Shisha vazalar, Epidaurus

Shisha vazalar, Epidaurus


Hoosier Glass nima?

Hoosier Glass-1970-80-yillarda Indiana shtatining Kokomo shahrida faol ishlagan, shisha puflovchi kompaniya-Indiana shtatida joylashgan Syndicate Sales kompaniyasi tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan badiiy shisha. Buni qurilish materiallariga ixtisoslashgan hozirgi Hoosier Glass kompaniyasi bilan adashtirmaslik kerak. Hoosier Glass - bu yig'iladigan va vazalardagi presslangan va kesilgan naqshlari bilan ajralib turadi. Indiana badiiy oynalar ishlab chiqarishning uzoq tarixiga ega va Indiana Art Glass Trail, mahalliy shisha namoyish etiladigan ustaxonalar va galereyalar tarmog'iga ega.


Xazinalar: bu shisha vazalar tarixga egami?

Bu vazalar menga buvimdan qolgan. Men ular haqida bir oz tarix bilmoqchiman, shuning uchun ularni o'g'limga etkazishim mumkin. Ular to'q sariq va qora (yoki to'q ko'k), balandligi 9 dyuym. Har qanday ma'lumot minnatdor bo'ladi.              

Bu vazalar menga buvimdan qolgan. Men ular haqida bir oz tarix bilmoqchiman, shuning uchun ularni o'g'limga etkazishim mumkin. Ular to'q sariq va qora (yoki to'q ko'k), balandligi 9 dyuym. Har qanday ma'lumot minnatdor bo'ladi.                  

Bizning fikrimizcha, bu vaza juftligi chindan ham jozibali va qiziqarli. Bu turdagi oynalardagi singllar ko'proq uchraydi va bu juftlik o'zining kuchli ranglari va o'ziga xos shakllari bilan chiroyli bayonot beradi.                  

Birinchidan, biz, ehtimol, bu shisha turini muhokama qilishimiz kerak. O'tmishda ko'plab kollektsionerlar bu rangli shisha idishni "kunning oxiri" deb atashgan, chunki afsonaga ko'ra, ish kunining oxirida shisha puflovchilar o'zlari ishlagan turli xil rangdagi oynalarni olib, aralashtirib yuborishgan. va hosil bo'lgan aralashdan bu ko'p rangli oynani pufladi.                  

Bu shunchaki kulgili. Agar shisha puflovchi barcha ranglarni aralashtirib yuborsa, u faqat loyli erigan chalkashliklarni oladi - bu bugungi va chiziqli mahsulot emas. Bu turdagi buyumlar uchun eng to'g'ri atama - "ko'zoynak oynasi" bo'lib, u birinchi marta 19 -asrda paydo bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, bugungi kunda ham keng tarqalgan.                  

Dastlab, bu stakan ba'zida "chayqaluvchi shisha" deb nomlangan, ammo bugungi kunda chayqalish ko'proq qabul qilinadi. Bu turdagi oynalarni tayyorlash uchun stolga o'xshash "marver" deb nomlangan ish yuzasiga har xil rangdagi shishaning bo'laklari surtiladi.    

Shisha shamollatgich pufakchani asosiy oynaga puflashdan boshlanadi, so'ngra issiq massani marver ustiga aylantiradi. Parchalar erigan oynaga tasodifiy yopishib qoladi va shu vaqtda butun massa shisha pechda qayta isitiladi. Keyin shisha pufakchasi pufakchani kengaytirib, kerakli shaklga keltiradi.                  

Bu vazolarning shakli "minbarda" deb nomlanadi, bu arisaema triphyllum-"botqoq piyoz", "hind sholg'om" yoki "jigarrang ajdaho" deb ham ataladi. Bu o'simlikda barglar o'ralib, huni shaklidagi "minbar" ni hosil qiladi, uning orqasida qandaydir uchi bor.      

Markazda tik turgan va odamga o'xshagan "spadix" bor - bu minbardagi "jek". O'simliklar hayotining bu shakli 19-asrning oxiridan to hozirgi kungacha shisha idishlarda talqin qilingan va faqat minbarda vaza yig'adigan ixlosmandlar bor.                  

P.O.B. narsalarning tagiga juda diqqat bilan qarash kerak. U erda u "Chexoslovakiya" so'zini topishi mumkin, bu uni 1920 yildagi vazalar uchun kelib chiqqan mamlakat deb ataydi.                  

Chexoslovakiya birinchi jahon urushidan keyin 1918 yilda alohida davlat sifatida mavjud bo'lmagan, u asosan Avstriya-Vengriya imperiyasining "Bogemiya" deb nomlangan qismidan tashkil topgan.

Bohemiya - va keyinchalik Chexoslovakiya - asrlar davomida shisha ishlab chiqarishning yirik markazi bo'lgan. Dunyodagi eng zo'r shisha idishlar o'sha erda ishlab chiqarilgan, lekin ular jahon bozorida nisbatan qimmat bo'lmagan buyumlar bilan raqobatlashdilar-masalan, minbarda sepilgan dumaloq vazalar.

Sug'urtani almashtirish maqsadida bu juftlik 200 dan 250 dollargacha baholanishi kerak.                  


Tarkibi

Kristal va oynaning ma'nosi mamlakatga qarab o'zgaradi. "Kristal" so'zi G'arb dunyosining ko'p qismida qo'rg'oshin oksidi bo'lgan qo'rg'oshin oynasini bildiradi. Evropa Ittifoqida "kristalli" mahsulotlarning markirovkasi 69/493/EEC Kengashining direktivasi bilan tartibga solinadi, u materialning kimyoviy tarkibi va xususiyatlariga qarab to'rt toifani belgilaydi. Faqat 24% qo'rg'oshin oksidi bo'lgan shisha mahsulotlarini "qo'rg'oshin kristalli" deb atash mumkin. Qo'rg'oshin oksidi kamroq bo'lgan mahsulotlar yoki qo'rg'oshin oksidi o'rniga boshqa metall oksidi bo'lgan shisha buyumlar "kristalli" yoki "billur shisha" deb etiketlanishi kerak. [3] Qo'shma Shtatlarda buning aksi - shisha tarkibida faqat 1% qo'rg'oshin bo'lsa, "billur" deb ta'riflanadi. Garchi Evropa Ittifoqida, Chexiyada "kristal" atamasi odatda har qanday nozik va yuqori sifatli shisha uchun ishlatiladi.

Kristalda qo'rg'oshinning mavjudligi oynani yumshatadi va uni kesish va o'yish uchun qulay qiladi. Qo'rg'oshin shishaning og'irligini oshiradi va shishaning yorug'ligini tarqatishiga olib keladi. Agar maksimal qattiqlik zarur bo'lsa, oynada 40% gacha qo'rg'oshin bo'lishi mumkin. Boshqa tomondan, kristall tarkibida bariy oksidining yuqori qismi bo'lsa, 24% dan kam qo'rg'oshin bo'lishi mumkin, bu esa yuqori sifatli yorug'lik tarqalishini ta'minlaydi. [4] "Yarim kristall" atamasi qo'rg'oshin darajasi past bo'lgan shisha uchun shisha ishlab chiqarishda ishlatilgan.

