bundan buyon ishtirok etmayotgan barcha odamlarga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatmasdan insonparvarlik bilan munosabatda bo'lishni talab qiladi. U qotillik, kesish, qiynoq, shafqatsiz, g'ayriinsoniy va qadr -qimmatni kamsitish, garovga olish va adolatsiz sud jarayonlarini taqiqlaydi.

Barcha tomonlar, shuningdek, xalqaro bo'lmagan qurolli mojarolarga nisbatan qo'llaniladigan odatiy xalqaro gumanitar huquq bilan bog'liq. Xalqaro odat huquqi qonun sifatida qabul qilingan umumiy amaliyotdan kelib chiqqan yozilmagan qoidalardan iborat. Xalqaro Qizil Xoch qo'mitasi keng ko'lamli tadqiqotlar asosida odatiy xalqaro gumanitar huquqlar bazasini yuritadi.

Xalqaro gumanitar huquqdan tashqari, qurolli to'qnashuvlar paytida ham inson huquqlari bo'yicha xalqaro qonunlar qo'llanilishini davom ettirmoqda. Inson huquqlari qonunchiligiga binoan, hududiy davlat taxmin qilinadigan qonunbuzarliklarning oldini olish va tergov qilish majburiyatiga ega, shu jumladan nodavlat tashkilotlari tomonidan. Nodavlat qurolli guruhlar, agar ular ba'zi hududlarni amalda nazorat qilsalar, inson huquqlari bo'yicha xalqaro qonunlarga bo'ysunadi.


Kamerun Inson Huquqlari 2017 hisoboti 2018 yil aprel - Tarix

Inson va odamlarning huquqlari bo'yicha Afrika komissiyasi (ACHPR) 66 -chi navbatdagi sessiyasida Kamerunning 6 -davriy hisobotini ko'rib chiqadi, u Afrika va inson huquqlari to'g'risidagi Xartiya, Maputo protokoli va Kampala konventsiyasini amalga oshiradi. Human Rights Watch ushbu davlat hisobotining taqdim etilishini ma'qullaydi va ACHPR protsessual qoidalarining 74 va 75 qoidalariga muvofiq, Human Rights Watch (17 -sonli kuzatuvchi maqomi) bu soya hisobotini taqdim etadi.

Bu hisobot Human Rights Watchning Kamerundagi inson huquqlari ahvoliga oid tadqiqot natijalarini o'z ichiga oladi. Hisobotda yashash huquqining buzilishi (4 -modda) qonun bo'yicha teng himoya huquqi buzilishi (3 -modda) o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish, hibsga olish, qiynoq va boshqa yomon muomala (5 va 6 -modda) hamda so'z va yig'ilish erkinligining buzilishi ( maqola 9, 10 va 11).

Ma'lumot: Anglofon mintaqalaridagi inqiroz

Kamerunning Anglofon Shimoliy-G'arbiy va Janubi-G'arbiy hududlarida inson huquqlari va gumanitar inqiroz 2016 yil oktyabr oyining oxiridan beri davom etmoqda. O'qituvchilar, huquqshunoslar, talabalar va faollar uzoq vaqtdan beri o'zlarini marjinalizatsiya qilishdan shikoyat qilishgan. markaziy hukumat tomonidan ikki mintaqa ko'chalarga chiqib, ularning siyosiy, ijtimoiy va madaniy huquqlarini tan olishni talab qildi. Hukumat kuchlari bunga javoban tinch namoyishlarni zo'ravonlik bilan bostirishdi, mahalliy faollar va tinch namoyishchilarni o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olishdi, fuqarolik jamiyati faoliyatini cheklashdi va internetga kirishni to'sishdi. Qurolli bo'lginchilar o'qituvchilar, talabalar va hukumat amaldorlari singari o'nlab tinch aholini o'ldirgan, qiynoqqa solgan va o'g'irlab ketishgan. Inqiroz 679 mingdan ziyod odamni ko'chirishga olib keldi, 600 mingdan ziyod bolalarni Anglofonning ikki mintaqasida o'qishdan mahrum qildi. 3000 dan ortiq hayot.

10 sentyabrda zo'ravonlik kuchayib borayotgani va doimiy xalqaro bosimlar ortidan Prezident Biya inqirozni bartaraf etishga qaratilgan "milliy muloqot" ga chaqirgan. Muloqot Anglofonning ikkita mintaqasi uchun maxsus maqomni qabul qilish va yuzlab siyosiy mahbuslarni, shu jumladan Kamerun Uyg'onish Harakatining (CRM) muxolifat partiyasi rahbari Moris Kamto va tartibsizliklar tufayli hibsga olingan boshqa shaxslarni ozod qilish bilan yakunlandi. shimoli-g'arbiy va janubi-g'arbiy mintaqalar.