Hozir Chexiya Respublikasining bir qismi bo'lgan Bohemiya Uyg'onish davrida o'zining chiroyli va rang -barang shishasi bilan mashhur bo'ldi. Bogem stakanining tarixi qishloqda topilgan tabiiy boyliklardan boshlangan.

Bogemiyalik shisha ishchilar kaliyni bo'r bilan birlashtirib, tiniq rangsiz oynani yaratdilar. XVI asrda "Bogemiya kristali" atamasi birinchi marta o'z sifatlarini boshqa joyda ishlab chiqarilgan shishadan ajratish uchun ishlatilgan. Bu oynada qo'rg'oshin yo'q edi. Bu chex oynasini g'ildirak bilan kesish mumkin edi. Bundan tashqari, kaliy ishlab chiqarish uchun o'tin yoqish va kulga aylantirish uchun o'tin kabi resurslar ishlatilgan. Bundan tashqari, ko'p miqdorda ohaktosh va silika bor edi. 17 -asrda Pragadagi imperator Rudolf II uchun qimmatbaho toshlarni kesuvchi Kaspar Leman, mis va bronza g'ildirakli marvarid o'yma texnikasini oynaga moslashtirdi. Bu davrda Chexiya erlari dekorativ shisha idishlar ishlab chiqaruvchi etakchi bo'ldi va mahalliy shisha ishlab chiqarish 1685 yildan 1750 yilgacha yuqori barokko uslubida xalqaro obro 'qozondi.

Chexiya shisha idishlari zargarlik buyumlari kabi obro'li bo'lib, o'sha paytdagi boylar va aristokratlar tomonidan talab qilingan. Chexiya billur qandillarini frantsuz qiroli Louis XV, Mariya Tereza, Avstriya imperatori va Rossiya Yelizaveta saroylarida topish mumkin edi.

Bogemiya kristal bilan mohirona ishlagan tajribali ustalar bo'lib chiqdi. Bogemiya kristalli o'zining ajoyib o'yma va o'yma naqshlari bilan mashhur bo'ldi. Ular qo'shni va uzoq mamlakatlarda shisha ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha mohir o'qituvchilar bo'lishdi. 19-asrning o'rtalariga kelib, an'anaviy va innovatsion texnikalarni, shuningdek, puxta texnik tayyorgarlikni rag'batlantiruvchi texnik shisha ishlab chiqaruvchi maktab tizimi yaratildi.

19-asrning ikkinchi yarmida, Bogemiya eksport savdosi va butun dunyo bo'ylab eksport qilinadigan rangli shisha ishlab chiqarishga qaradi. Vazolar juftligi bitta rangli shaffof bo'lmagan oynada yoki ikki rangli korpusli oynada ishlab chiqarilgan. Ular juda tez bo'yalgan, qalin sirlangan gullar bilan bezatilgan. Boshqalar esa mashhur rasmlarni nusxa ko'chiradigan rangli litografik bosmalar bilan bezatilgan. Bu shisha buyumlar katta hajmdagi fabrikalarda ishlab chiqarilgan va butun Evropa va Amerikada pochta orqali buyurtma qilingan. Ularning ko'pchiligi tasviriy san'at emas, balki oddiy uylarni yoritish uchun arzon bezak buyumlari bilan ta'minlangan. Teskari oynali rasm ham chexlarga xos bo'lgan. Rasm turli xil texnika va materiallardan foydalangan holda shisha oynaning orqa tomonida qo'lda ehtiyotkorlik bilan bo'yalgan, shundan so'ng rasm qirrali yog'och ramkaga o'rnatiladi.

Shisha hunarmandchilik hatto kommunistlar davrida ham yuqori darajada saqlanib qoldi, chunki u mafkuraviy jihatdan zararsiz hisoblangan va bu mamlakatning yaxshi nomini targ'ib qilishga yordam bergan. Chexiya shisha dizaynerlari va ishlab chiqaruvchilari xalqaro e'tirofga sazovor bo'lishdi va chex shisha idishlari, shu jumladan haykallar kabi san'at asarlari ko'plab xalqaro ko'rgazmalarda, xususan Bryusseldagi Expo 58 jahon yarmarkasida va Monrealdagi Expo 67 ko'rgazmalarida namoyish etildi va taqdirlandi.

Bugungi kunda Chexiya billur avizalari, masalan, Milandagi La Skala, Rim Teatro dell'Opera, Versalda, Sankt -Peterburgdagi Ermitaj muzeyida yoki Ar -Riyoddagi shoh saroyida osilgan. Turli xil shisha idishlar, badiiy oynalar, bezaklar, haykalchalar, kostyum zargarlik buyumlari, boncuklar va boshqalar ham xalqaro miqyosda qadrlanadi.

Chexiya millati hali ham yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan shisha buyumlardan biri "druk" boncuklar ishlab chiqarishdir. Druklar-har xil rang va pardalarda ishlab chiqarilgan va asosan boncukli zargarlik buyumlari ishlab chiqaruvchilar orasida ajratuvchi sifatida ishlatiladigan, kichik tishli teshiklari bo'lgan dumaloq (3 mm dan 18 mm gacha) dumaloq boncuklar. [5]


Bu odamlar radioaktiv oynalarni yig'ishni yaxshi ko'radilar. Ular yong'oqmi?

Ko'plab shisha yig'uvchilar uchun vazelin yagona rang hisoblanadi. Bu bosilgan, naqshli va puflangan oynani kanareykadan sarg'ish-avokado-yashil ranggacha tasvirlaydigan oddiy so'z. Vazelin oynasi siydik rangini radioaktiv urandan oladi, bu uning qora chiroq ostida porlashiga olib keladi. Vazelin stakanini yig'adigan har bir kishi uning tarkibida uran borligini biladi, demak, vazelin oynasi bilan aloqada bo'lganlarning hammasi ular nurlanayotganini tushunishadi. Siz shisha fabrikasida oyoqli kek plastinka tayyorlayotgan gafer bo'lasizmi, haydovchiga yuk mashinasiga to'rli qirrali kompotlar yuklaydingizmi yoki potentsial mijozlar uchun vazelinli qadahdan yasalgan tish pichoq ushlagichlari va stakanlarini sotasiz-bu muhim emas. hammangiz yirtilgansiz.

“Agar vazelin oynasini sovutadigan narsa radioaktivlik bo'lsa, vazelin oynasining porlashi emas. ”

Aytaylik, siz tchotchkes dilerining xaridorisiz va siz bu idishlarni sotib olishga qaror qildingiz, chunki ularning rangi sizning limonli Formica oshxonangizga juda mos keladi deb o'ylaysiz. Xo'sh, siz o'zingizga radioaktiv beta to'lqinlarga to'la to'rt stakan sotib oldingiz. Davom eting va idishlarni apelsin sharbati yoki sut bilan to'ldiring, so'ngra mazali ichimliklarni sevimli bolalaringizga bering. Endi siz begunoh qo'zilaringizni yanada ko'proq nurlanishga duchor qildingiz, chunki stakan ichidagi uran izlari sizning bolalaringiz ichadigan narsalarga kirishi mumkin, tomoqlari va oshqozonini salqin, radioaktiv yuvish bilan yopishi mumkin. Farzandlaringiz chanqog'ini to'kib tashlaganingizdan so'ng, shimgichni radioaktivlikdan ham yuqori konsentratsiyali shimgichni yutish uchun qo'llaringizni yaxshilab chaying.

Ma'lumot uchun, bularning hech biri muhim emas, ozgina bo'lsa ham. Ha, kanareyka oynasi, uran oynasi yoki vazelin oynasi, 20 -asrning boshlarida neft jeli bilan o'xshashligi bilan ma'lum bo'lganidek, radiatsiya chiqaradi, lekin ularning miqdori mayda, cheksiz, kulgili darajada kichik. Bizning tanamiz har kuni bir necha barobar ko'proq radiatsiyaga duchor bo'ladi. Biz har kuni radioaktiv ifloslanishning dozasini olamiz, u gamma nurlaridan atmosferaga o'tib, kosmosga uchib chiqqandan keyin, biz yurgan erda mavjud bo'lgan tabiiy ravishda paydo bo'ladigan radionuklidlardan, nurlanishdan, binolarni qurishda ishlatilgan materiallardan. biz uyimizni chaqiramiz.

Yuqorida: Angliyadagi Thomas Webb & amp Sons zavodida tayyorlangan gulli vazalar. Vazolar vazelinli shisha tagida yotadi. Deyv Petersonning VaselineGlass.org saytidagi fotosurati Top: Shisha parchasi va uning uran tarkibidagi moyillik o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni oldindan aytib bo'lmaydi. Chapdagi bo'lakda uran umuman yo'q, markazning quyi qismidagi qorong'i bo'lakda esa eng ko'p qismi bor. Foto orqali Vazelinli shisha idishlar Barri Skelcher tomonidan.

Biz uxlayotgan karavotlar - radioaktiv maysalar, biz yozning it kunlarida taralamiz. Darhaqiqat, har birimizning ichimizda, vazelin oynasi bilan to'la buyumni, vitrinani yoki butun muzeyni ishlov berish, ishlatish yoki oddiy ko'z bilan ko'rishdan ko'ra oladigan har birimizdan ko'ra ko'proq radioaktiv kaliy-40 bor. Agar siz haqiqatan ham vazelin stakanidagi nurlanish izidan xavotirda bo'lsangiz, badanni qatiqqa qo'yishni bas qilganingiz, sog'lom ismaloqli salatlardan voz kechganingiz va kartoshka pishirilganidan juda uzoqda bo'lganingiz ma'qul. qon bosimini tushiruvchi, radioaktiv kaliy bilan to'la.

Bularning hech biri muhim emas, lekin siz buni hozircha tushundingiz.

Shunday bo'lsa-da, bizning Xirosima, Nagasaki, Chernobil va Fukusimadan keyingi dunyomizda radioaktivlik vazelinli stakanga ma'lum kasset beradi. Ba'zilar uning xavf -xatarlaridan qo'rqishadi, shuning uchun ular uning adolatsiz toksik obro'sidan qo'rqmaganliklari uchun o'zlarini orqalaridan silab qo'yishadi. Boshqalar, Deyv Peterson singari, 1998 yilda Vaseline Glass Collectors, Inc kompaniyasiga asos solgan va shu mavzu bo'yicha uchta kitob yozgan. "Bu hiyla -nayrang qiladigan shisha", deydi u, bir necha o'n yillar ilgari, xuddi qora chiroq ostida porlab turgan vazelin stakanining eng mashhur hiyla -nayrangini ko'rsatgan tish cho'tkasi ushlagichining birinchi fotosuratini ko'rganida, hozirgi narsalarga bo'lgan muhabbatga to'la.

Viktoriya davrida Pensilvaniya shtatining Pittsburg shahridagi Adams & amp Co. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Vazelin oynasini sovitadigan narsa radioaktivlik bo'lsa ham, vazelin oynasining porlashi emas, - deydi Barrie Skelcher, o'zi vazelinli ikkita shisha kitob yozgan. Bu vazelin oynasining ultrabinafsha nurlar ostida porlashi va radioaktivlikning multfilm tasvirini fan uchun chalkashtirib yuborishining sababi, radioaktivlik deb hisoblaydigan ko'plab vazelin yig'uvchilar uchun bu ajablanib bo'lishi mumkin.

“Vazelin oynasi oddiy lampochkaning qurboni bo'ldi! ”

Skelcher Angliyadan telefon orqali aytadi: "Vazelin oynasini radioaktivlik emas, balki yaltiratadi", u xotini Shirli va vazelin oynasining 500 ga yaqin bo'lagi bilan bir vaqtlar 1000 dan ortiq to'plamda yashaydi. "235 izotopi olib tashlangan, tarkibida uran bor yoki kimyoviy uran bir xil bo'ladimi, farqi yo'q. Ultrabinafsha nurlar ostida uran floreslanadi.

Mening singlim rozi. Odatda bu kabi savolga aka -ukaning fikri unchalik ahamiyatli bo'lmasligi mumkin, lekin Naomi Marks - fan doktori. Kaliforniyadagi Lourens Livermor Milliy Laboratoriyasida geolog va tadqiqotchi olim, u erda, men bilmayman nima u shunday qiladi va, ehtimol, agar so'rasam, menga aytolmaydi. Aytaylik, u Skelcherning so'zlarini tasdiqlash uchun uran haqida etarli ma'lumotga ega.

Hamma vazelin oynasi shaffof emas, bu shaffof bo'lmagan dekorativ idishda ko'rinib turibdiki, uning uranining tarkibi oddiy yorug'lik ostida (chapda), lekin UV nurida (o'ngda) o'zini to'liq ochib beradi. Foto orqali Vazelinli shisha idishlar Barri Skelcher tomonidan.

"Shubhasiz, bu radioaktivlik emas, balki oynani porlaydi", deydi Marks. "Agar bu radioaktiv bo'lganida, siz uni uyingizda xohlamaysiz! Uran ultrabinafsha nurlar ostida lyuminestsentrlanadi, chunki ultrabinafsha elektronlar zamin holatidan yuqoridagi elektronlarni qo'zg'atadi va elektronlar dastlabki holatiga qaytganda fotonlarni chiqaradi. Albatta, buni hamma biladi. "Floresan - bu oynadagi uranil birikmasining o'ziga xos xususiyati." Natch.