Qurolli separatistlarning suiiste'molliklari

Shimoliy-G'arbiy va Janubi-G'arbiy hududlarni Kamerun davlatidan ajratishni talab qilgan qurolli bo'lginchilar o'qituvchilar, talabalar, ruhoniylar, siyosiy partiyalar a'zolari va tarafdorlari, hukumat amaldorlari kabi yuzlab tinch aholini o'ldirishdi, qiynoqqa solishdi va o'g'irlab ketishdi. Human Rights Watch qurolli bo'lginchilar tomonidan tinch aholini o'g'irlash yuzlab holatlarini hujjatlashtirgan. O'g'irlanganlarning ko'pchiligi to'lov to'langanidan keyin qo'yib yuborilgan.

2017 yil boshidan beri separatistlar maktab binolarini nishonga olishdi va agar maktablarni boykot qilish bo'yicha bo'linish talablarini bajarmasalar, ta'lim xodimlari va o'quvchilarni zo'ravonlik bilan tahdid qilishdi. Ular, shuningdek, maktablarni tayanch sifatida ishlatib, ularga va yaqinlariga, shu jumladan Koppin qishlog'ida (Mezam bo'linmasi), Tenxa qishlog'ida (Ngoketunjia bo'linmasi) va Mbuluf (Bui bo'linmasi), Bali (Mezam bo'linmasi) jangchilar va qurollarni joylashtirdilar.

Bir misol, 16 fevralda qurolli bo'lginchilar guruhi Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqadagi Kumbo shahridagi maktab-internatning 170 o'quvchisini, asosan 18 yoshgacha bo'lgan qizlar, o'qituvchi va ikkita posbonni o'g'irlab ketishdi. Ertasi kuni ularning hammasi pul to'lanishi haqidagi mish -mishlar ostida qo'yib yuborildi.

18 iyun kuni ayirmachilar Shimoliy-G'arbiy Bafut shahrida kamida 40 kishini o'g'irlab ketishdi, ular orasida ayollar va bolalar bor edi. Ertasi kuni ular qo'yib yuborildi.

28 iyun kuni qurolli bo'lginchilar Kamerunlik taniqli siyosatchi Jon Fru Ndini Shimoliy-G'arbiy Bamenda shahridagi uyidan urib, o'g'irlab ketishdi. Uch kun oldin qurolli bo'lginchilar Bamenda arxiyepiskopi Korneliy Fontem Esuani yana bir taniqli shaxsni o'g'irlab, qo'yib yuborishdi.

Noyabr oyida "Qayta tiklash kuchlari" qurolli separatist guruhi a'zolari Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqaning Jakiri shahrida 2020 yil 9 fevralda bo'lib o'tgan munitsipalitet saylovlariga 20 nomzodni o'g'irlab ketishdi. Rasmiylar Vekovi qishlog'idagi ayirmachilar lagerining yonidagi kichkina uyda saqlangan. Ular har bir o'g'irlangan uchun 250,000 va 500,000 CFA (419- $ 838) orasida to'lanadigan to'lovlar to'langanidan keyin, 8 dekabrda ozod qilingan.

2020 yil 5-yanvarda "General General Pass Pass Man" deb nomlanuvchi qo'mondon boshchiligidagi "Tiklanish kuchlari" guruhining qurolli bo'linuvchilari, Babessi shahrining to'rtta kengashi a'zolari bilan birgalikda Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqadagi Babessi shahar hokimini o'g'irlab ketishdi. Qayta tiklash kuchlari ularni 22 yanvarda, 1.000.000 CFA (1.678 AQSh dollari) miqdoridagi to'lovdan so'ng qo'yib yubordi. Ayirmachilar, shuningdek, 2019 yil iyun oyida Babessi shahar hokimini o'g'irlab ketishgan va qiynoqqa solishgan.

Yig'ilish erkinligi va o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish va muxolifat a'zolari va tarafdorlarini hibsga olish buzilishi (9, 10 va 11 -moddalar)

2019 yil davomida Kamerun rasmiylari va xavfsizlik kuchlari Kamerunning Uyg'onish Harakati (CRM) muxolifat partiyasining yuzlab a'zolari va tarafdorlarini hibsga olishdi va tinch namoyishlarni zo'ravonlik bilan tarqatishdi.

2019 yil yanvar oyining oxirida CRM rahbari Moris Kamto o'z partiyasining 200 dan ortiq a'zolari va tarafdorlari, shu jumladan uning eng yaqin maslahatchilari bilan o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olindi. Xavfsizlik kuchlari namoyishchilarni tarqatish uchun olomonga ko'zdan yosh oqizuvchi gaz va yaqin masofadan rezina o'qlar otdi.

Kamto va boshqa CRM rahbarlari bir necha kun o'z advokatlari bilan uchrasholmadilar va keyinchalik harbiy sud oldida vatanga dushmanlik, jamoat tartibiga tahdid va isyon kabi qator jinoyatlar bilan ayblanishdi. Bu ayblovlar siyosiy sabablarga ko'ra paydo bo'ldi.

2019 yil iyun oyida CRMning kamida 350 a'zolari va tarafdorlari butun mamlakat bo'ylab namoyishlar o'tkazishga urinishganidan keyin o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olindi.

Deyarli barcha CRM a'zolari va tarafdorlari, shu jumladan Kamto, Prezident farmoniga binoan 5 oktyabrda ozod qilingan. Ulardan 16 tasi, shu jumladan CRM vitse -prezidenti Mamadu Yakuba, 2020 yil fevral holatiga ko'ra qamoqda.

6 -davriy hisobotda ko'rib chiqilmagan masalalar:

Kamerunning 6 -chi davriy hisobotida (hisobot) muxolifat a'zolarini o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish va hibsga olish yoki xavfsizlik kuchlari xodimlari tomonidan namoyishchilarni zo'ravonlik bilan tarqatish haqida so'z yuritilmagan. Shuningdek, unda Kamerun hukumati yig'ilishlar va ommaviy namoyishlar erkinligining buzilishini yumshatish bo'yicha ko'rilgan choralar tasvirlanmagan. Hisobot buning o'rniga "yig'ilishlar va ommaviy namoyishlar erkinligi 90/55 -sonli qonun bilan kafolatlangan" deb aytilgan. Biroq, Kamerun hukumati Human Rights Watch tomonidan hujjatlashtirilgan tinch namoyishlar paytida va undan keyin hibsga olingan muxolifat a'zolari uchun bu erkinliklarni himoya qila olmadi.

Yuzlab muxolifat a'zolari va tarafdorlarini o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish va hibsga olish va ularning yuridik yordam olishiga to'sqinlik qilish Kamerunning yig'ilish erkinligi to'g'risidagi qonunlariga va uning Afrika va Inson va Xalqlar Xartiyasiga a'zo davlatlar majburiyatlariga ziddir. . Bu, shuningdek, tez kamayib borayotgan siyosiy va fuqarolik makonini aks ettiradi.

ACHPRga Kamerun hukumati delegatsiyasiga beriladigan savollar:

Iltimos, Human Rights Watch tashkilotining 2019 yil avgustdagi hisobotida qayd etilgan qiynoqlar haqidagi da'volarga javob bera olasizmi, shu jumladan, 23 iyuldan 2019 yil 4 -avgustgacha Davlat Mudofaa Kotibiyatida (SED) 100 dan ortiq mahbuslarni qamoqda saqlashda qiynoqlar. Yaound va eacute?

Hukumat xavfsizlik kuchlari tomonidan hibsda ushlab turish paytida zo'ravonlik va qiynoqlarga oid ayblovlar bo'yicha tergov boshladimi, jumladan:

2018 yil yanvaridan 2019 yil yanvarigacha SED qamoqxonasida 26 shaxsni majburiy ravishda yo'qolib ketish va yashirincha ushlab turish

2018 yil yanvaridan 2019 yil yanvarigacha SED qamoqxonasida 14 kishi qiynoqqa solingan.

SED qamoqxonasida hibsga olinganlarning ayblarini tan olish uchun qiynoqlardan muntazam foydalanish.

Hukumat shimoli-g'arbiy va janubi-g'arbiy mintaqalarda qo'zg'olonga qarshi operatsiyalar paytida xavfsizlik kuchlari tomonidan suiiste'mol qilinganligi haqidagi da'volarni tekshirishni boshladi.

2018 yilning noyabridan 2020 yilning yanvarigacha Shimoliy-G'arbiy va Janubi-G'arbiy hududlardagi mulklarning vayron qilinishi, shu jumladan 2018 yil noyabr oyida Abux qishlog'ida 60 dan ortiq uy yoqib yuborilishi.

2018 yil noyabr oyidan buyon Shimoliy-G'arbiy va Janubi-G'arbiy mintaqalarda xavfsizlik kuchlari tomonidan tinch aholining qonunga xilof ravishda o'ldirilishi.

Human Rights Watch tashkilotining 2019 yil avgustdagi hisobotida tasvirlangan inson huquqlari buzilishida ishtirok etgan mansabdor shaxslar yoki xavfsizlik kuchlari xodimlariga nisbatan ta'qiblar, hukmlar yoki intizomiy choralar ko'rilganmi? Agar shunday bo'lsa, ishlarning soni, jinoyatlarning mohiyati, ko'rilgan harakatlar va ishlarning holati haqida batafsil ma'lumot bera olasizmi?