Skelcherning uran tugagani haqidagi tafsilotlari haqida nima deyish mumkin? "Tushgan U-da",-davom etadi Marks, bema'nilik-olimlar jargoniga o'girilib,-235 asosan, lekin to'liq olib tashlanmagan. Floresans U ning asosiy mulki bo'lgani va izotopikaga hech qanday aloqasi yo'qligi uchun, U ning radioaktiv darajasi qanday bo'lishi muhim emas. ”

Fil vaza shaklidagi bu Viktoriya davri oynasi Angliyaning Manchester shahridagi Burtles, Tate & amp Co. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Demak, sizda - qora chiroq ostida vazelin oynasining porlashi radiatsiya bilan hech qanday aloqasi yo'q, chunki ko'pchilik noto'g'ri ishonishadi. Qora chiroq ostida yashil rangda porlayotgan barcha oynalarda uran bor degani emas. Marganets kabi boshqa elementlar ham xuddi shunday ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin, va ba'zida tarkibida uran miqdori ko'p bo'lgan bo'laklar, ma'lum bir shisha partiyasining tarkibiga qarab, kamroq bo'lganlarga qaraganda kamroq porlaydi. Umuman olganda, agar u yashil rangda yonib tursa, u vazelin.

Skelcher o'zining kitoblari uchun olib borgan tadqiqotlari davomida o'z to'plamini yig'ganida, bu yorqin nurni qidirishni o'rgandi. "Men ba'zan ochiq maydonlarda antiqa buyumlar yarmarkasida xarid qilardim", deb eslaydi u. "Quyosh bota boshlaganda va qorong'i tushganda, vazelinning haqiqiy bo'laklari o'sha kichkina oynada porlab turardi - men dalada aylanib, qaysi stendda uran oynasi borligini ko'rardim." Qorong'i tushganda er yuziga ultrabinafsha nurlar kamroq tushsa -da, uning ta'siri yanada aniqroq bo'ladi, chunki o'sha paytda yorug'lik kamroq bo'ladi. Shunday qilib, uran bo'lmagan, uran bo'lmagan, yashil Depressiya oynasidan farqli o'laroq, bu o'tkir ko'zli, vazelinli shisha ovchining chirog'iga aylandi.

1850 yildan 1860 yilgacha Fors bozori uchun ishlab chiqarilgan Bohemiya espressosi chashka va likopchasi. Chapda tabiiy yorug'lik, o'ngda UV nur. Deyv Peterson orqali fotosuratlar VaselineGlass.org saytida

19 -asr odamlari, alacakaranlık porlashini ham payqashgandir. "Biz aniq amin emasmiz", deydi Skelcher, "lekin biz o'ylaymizki, o'sha paytlarda porlash juda jozibali deb hisoblangan. O'sha yillar oldin odamlar uylarida elektr chirog'i yo'q edi. Ko'pchilikda sham yoki, ehtimol, gazli chiroq bo'lishi kerak edi. Agar ular uran oynasini deraza tokchasiga qo'ysalar, quyosh botganda shisha porlab turardi ».

Uranni birinchi marta shishada ishlatgan odamning ismi uzoq vaqtdan beri tarixda yo'qolgan, ammo uran-shisha yaratish afsonasi, odatda, Chexiya fabrikasida ishlab chiqariladigan birinchi ishlab chiqarish hajmini ishlab chiqargan, Bohemiyalik shisha ishlab chiqaruvchi Yozef Ridelni chaqiradi. 1830 -yillarda uran shishasi ikkita rangda - Annagrun (yashil) va Annagelb (sariq). Jeyms Pauellning Londondagi Whitefriars shisha ishlab chiqaruvchi kompaniyasi deyarli bir yilga yaqin Riedelni bozorda mag'lubiyatga uchratdi va Skelcherning aytishicha, u hatto 1820 -yillarda Kornuollda qazib olingan radioaktiv tosh yordamida Angliyada ishlab chiqarilgan uran shishasi borligini isbotlagan.

Suv nilufarlari, Jon Uolsh Uolsh, Birmingem, Angliya, taxminan 1903. Bobri Garri/Robert Leal fotosurati Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Kim birinchi bo'lib nima qilganidan qat'i nazar, biz bilamizki, mineralning o'zi 1789 yilda, nemis kimyogari Martin Geynrix Klaprot uni bizning Quyosh sistemamiz yaqinda kashf etilgan sayyoramiz nomi bilan ataganida aniqlangan. O'sha paytda, uran qum stakanining asosiy tarkibiy qismi bo'lgan silikon dioksidni bo'yash uchun yana bir mineral sifatida qaraldi. Klaprot singari kimyogarlar kadmiyum oynani sarg'ayganini, kobalt uni ko'k rangga aylantirganini, marganets binafsha ranglarini, oltinning ba'zi birikmalari qizdirilganda, puflanganda va soviganida qizarib ketishini bilishardi.

"Uranni topganlarida, - deydi Skelcher, - ular shunday deb o'ylashgandir:" Oh, bu rangli eritma qiladi, agar biz uni oynaga solsak nima bo'ladi? "

Yillar o'tib, Evropa va Qo'shma Shtatlardagi ketma -ket shisha ishlab chiqaruvchilar buni aniqlash uchun juda ko'p qum eritishdi. Chexiya Respublikasida Harrach Glassworks uranni dekanterlar, qadahlar va tovoqlar uchun ishlatgan, Riedel esa Annagelb va Annagrunni murakkab kesilgan va qatlamli vazalar va krujkalar bilan ishlashga qo'ygan. Angliyada, Skelcherning sevimli shisha ishlab chiqaruvchilardan biri Tomas Veb va amp Sons, deyarli yarim asr o'tgach, 1840 -yillardan boshlab shisha partiyalariga uran qo'sha boshladi, 1880 -yillardagi Topaz rangidagi Webb retsepti og'irligi 7,3 % uranni tashkil qiladi.

Bu vazelinli shish va ko'zoynaklar to'plami 20 -asrning boshlarida Ogayo shtatining Kembrij shahridagi Cambridge Glass Co. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida, Pensilvaniya shtatidagi kompaniyalar McKee -dan Adamsdan Westmorelandgacha vazelinli shisha peri lampalar, konfet idishlari va qopqoqli kostryulkalar yasashdi. Gobb, Brokunier & amp Co. va G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatining Nortvudlari 1800 -yillarning oxirida dumaloq dumaloq bo'laklari bilan tanilgan, shtatning (va mamlakatning) vazelinli shisha ishlab chiqaruvchilaridan biri Fenton 1907 yilda kelgan. G'arbiy Virjiniyaning yana bir giganti Fostoria, 20 -yillarning 20 -yillariga qadar vazelinga kira olmadi, u qisqa vaqt ichida Kanariya sifatida sotilgan.

Va keyin, Ogayo shtati, nufuzli Kembrij Shisha Kompaniyasining uyi edi, uning vazelinli shisha retseptlaridagi uran miqdori Tomas Uebb va Sons darajasidan 7 foizgacha, 1 foizning 1/10 qismigacha bo'lgan. Umuman olganda, Kembrij vazelin retsepti o'sha davomiylikning eng past qismida joylashgan edi, garchi Primrose noma'lum rangdagi partiya og'irligi 2,9 foiz uranni talab qilsa-da, uning tarkibida 1000 funt qum bo'lgan Primrose partiyasi deyarli 60 ni o'z ichiga olgan. funt uran. Vebb kabi Topaz deb nomlangan aniq rangning retsepti odatdagidek 7/10 1 % uran yoki har bir partiya uchun taxminan 12 1/2 funtni tashkil etdi.

Boyd ’s Crystal Art Glass -dan tayyorlangan vazelinli shisha tovuq tuzi atigi 2 1/2 dyuym.

Kembrij retsepti 1920 va 30 -yillarga to'g'ri keladi, 1896 yilda frantsuz fizigi Anri Bekkerel uran radioaktiv ekanligini aniqlagandan ko'p vaqt o'tmay (1903 yilda Mariya va Per Kuri bilan bo'lgan tushunchasi uchun Nobel mukofoti bilan bo'lishgan), ammo olimlar bundan qanchalik zararli ekanligini tushunishidan ancha oldin. radioaktiv materiallar odamlar salomatligiga zarar etkazishi mumkin. Shunday bo'lsa -da, jamoat xavfsizligi xavotirlari, hatto noto'g'ri joylashtirilganlar ham, vazelin oynasining mashhurligi 19 -asr oxiri va 20 -asrning birinchi yarmida pasayib ketishining sababi emas edi. Jey Glikman va Terri Fedoskiyga ko'ra, 1998 y Sariq-yashil vazelin! Bu mavzu bo'yicha eng yaxshi asarlardandir, vazelin oynasining pasayishi, kechqurun, vazelinli porloq vazelinli tokchalarda yonib turgan, Viktoriya davrining soyasi bilan to'ldirilgan Skelcherning rasmlari bilan bog'liq. Elektr paydo bo'lishi bilan, bunday yuksak lahzalar sun'iy, to'liq spektrli yorug'lik nurlari ostida qoldi. "Vazelin oynasi oddiy lampochkaning qurboni bo'ldi!" mualliflar baqirishadi.

Asrning o'rtalariga kelib, uran 1942 yildan 1958 yilgacha uranni fuqarolikdan olib tashlagan urush harakatlari uchun juda muhim (AQShda Manxetten loyihasi degan ma'noni anglatardi). Radiatsion hiyla -nayranglar hali ham ko'pchilikda odatiy hol edi. joylar. "Men 1940 -yillarning oxirida bolaligimni eslayman", deb eslaydi Skelcher. "Siz poyabzal do'koniga borib, etikda oyog'ingizni rentgen qilib ko'rishingiz mumkin, agar u mos kelsa. Hech kim radiatsiya sizga zarar etkazayotganini tushunmagan.

Tomas Veb va Sons vazasining pardaga o'xshash dizayni Filomentosa deb nomlangan. Taxminan 1900 yil, oddiy nurda (chapda) va UVda (o'ngda). Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Rentgen nurlari vazelin oynasida topilgan alfa va beta nurlariga qaraganda ancha kuchli va xavfliroqdir. "Har bir uyning alfa to'lqinlari bor, chunki har bir uyda tutun detektori bor",-deb yozadi Peterson, har bir qurilmada mavjud bo'lgan amerikiy-241 fraksiyonel mikrogramlari haqida. Alfa nurlari kuchsizdir, shuning uchun signalni o'chirish uchun tutun detektori bilan aloqa qilishi kerak va ularni notekis qog'oz bilan to'sib qo'yish mumkin. Beta to'lqinlar kuchliroqdir, garchi ularni bir stakan oynadan ajratib qo'yish kifoya va ular baribir 18 dyuym ichida tarqalib ketadi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, rentgen nurlari kira olmaydigan yagona narsa-qo'rg'oshin, shuning uchun ular suyaklarning, hatto go'sht va etik terisiga o'ralgan holda ham yaxshi suratga olishgan.

1950 -yillarda uranni fuqarolik maqsadlarida ishlatishga qo'yilgan cheklovlar yumshatilgach, vazelin oynasi qaytdi. Qo'shma Shtatlarda Fenton 2011 yilda o'z faoliyatini to'xtatmaguncha eng yirik ishlab chiqaruvchilardan biri edi. Ogayo shtatining Kembrij shahrida joylashgan Mosser Glass 1964 yilda tashkil etilgan va hozirgacha vazelinli stakanni bosmoqda, qolipli shisha kek stendlarini tayyorlamoqda, kosalarni aralashtirmoqda, qaymoq, tuz-qalampir, kompotlar, stakan, shamdonlar, moyli lampalar, zımbalar, suv idishlari, mushukchalar, tovuqlar va jo'jalar. Mosser uchun vazelin - uning keng katalogidagi Amber yoki Aqua, Passion Pink yoki Hunter Green kabi boshqa rang.

"Vazelin" stakan yog'li idish va taqa va jokey qopqog'i. 19 -asr oxiri, Pittsburg qiroli Glasga tegishli. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Mosserning Kembrijdagi qo'shnisi, 1978 yildan buyon shisha bosadigan Boydning Kristal Art Glass, 36 yillik yugurishdan keyin operatsiyalarni tugatgandan so'ng, vazelin oynasining oxirgi qismini taxminan bir yil yoki undan oldin yasagan. Yaqin vaqtgacha botanika bo'yicha magistrlik kasbiga ega bo'lgan va firma asoschilarining nabirasi va o'g'li bo'lgan Jon Boyd Boyd stakanlariga uran qo'shishga mas'ul bo'lgan. Dastlabki kunlarda, deydi u, Boyd "U-308" ning xom miqdorini sotib olgan, u aytganidek "qahva maydonchasiga o'xshardi. Siz shunchaki buni boshqa ololmaysiz. Biz uran dioksidiga o'tishga majbur bo'ldik. Rang biroz boshqacha, biroz yashilroq ”.

Boyd o'zining 15 funtlik er maydonini ishlatdi (kompaniyaning istalgan vaqtda ushlab turishi mumkin bo'lgan uranning maksimal miqdori), u Firefly deb nomlangan uran stakanini yasadi. Ammo, deydi Jon, siz vazelindan boshqa ranglarni ishlab chiqarish uchun urandan foydalanishingiz mumkin. "Biz" Oltin lazzat "deb nomlangan rang yaratdik, bu esa sarg'ish rangga o'xshaydi. U uran o'z ichiga olgan har qanday shisha singari qora chiroq ostida lyuminestsent bo'ladi. Ishonchim komilki, biz partiyada uranning ½ foizidan kamroq qismini ishlatganmiz. Kembrij Shisha, - qo'shib qo'ydi u, - 3 foiz uran bo'lgan Avokado rangiga ega edi. Siz buni boshqa qila olmaysiz. Siz shunchaki bu rangni takrorlay olmaysiz. Uranni ishlatishda juda ko'p cheklovlar mavjud ”.