Hukumat xavfsizlik kuchlarining qonunbuzarliklarini kamaytirish uchun aniq choralar ko'rdimi? Agar shunday bo'lsa, iltimos, ushbu chora -tadbirlar haqida batafsil ma'lumot va hujjatlarni bera olasizmi?

Tavsiyalar:

Human Rights Watch, Kamerun hukumatini:

O'z fikrini bildirish va yig'ilish erkinligini amalga oshirgani uchun fuqarolarni, jumladan muxolifat a'zolari va tarafdorlarini o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga olish va hibsga olish amaliyotini darhol to'xtating.

Fuqarolarni sud qilish uchun harbiy sudlardan foydalanishga darhol chek qo'ying.

Namoyishlarga jamoat tartibini himoya qilish maqsadida yuborilgan xavfsizlik kuchlari o'z faoliyati davomida inson huquqlarini hurmat qilishga o'rgatilishini va haddan tashqari kuch ishlatishdan saqlanishini ta'minlang.

Fikr va yig'ilish erkinligi bilan bog'liq ichki qonunlar va siyosatning bajarilmasligini kuzatib boring.

Jabrlanganlarning siyosiy mansubligidan qat'i nazar, norozilik namoyishlari paytida xavfsizlik kuchlari xodimlari tomonidan haddan ziyod kuch ishlatilgani haqidagi barcha da'volarni sinchiklab tekshirib ko'ring va suiiste'molliklarga aloqador bo'lganlar intizomiy jazoga tortilishini ta'minlang.

Hukumat kuchlari tomonidan inson huquqlari buzilishi

Human Rights Watch tadqiqotlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, 2016 yil oxirida ingliz tili mintaqalarida inqiroz boshlanganidan buyon hukumat kuchlari tomonidan inson huquqlari buzilishi qanday tez -tez uchrab turadi. Xavfsizlik kuchlari tinch aholini o'ldirdi, o'nlab qishloqlarni yoqib yubordi, qurollangan bo'lg'usi deb taxmin qilingan yuzlab odamlarni o'zboshimchalik bilan hibsga oldi va qiynoqqa soldi.

Mulkni yo'q qilish (14 -modda)

Bir holatda, xavfsizlik kuchlari 2018 yil noyabr oyida o'tkazilgan uch kunlik xavfsizlik operatsiyasida Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqadagi Abux qishlog'ida 60 dan ortiq uyni yoqib yuborgan. Human Rights Watch yong'inni sun'iy yo'ldosh tasvirlari orqali tasdiqlagan.

2018 yil 22-noyabr kuni jandarmlar Shimoliy-G'arbiy Bali qishlog'ida kamida 13 uyni yoqib yuborishdi.

2018 yil 3 va 6 dekabr kunlari, harbiylar va qurolli bo'linuvchilar o'rtasidagi to'qnashuvlardan so'ng, xavfsizlik kuchlari Kumbo, SAC-Junction va Romajay deb nomlangan hududlarda, shuningdek, Meluf, Kikaykom va Nyaro, Shimoli-G'arbiy mintaqadagi 55 dan ortiq uyni yoqib yubordi. Human Rights Watch uylarning yonishini guvohlarning so'zlariga mos keladigan sun'iy yo'ldosh tasvirlari orqali tasdiqladi.

2019 yil 15 mayda, Harbiy havo kuchlarining ikki askari qurolli bo'linmalarda gumon qilinayotganlar tomonidan o'ldirilganidan so'ng, xavfsizlik kuchlari Shimoliy-G'arbiy Mamkon, Bamenda shahridagi 70 dan ortiq uyni yoqib yuborishdi. Human Rights Watch guvohlarning so'zlariga mos keladigan sun'iy yo'ldosh tasvirlari orqali yonib ketganini tasdiqladi.

2020 yil 17-20 yanvar kunlari qurolli bo'lginchilarni qidirayotgan xavfsizlik kuchlari Shimoliy-G'arbiy Bali shahridagi 50 dan ortiq uyni yoqib yuborishdi. Human Rights Watch guvohlarning so'zlariga mos keladigan sun'iy yo'ldosh tasvirlari orqali yonib ketganini tasdiqladi.

Noqonuniy qotillik (4 va 5 -moddalar)

2018 yil 21 oktyabrda askarlar va jandarmlar Rom va Nsax qishloqlariga hujum qilib, kamida to'rt fuqaroni, shu jumladan jismoniy nogiron yigitni noqonuniy ravishda o'ldirishdi.