Angliyadan kelgan zamonaviy sarg'ish yoki topaz qog'oz og'irligi UV nurlari ta'sirida yashil rangda flüoreslanadi (o'ngda). Foto orqali Vazelinli shisha idishlar Barri Skelcher tomonidan.

Asosiy cheklov shundaki, 15 funtlik chegara, agar u bir vaqtning o'zida 1000 funtli shisha partiyasida ishlatilsa, uran tarkibini atigi 1 1/2 foizgacha oladi. Bu Boydning vazelinli stakanining bir bo'lagi uchun juda ko'p uran bo'lardi, Boydning odatdagi retseptidan ko'rinib turibdiki. "Boshqa birov 400 funt qumni, 150 funtli sodali suvni chiqarib yuboradi", deydi Jon, odatdagi partiyadagi asosiy ingredientlarni chayqatib, - keyin men 12 untsiya uran dioksidini tortib, nozik qilib berardim. ” Materialni ishlatayotganda, Jon o'zini himoya qilish uchun shisha fabrikasida ishchi kutishi mumkin bo'lgan ehtiyot choralarini ko'radi, lekin u radioaktiv ogohlantirish teglari bilan qoplangan qo'rg'oshin bilan qoplangan kostyumda o'tirganga o'xshamadi. "Men kombinezon, respirator va shamollatgich kiygan bo'lardim, shuning uchun har qanday changdan shamol bo'laman. Men shunchaki atrofimdagi xavf -xatarlardan xabardor bo'lishga harakat qildim, silikozning qumdagi kremniyni yutish xavfi yoki kobaltda nafas olish natijasida o'pkangizga zarar yetishi. Biz juda kaustik materiallar bilan shug'ullanardik, shuning uchun kombinezon fabrikada qoldi - siz ularni uyga olib kelmadingiz.

Darhaqiqat, uran ko'pincha Boydning vazelinli stakanidagi eng yomon narsa emas edi. "Biz mishyakni tozalash vositasi sifatida ishlatardik", deydi Jon dunyodagi eng mashhur toksik element haqida. "Arsenik Asdan ketadi2O3 ga2O5Bu shuni anglatadiki, bu shishadagi kislorod atomlarini yig'ishdir, ular pufakchalar sifatida namoyon bo'ladi - umuman stakaningizda ko'p pufakchalar paydo bo'lishini xohlamaysiz. Shunday qilib, shisha partiyasida mishyak kabi narsalar bo'lishi mumkin, ular aslida urandan biroz qo'polroqdir. Siz hamma narsani xavfsiz hal qilish uchun juda ehtiyot bo'lishingiz kerak. "

Somerset naqshlari Angliyalik Jorj Devidson va am Co tomonidan birinchi marta 1895 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida.

Qo'rg'oshin, albatta, qo'rg'oshinli kristall singari, shishaning yana bir an'anaviy tarkibiy qismidir. Shunga qaramay, Kembrij retseptiga murojaat qilsak, 20 -asrning birinchi yarmidan bir partiya 850 funt qum, 330 funt soda, 100 funt dala shpati, 42 funt ohak, 50 funt nitrat, 36 funt qo'rg'oshin, 10 funt mishyak, 43 untsiya uran va 13 untsiya mis oksidi. Qo'rg'oshin 1978 yilda maishiy bo'yoqlardan olib tashlangan, chunki u bolalar uchun juda zararli, shuning uchun 36 funtlik buyumlar 2 1/2 funt urandan ko'ra ko'proq xavf tug'diradi. Yaxshiyamki, kristall stakan ichidagi qo'rg'oshin, masalan, stakan ushlab turgan sharobga singib ketishi uchun bir necha soat kerak bo'ladi, ya'ni qo'rg'oshin shisha idishlar uchun yaxshi, lekin agar siz nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar ichishni rejalashtirmasangiz, dekanterlar uchun bu yaxshi fikr emas. qisqa vaqt ichida.

Qo'rg'oshin bilan, hech bo'lmaganda, zahar sizning qoningizga kirishi mumkin bo'lgan holatlar mavjud. Uranni o'z tizimiga kiritish, deydi Skelcher, aslida ko'p harakat talab qiladi. Aniqroq aytishni so'rashganda, Skelcher vazelin stakanidagi oz miqdordagi uranni sog'liq uchun zararli deb o'ylashi mumkin bo'lgan stsenariyni aytganda, bo'lakni mayda kukun bo'lguncha maydalab, yutib yuboradi. "Achinarli ish bo'lardi" deb ta'kidlash. Ammo bu ahmoq stsenariyda, urandagi radioaktivlik endi sizning tanangizda bo'ladi va bu alfa va beta nurlarining boshqa joyi bo'lmaydi.

1880 -yillarga yaqin bolalarga ABC ni o'rganishga yordam beradigan "Adams & amp Co" vazelinli stakan. Surat Deyv Peterson orqali VaselineGlass.org saytida

Ko'pchilik, ehtimol, Skelcherning giperbolik taklifini sinovdan o'tkazish istagiga qarshi tura oladi, lekin bu vazelin muxlislari hali o'rmondan chiqib ketgan degani emas. Deyv Peterson, Barri Skelcher va Jon Boyd kabi qora nurli odamlar juda ko'p zavqlanadigan hiyla-nayrangga qaytadi. Qora chiroqlar, ta'rifiga ko'ra, terining saratoniga olib keladigan ultrabinafsha nurlaridan boshqa hech narsa chiqarmaydi (shuning uchun biz tashqariga chiqayotganimizda quyoshdan himoya kremini kiyamiz, garchi hozir bu biz uchun ham yomon bo'lsa kerak). Ultrabinafsha nurlar to'lqin uzunligiga qarab (eng yomoni eng yomoni), ko'zning to'r pardasi va shox pardasiga ham zarar etkazishi mumkin, bu vazelin oynasining haqiqatan ham xavfli tomoni uning hiylasini bajarishiga olib keladi. For his part, Dave Peterson plays it safe by making sure the black lights he uses emit the relatively safer, long UVA waves rather than the more harmful shorter waves that characterize UVBs or UVCs. “I’m more concerned about what black light I use than how much uranium I have in my house,” he says.

(For more information about Vaseline glass, check out Vaseline Glass Collectors, Inc., or Barrie Skelcher’s site. Peterson’s books, including Vaseline Glass: Canary to Contemporary, are available via amazon and other online sellers Skelcher’s are available via Schiffer Books. To purchase new Vaseline glass, visit Boyd’s Crystal Art Glass or Mosser Glass.)


Indiana Glass Company

In 1896, James Beatty and George Brady purchased an unused Pennsylvania Railroad locomotive and car repair building in Dunkirk, Indiana, and refitted it as a glassworks. Beatty-Brady produced household glass, lamps, lamp chimneys, and vases. In the early 1900s, Beatty-Brady Glass became part of the National Glass Combine. The combine changed the name to the Indiana Glass Company.

When the National Glass Combine failed in 1907, a group of investors led by Frank Merry and Harold Phillips bought the Indiana Glass Company. The company’s letterhead noted the company was founded in 1907. The company continued production of pressed glass.

Although the company made iridescent (carnival) glass, the number of patterns was minimal. Indiana Glass’s principal products consisted of barware, berry sets, goblets, jellies, novelties, tableware, tumblers, stemware, and water sets. Many of the novelty items were miniatures meant for use by children. A soda fountain line was added in 1919. Indiana Glass also produced the A & W root beer mugs.

In 1923, Indiana Glass introduced Avocado, its first Depression glass pattern. Additional Depression glass patterns such as Pyramid, Tea Room, and Indiana Sandwich followed. By the late 1930s, over a dozen Depression Glass patterns were being manufactured. The 1930s also witnessed the introduction of a line of hen on nest novelties. In production for over 70 years, these hen on nest novelties were made in over 75 colors.

During World War II, Indiana Glass made headlights, lenses, and other industrial products. Milk glass was introduced in the 1950s. New patterns such as Christmas Candy and Orange Blossom were introduced. Production of barware, restaurant, and soda fountain ware continued.

In 1957, Lancaster Glass Corporation purchased Indiana Glass Company, keeping the plant and brand name in operation. Colony Glass turned to Indiana Glass to help produce its Harvest pattern milk glass. A brief period of prosperity occurred in the early and mid-1960s. In 1962, Lancaster Glass became part of the Lancaster Colony Corporation. New lines, patterns such as King’s Crown and Ruby Band Diamond Point, and colors, like ruby flash glass, were added. Carnival patterns were reissued.

In 1983, Lancaster Colony purchased Fostoria Glass. Several of the Fostoria molds were sent to Indiana Glass. Indiana Glass also acquired old Duncan & Miller, Federal Glass, and Imperial Glass molds. Reproductions made from these molds were marketed as “Tiara Reproductions.” In the 1990s, Indiana Glass made glasses for Budweiser and Coca Cola and a variety of household glass accessories under contract to Wal-Mart.

By the end of the 1990s, Indiana Glass and its parent company Lancaster Colony began experiencing financial difficulties. A disastrous strike occurred in 2001. The workers returned to work in January 2002. In November 2002, Lancaster Colony announced it was ending glass production in Dunkirk. The factory closed on November 256, 2002.

Although Indiana Glass production ceased in Dunkirk in 2002, the Indiana Glass name survives. Since 2002, Indiana Glass is being produced at Bartlett & Collins, a factory owned by Lancaster Colony.


Treasures: Do these glass vases have a history?

These vases were passed down to me from my grandmother. I would like to know a little history about them so I can pass them on to my son. They are orange and black (or dark blue), and 9 inches tall. Any information would be appreciated.        

These vases were passed down to me from my grandmother. I would like to know a little history about them so I can pass them on to my son. They are orange and black (or dark blue), and 9 inches tall. Any information would be appreciated.         

We think this pair of vases is really attractive and interesting. Singles in this type of glass are much more commonly found, and this pair makes a nice statement with their strong colors and distinctive shapes.         

First, we should probably discuss the type of glass this is. In the past, many collectors have called this multicolored glassware "end-of-day" glass because of a myth that said that at the end of the work day, glassblowers took the various colors of glass they had worked with, mixed them up, and blew this multicolored glass from the resulting mixture.         

That is just ridiculous. If a glassblower mixed all the colors together, all he or she would get is a muddy molten mess -- not the streaked and spotted product in today's question. The more proper term for this sort of ware is "spatter glass," and although it first appeared in the 19th century, it is still widely made today.         

Early on, this glass was sometimes called "splash glass," but spatter is more accepted today. To make this type of glass, shards of different colored glass are spread over a table-like work surface called a "marver."          

The glass blower begins by blowing a bubble into the base glass and then rolls the hot mass over the marver. The shards stick to the molten glass in a random fashion, and at this point the whole mass is reheated in the glass furnace. The glass blower then expands the bubble and shapes it into the desired form.         

The shape of these particular vases is called "jack-in-the-pulpit," which is a reference to the arisaema triphyllum - also called "bog onion," "Indian turnip" or "brown dragon." In this plant, the leaves wrap around to form the funnel shaped "pulpit" with a kind of pointed protrusion at the back.          

In the center, there is a "spadix" that stands straight up and looks like a person -- this is the "jack" in the pulpit. This form of plant life was interpreted in glassware from the late 19th century through the current day, and there are enthusiasts who collect only jack-in-the-pulpit vases.         

P.O.B. should look very carefully at the bases of her items. There she might find the word "Czechoslovakia," which would identify this as the country of origin for this circa 1920 pair of vases.         

Czechoslovakia did not exist as a separate country until after World War I. In 1918, it was created largely from the part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire known as "Bohemia."

Bohemia -- and later Czechoslovakia -- has been a major center for glass production for centuries. Some of the finest glassware in the world was made there, but they also competed on the world market with relatively inexpensive wares -- such as this pair of spatter jack-in-the-pulpit vases.

For insurance replacement purposes, this pair should be valued in the $200 to $250 range.         


Bohemian Glass Reproductions of Old Designs

Defining "reproduction," "replica" and "vintage" glass is a challenge in itself. Identifying it is even more difficult. We use the term "replica" to describe glass that is a copy of an older design, with no intent to deceive the buyer&ndashusually there is some small difference between them. But an uninformed or dishonest seller can pass replicas off as vintage. As Ronald Reagan used to say: "Trust, but verify."

We have said many times that the Bohemian glass industry keeps one eye on the past and one eye on the future. Glass school students are well grounded in 18 th and 19 th century techniques, as well as those that are the most advanced. Research facilities constantly produce new formulas and techniques for the entire spectrum of the glass industry: industrial, laboratory, architectural and hollow glass.

If you visit any large showroom in the Czech Republic today, you will find designs by such avant-garde artists as Vladimir Klein (Crystalex), Erika Houserova and JíYí Suhajek (Moser), and Paval Hlava (Egermann Company). Art glass galleries also include products designed by top glass artists but produced in smaller glass houses, such as that of Beranek or Ajeto.

Czech glass companies keep glass products in production for many years. Some of the Egermann-style, red-stained engraved glass has changed very little in the past 100 or more years. Nor has the white, high enamel technique depicting human, animal and floral motifs (painters call this high enamel "plastic"). Another example of classic Bohemian glass technology is overlay glass, cut to reveal the underlying color(s). This form of art glass has been in continuous production since the early 1830s.