2018 yil 5-dekabrda armiya Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqadagi Meluf qishlog'ida etti kishini qonunsiz ravishda o'ldirdi, shu jumladan eshitish qobiliyati cheklangan 70 yoshli qarindoshining uyida yoqib yuborildi.

2019 yil 18-yanvar kuni askarlar Shimoliy-G'arbiy Kumbo shahriga ishga ketayotganida, etti oylik homilador bo'lgan 28 yoshli hamshirani noqonuniy ravishda o'ldirishdi.

2019 yil 6-fevralda tezkor aralashuv batalyonining (BIR) askarlari janubi-g'arbiy mintaqaning Bole Bakundu qishlog'i bozoriga bostirib kirib, 10 kishini noqonuniy ravishda o'ldirishdi. Hamjamiyat a'zolari xavfsizlik kuchlari ayirmachilar bilan hamkorlikda ayblangan tinch aholiga javob qaytarayotganiga ishonishlarini aytishdi.

2019 yil 4-aprel kuni Kamerun askarlari, jandarmlari va tezkor aralashuv batalyoni (BIR) a'zolari Shimoliy-G'arbiy mintaqadagi Meluf qishlog'iga halokatli hujum uyushtirishdi. Ular noqonuniy ravishda beshta tinch fuqaroni, shu jumladan ruhiy nogironlarni o'ldirishdi. Keyinroq uchta jasad, shu jumladan boshi kesilgan holda topilgan.

2019 yil 15 mayda, qurolli bo'linmalarda gumon qilinayotganlar tomonidan Harbiy havo kuchlarining ikki askari o'ldirilganidan so'ng, xavfsizlik kuchlari Shimoliy-G'arbiy Bamendagi Alamu shahrida 41 yoshli erkakni noqonuniy ravishda o'ldirishdi.

2019 yil 10-iyulda, Kamerun Harbiy havo kuchlari askarlari, shimoliy-g'arbiy Bamenda shahrining Alachu mahallasida qurolli bo'linuvchilarni qidirish paytida, aqliy zaifligi bo'lgan 20 yoshli yigitni va boshqa bir fuqaroni noqonuniy ravishda o'ldirishdi. mintaqa.

Askarlar, shu jumladan tezkor aralashuv batalyoni (BIR) a'zolari va jandarmalar, 2020 yil 17-20 yanvar kunlari Bali qishlog'ida o'tkazilgan xavfsizlik amaliyotida kamida 4 nafar tinch fuqaroni, shu jumladan aqli zaif ikki erkakni, qonunga xilof ravishda o'ldirishdi.

Qiynoq va noaniq hibsga olish (3, 5 va 6 -bandlar)

Kamerun hukumati 2017 yilda Kamerunda qiynoqlar sodir etilmasligini ochiqchasiga e'lon qilgan, biroq Human Rights Watch qamoqxonada qiynoqlar va g'ayriinsoniy va qadr -qimmatni kamsituvchi muomalalar haqida xabarlar olishda davom etmoqda. Kamerunning davriy hisoboti hibsda qiynoq qo'llanilishini tergov qilish borasida hech qanday ilgarilashni isbotlay olmaydi va 2017 yildan buyon qamoqxonalarda qiynoq yoki qo'pol muomalada bo'lgan xavfsizlik kuchlari xodimlarini javobgarlikka tortish uchun sudlarga yuborilgan ishlarning dalillarini keltirmaydi.

Human Rights Watch 2018 yil yanvaridan 2019 yil yanvarigacha Yaound va eacute shtatidagi Davlat Mudofaa Kotibiyatida (Sekretariya d'Etat a la mudofaa, SED) 26 ta qamoqqa olish va majburan yo'qolish va 14 ta qiynoq holatlarini hujjatlashtirdi. 2019 yil 23 iyuldan 4 avgustgacha. Kamerun hukumati 100 dan ortiq odamni qamoqxonalarda ushlab turdi va ularning ko'pini Yaound va eacute shahridagi SED qamoqxonasida qiynoqqa soldi. Sobiq mahbuslar past va o'rta darajali jandarmlarni qiynoq usullari, jumladan, qattiq kaltaklash va cho'kib ketish yaqinida, ta'qib qilinganlarni kamsitish, jazolash va ayblarini tan olish uchun ta'riflaganlar, ularning aksariyati qurolli bo'lginchi guruhlar bilan aloqada bo'lganlikda gumon qilingan.