Bohemian glass made between 1750 and 1940 can compete favorably with the glass industry of any country. Even so, Friedrich Egermann&ndashone of the foremost glass innovators of his time&ndashproduced painted glass in the style of his predecessors Kothgasser and Mohn, who decorated glass in Vienna. The swartzlot (black) paintings of Ignatz Preissler have been replicated by every generation of painters for 200 years. There can be no doubt that the Art Nouveau and Art Deco glass made by Harrach and Loetz will serve as models for glass makers for many years to come.

Sometimes replicas occur as the whim of one particular person to challenge the past, but it also happens that a particular style will come back into fashion after 75 or 100 years: neo-classicism, neo-rococo and Second Biedermeier are all fashions that have had a successful revival.

One of the most accomplished painters in the Czech Republic is JiYi Hortensky. Hortensky (of Novy Bor and Kamenicky Senov) has worked closely with the Glass Museum in Novy Bor and others to produce replicas of Biedermeier and Rococo beakers. He faithfully copies the original with only the slightest change to set his work apart. His work is nearly always signed. Museums and collectors often use his work as substitutes for vintage examples that cannot otherwise be obtained.

The glassware produced by Heinrich Hoffmann and Henry Schlevogt in the 1930s is still immensely popular. Today it is being produced by Ornela under the Desna label. The Moser firm in Karlovy Vary produces innumerable designs dating back to 1900 and occasionally even earlier. The Exbor Studios had its beginning as the Lobmeyr workshop in Kamenicky Senov it moved to Novy Bor and was incorporated into Egermann-Exbor in 1962. The 1950s saw an explosion of artists who either specialized in glass only or provided designs for glassmakers on an occasional free-lance basis. Legends such as Vera LiSkova, Ludvika Smrckova, Stanislav Libensky and Pavel Hlava created designs that will still be in production 100 years from now. Over and over glass has proven that grand designs are timeless.

Whether a new piece is called a replica or reproduction is a matter to be discussed by philosophers and crooks. As one politician said: "I can't define it, but I know it when I see it." Like it or not, new glass is in the American market and often described as vintage. While new glass can be a great source of enjoyment when honestly represented, fraudulent marketing can be painful for the victim.

Cameo Glass: Sandblasted or Acid Etched?

Even a casual examination of cameo glass will reveal two distinct characteristics. First, the modern sandblasting technique produces an extremely sharp edge, while acid-etching produces a slightly irregular edge. Second, a sandblasted surface is very smooth, while acid produces a rough tapioca-type surface.

See more new glass with old designs at the following web sites


Glass Vases, Epidaurus - History

The Museum of American Glass in West Virginia.

Imagine a museum dedicated to the region and nation's rich glass heritage. A place where examples of thousands of products can be viewed and compared and where the stories of people and processes come to life! The MAGWV provides this and much, much more.

The Museum of American Glass in West Virginia was established in Weston, West Virginia, in 1993 as a non-profit organization with a goal to discover, publish and preserve whatever may relate to the glass industry in West Virginia, the United States of America or where ever else glass has been manufactured.

The Museum is located at
230 Main Ave.
Weston, West Virginia 26452
Phone: 304-269-5006

Some GPS units will take you the wrong way on Main Street so here are the
latitude & longitude coordinates for the museum to use in your GPS unit:
N 39 deg 02.326', W 80 deg 28.001'

We are open to the public

Monday - Saturday 9:30 A.M. - 5:00 P.M. Sundays 1:00 P.M. - 5:00 P.M.

MAGWV Auction Going on now

Bidding Notice: Place absentee bids online here if you can not attend the auction

MAGWV Collections are Online

MAGWV Given Custody of American Flint Glass Workers Union Archives!

We now have a climate-controlled archival storage area on the second floor

MAGWV has an Ebay Store!

Purchase memberships to the Museum, monographs, books, original catalogs, Back issues of All About Glass and more! Click Here to visit.
Back issues of the Early American Pattern Glass Society News Journal
are also available now.

The Museum has a Gift Shop.

Books and Monographs for sale as well as hundreds of pieces of glass offered by a selection of vendors. And we now accept credit cards!

The Voice of the Glass Collecting Community

The magazine is one of the privileges of membership to the Museum.
To learn how YOU can receive it Click Here

Interested in glass research?

Click on Museum Store to order catalog reprints, monographs and original catalogs many containing never-before published glass company information.
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A Brief History of Italian and Scandinavian Mid Century Glassware

Mid century glassware is special, the sculptural and organic forms create an amazing effect capturing the light and decorating the room all alone. It often had a sculptural look, even if designed for a daily-use as table-wares, paperweights, platters and so on.

From the late 20s and across all mid century, designers began to replace craftsmen becoming real glass artists while manufacturers created series of functional vases, as wine glasses and tumblers, establishing dedicated art glass departments. Specially in the 50s the distinction between art and daily-use products became subtle as swirling colours and more organic forms were adopted for functional designs.

(Tapio Wirkkala vases – found here)

The Italian Glass Market Throughout the Mid Century

In Murano(Italy) the glass-maker Paolo Venini -that began to experiment with new glass designs already in the early 20s- became the Italian glass manufacturer market leader across the mid century, encouraging the cooperation between designers and artists to create original products.

Venini contributed to re-invent the Murano glass business using sculptural and asymmetrical forms for his works: a revolution. Together with Venini, also Dino Martens and Aldo Nason contributed to bring the Murano market back to success after the crisis.

Martens liked to re-imagine daily use designs making sculptural and abstract objects, while Nason was more known for his organic forms and candy-coloured motifs inspired by natural elements and contrasting with the classic, and subdued, pre-war Murano glass style.

(Murano vase – found in the book Mid Century Modern)

Mid Century Glass Design in Scandinavia

Even if they never used a particularly bright colour palette like the Italians, also Scandinavian designers experimented with new and original colour mixes, using basic pigments and different additives.

Sven Palmqvist, for example, was inspired by the Byzantine mosaics while designing the Ravenna glass series.
The designers Tapio Wirkkala and Timo Sarpaneva won international prizes and contributed to the success of the brand Iittala, creating modern and elegant products.

(Sven Palmqvist – Ravenna series glass – found here)

(Sven Palmqvist vases – found here)

(Tapio Wirkkala vases – found here)

Wirkkala designed a range of products based on jagged ice blocks, lichen vessels and mushroom shapes while the Tapio series captured air’s lightness and transparency trapping a bubble within each dense stem.

Sarpaneva’s work was more eclectic, going from functionality to luxury.
Specially during the 50s, he adopted a sculptural approach with his i-Glass series. The colours he used -smoky with a subtle metallic tint- inspired many designers and created one of the most recognisable mid century colour palette.

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