Human Rights Watch, shuningdek, Kamerun hukumati 100 dan ortiq mahbuslarni qamoqxonalarda ushlab turishini va ularning ko'plarini 2019 yil 23 iyuldan 4 avgustgacha SED, Yaound va eacute -da qiynoqqa solganligini hujjatlashtirgan. Mahbuslar Yaound & eacute markaziy qamoqxonasida mahbuslar qo'zg'olon ko'targanidan keyin ertalab ertalab muassasaga ko'chirilgan. 22 -iyulda ularning haddan tashqari ko'pligi, og'ir yashash sharoitlari va ularning ishlarining sudga kechiktirilishiga qarshi norozilik namoyishi. Hibsga olinganlarning ko'pchiligining qaerdaligi deyarli ikki hafta davomida noma'lum edi. On August 3, 2019 the day after official acknowledgement of the whereabouts of the detainees, some lawyers were finally able to meet with some of their clients at the SED. Human Rights Watch interviewed 14 detainees held at the SED, all of whom said they were tortured and held incommunicado during their time there, and heard credible accounts that scores more were also tortured.

Sexual violence (articles 3 & 4, Maputo Protocol)

Cameroon's 6th Periodic Report states that "from 2013 to 2017, 313 elements of Defence (sic) Forces were prosecuted before the courts for different offences," including rape and attempted rape, and notes that 30 of the 313 were convicted and sentenced. The Report however fails to provide evidence of any efforts on the part of the Government of Cameroon to prosecute those implicated in human rights violations, including sexual violence, committed in the Anglophone regions since late 2017, or any details of cases brought against security forces which were tried before courts.


Economy: A Prosperous Nation

Since becoming independent in 1960, Cameroon has become one of the most prosperous Africa states, standing as the largest economy in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). To protect its economy from recession and maintain confidence in its currency, the Central African CFA franc, Cameroon employs strict fiscal adjustment measures.

Cameroon enjoys a positive trade stance thanks to its exports of natural resources, including petroleum, minerals, timber, and agricultural products, such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, maize, and cassava. Based mainly on its production of natural gas, Cameroon’s economy was predicted by the World Bank to grow by 4.3% in 2020.


Rights Groups Doubt Cameroon Military’s Massacre Investigation

YAOUNDE – Rights groups in Cameroon doubt the military’s claim it will properly investigate the latest alleged massacre of civilians by its troops. Activists and witnesses say the military killed 10 villagers Sunday, including women and children, while attempting to fight separatists. Cameroon’s military denies it was responsible, a line that has been questioned in past cases. Thirty-seven-year-old teacher Jacob Mende says he fled Cameroon’s southwestern village of Mautu after witnessing the military on Sunday shooting civilians. “Cameroon military invaded the village of Mautu,” he said, speaking via a messaging&hellip


Refugees and asylum-seekers

At least 250,000 refugees from the Central African Republic lived in harsh conditions in crowded camps or with host families along border areas of southeastern Cameroon. Some 60,000 refugees from Nigeria lived in the UN-run Minawao camp in the Far North region around 30,000 others struggled to cope outside the camp, facing food insecurity, lack of access to basic services, harassment by the security forces and the risk of refoulement as they were perceived to be supporters of Boko Haram.

On 2 March, Cameroon, Nigeria and UNHCR, the UN refugee agency, signed a “Tripartite Agreement for the Voluntary Repatriation of Nigerian Refugees Living in Cameroon”. However, between January and September, Cameroon forcibly returned at least 4,400 Nigerians. These forced returns were part of a larger deportation operation carried out by Cameroon. Human Rights Watch estimated that, since 2015, Cameroonian authorities and security forces had summarily deported more than 100,000 Nigerians living in areas located along the Cameroon-Nigeria border, often with unnecessary and excessive use of force. Some of those forcibly returned, including children, weakened by living for months or years with limited or no access to food and health care, died during the deportations.

In December, UNHCR reported having registered more than 5,000 Cameroonians, mainly women and children, who had fled the Anglophone areas of Cameroon to Nigeria.


A 2002 report by the UK charity Freedom from Torture said that "The prevalence of torture in Cameroon was such as to warrant a country visit from the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture in 1999. He described the use of torture in Cameroon as 'widespread and systematic.'" [2]

In its 2012 Annual Review, Freedom from Torture stated that they had received 33 referrals for torture survivors from Cameroon for clinical treatment or other services.

Amnesty International reported concerns about violence by security forces. In 2009, around 100 civilians were killed during demonstrations [3]

In April 2010, Germain Cyrille Ngota Ngota, the editor of the Cameroun Express, died in custody at Kondengui Central Prison. [4] He had been jailed pending trial in February 2010 along with the editors of two other newspapers, for the alleged "joint forgery" of the signature of a presidential official. One of the editors said that the document in question had merely been attached to an interview request, whilst the journalist who had originated the document was on the run. [5] "The Federation of African Journalists after visiting the country described Cameroon in May 2010 as 'one of the worst jailers of journalists in Africa'." [4] [6]

The following table gives Cameroon's ratings since 1972 in the Freedom in the World reports, published annually by Freedom House. A score of 1 is "most free" and 7 is "least free". [7] 1

Cameroon's stances on international human rights treaties are as follows:


Amnesty International Report 2017/18 - Cameroon

The armed group Boko Haram continued to commit serious human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law in the Far North region, including looting and destroying properties and killing and abducting civilians. In response, the authorities and security forces committed human rights violations and crimes under international law, including arbitrary arrests, incommunicado detentions, torture and deaths in custody. As a result of the conflict, around 240,000 people in the Far North region had fled their homes between 2014 and the end of 2017. Freedoms of expression, association and peaceful assembly continued to be restricted throughout the country. Security forces violently repressed demonstrations in Anglophone regions in January and September. Civil society activists, journalists, trade unionists and teachers were arrested and some faced trial before military courts.

ABUSES BY ARMED GROUPS

The armed group Boko Haram committed crimes under international law and human rights abuses, including suicide bombings in civilian areas, summary executions, abductions, recruitment of child soldiers, and looting and destruction of public and private property. During the year, the group carried out at least 150 attacks, including 48 suicide bombings, killing at least 250 civilians. The crimes were part of a widespread and systematic attack on the civilian population across the Lake Chad basin. Boko Haram deliberately targeted civilians in attacks on markets, mosques, commercial areas and other public places. On 12 July a female suicide bomber detonated explosives in a crowded video-game shop in the town of Waza, killing at least 16 civilians and injuring more than 30. On 5 August, a suicide bomber in the village of Ouro Kessoum, near Amchide, killed eight children and injured four more.

TORTURE AND OTHER ILL-TREATMENT

Security forces continued to arbitrarily arrest individuals accused of supporting Boko Haram, often with little or no evidence and sometimes using unnecessary or excessive force. Those arrested were frequently detained in inhumane, life-threatening conditions. At least 101 people were detained incommunicado between March 2013 and March 2017 in a series of military bases run by the Rapid Intervention Battalion (BIR) and facilities run by the intelligence agency. They were subjected to torture and other ill-treatment.[1] These routine and systematic practices continued throughout 2017, although at least 20 people were reported to have been transferred from the BIR military base in Salak to the central prison in Maroua in late August.

It was highly likely that senior military officers based in Salak were aware of the torture, but they did nothing to prevent it. US military personnel also had a regular presence at the BIR's base at Salak and an investigation was launched into their possible knowledge of human rights violations at the base its outcomes were not published during the year.

No investigations were known to have been conducted by the Cameroonian authorities into the allegations of incommunicado detention, torture and other ill-treatment, nor efforts made to prevent such occurrences or to prosecute and punish the perpetrators.

In December the UN Committee against Torture expressed deep concern about the use of torture and incommunicado detention, and criticized the failure by Cameroonian authorities to clarify whether investigations were being carried out.

FREEDOMS OF EXPRESSION, ASSOCIATION AND ASSEMBLY

Human rights defenders, including civil society activists, journalists, trade unionists, lawyers and teachers continued to be intimidated, harassed and threatened.

On 17 January, following protests in the English-speaking regions of the country, the Minister of Territorial Administration banned the activities of the political party Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC) and the Cameroon Anglophone Civil Society Consortium (CACSC).[2] The same day, the president of the CACSC, barrister Nkongho Felix Agbor-Balla, and its Secretary General, Dr Fontem Aforteka'a Neba, were arrested after signing a statement calling for non-violent protests. Held incommunicado at the State Defence Secretariat, they were charged under the 2014 anti-terrorism law, without any basis. They were transferred to the Prison Principale in the capital, Yaoundé, before eventually being released following a presidential decision on 30 August, along with 53 other Anglophone protesters who had been arrested between late October 2016 and February 2017.

Between January and April, and in early October, telephone and internet services were cut in the English-speaking regions, with no official explanation.

On 24 May, authorities shut down an Amnesty International press conference scheduled to take place in Yaoundé. Amnesty International staff had planned to present more than 310,000 letters and petitions asking President Biya to release three students imprisoned for 10 years for sharing a joke by text message about Boko Haram. No written administrative justification was provided for the prohibition of the press conference.

More than 20 protesters were shot by security forces in the Anglophone regions between 1 and 2 October, and more than 500 arrested. Others wounded in the protests were forced to flee hospitals where they sought life-saving treatment out of fear of arrest. In addition, dozens of members of the security forces, including soldiers and gendarmes, were killed in attacks perpetrated by Anglophone insurgents in the South and North West regions during the year.

UNFAIR TRIALS

Unfair trials continued before military courts, which were often marred by irregularities.

On 10 April, Radio France Internationale correspondent Ahmed Abba was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment, convicted by the Yaoundé Military Court of "complicity with and non-denunciation of terrorist acts". The trial was marred by irregularities, including documents not being disclosed to defence lawyers. Ahmed Abba had been arrested in Maroua in July 2015 and was tortured while held incommunicado for three months at a facility run by the General Directorate of External Research. On 21 December the Appeal Court of the Yaoundé Military Court ordered his initial sentence to be reduced to 24 months, which he had already served. The Court upheld the charge of "non-denunciation of terrorism".

The appeal of Fomusoh Ivo Feh, who was arrested in December 2014 for forwarding a sarcastic text message about Boko Haram and sentenced to 10 years in prison, had not begun at the end of the year. Scheduled to begin in December 2016, his hearings had been adjourned at least seven times.

On 30 October, journalists Rodrigue Tongué, Felix Ebole Bola and Baba Wamé were acquitted by the Yaoundé Military Court, having been initially charged in October 2014 with "non-denunciation of information and sources". Facing trial alongside the journalists were opposition party leader Aboubakary Siddiki, and Abdoulaye Harissou, a well-known notary detained since August 2014. The Yaoundé Military Court sentenced Aboubakary Siddiki to 25 years' imprisonment on charges including hostility against the homeland, revolution, and contempt of the President. Abdoulaye Harissou was sentenced to three years' imprisonment, and subsequently released having already served this sentence. Their trial was marred by irregularities. During their initial period of detention, the two men had been held incommunicado for more than 40 days in an illegal facility run by the General Directorate of External Relations and subjected to torture.

Prison conditions remained poor, marked by chronic overcrowding, inadequate food, limited medical care, and deplorable hygiene and sanitation. Maroua prison housed around 1,500 detainees, more than four times its intended capacity. The population of the central prison in Yaoundé was approximately 4,400, despite a maximum capacity of 1,500. The main factors contributing to overcrowding included the mass arrests since 2014 of people accused of supporting Boko Haram, the large number of detainees held without charge, and the ineffective judicial system. The government finalized the construction of at least 10 new cells for the prison in Maroua.

REFUGEES AND ASYLUM-SEEKERS

At least 250,000 refugees from the Central African Republic lived in harsh conditions in crowded camps or with host families along border areas of southeastern Cameroon. Some 60,000 refugees from Nigeria lived in the UN-run Minawao camp in the Far North region around 30,000 others struggled to cope outside the camp, facing food insecurity, lack of access to basic services, harassment by the security forces and the risk of refoulement as they were perceived to be supporters of Boko Haram.

On 2 March, Cameroon, Nigeria and UNHCR, the UN refugee agency, signed a "Tripartite Agreement for the Voluntary Repatriation of Nigerian Refugees Living in Cameroon". However, between January and September, Cameroon forcibly returned at least 4,400 Nigerians. These forced returns were part of a larger deportation operation carried out by Cameroon. Human Rights Watch estimated that, since 2015, Cameroonian authorities and security forces had summarily deported more than 100,000 Nigerians living in areas located along the Cameroon-Nigeria border, often with unnecessary and excessive use of force. Some of those forcibly returned, including children, weakened by living for months or years with limited or no access to food and health care, died during the deportations.

In December, UNHCR reported having registered more than 5,000 Cameroonians, mainly women and children, who had fled the Anglophone areas of Cameroon to Nigeria.

RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING

The conflict with Boko Haram led to the internal displacement of around 240,000 people in the Far North region and exacerbated the hardships experienced by communities, limiting their access to basic social services, and disrupting trade, farming and pastoralism. In December, almost 3.3 million people, of whom 61% were in the Far North region, were in need of humanitarian assistance, including food and medical care. Humanitarian access continued to be restricted by the ongoing conflict.

RIGHT TO EDUCATION

Dozens of schools were closed in the English-speaking regions between November 2016 and September 2017, following strikes and boycotts called for by trade unions and members of civil society. Extreme elements within Anglophone pro-secession groups carried out attacks on education facilities that "breached the boycott".

Between January and September 2017, more than 30 schools were burned and severely damaged. In the Far North region, 139 primary schools in the departments of Logone and Chari, Mayo Sava and Mayo Tsanaga remained closed because of insecurity and at least eight were occupied by security forces, affecting almost 40,000 children.

DEATH PENALTY

People accused of supporting Boko Haram continued to be sentenced to death following unfair trials in military courts none were executed during the year. The cases were all prosecuted under the deeply flawed 2014 anti-terrorism law.

[1] Cameroon's secret torture chambers: Human rights violations and war crimes in the fight against Boko Haram (AFR 17/6536/2017)

[2] Cameroon: Arrests and civil society bans risk inflaming tensions in English-speaking regions (Press release, 20 January)


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