Al-Balqadan planshetga sirli yozuv

Al-Balqadan planshetga sirli yozuv


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Arab alximiyasi

Arab alximiyasi kelib chiqishi yunoncha sirli va ikkalasi bir -biridan ancha farq qilgan ko'rinadi. Qaysi hurmat Fizika va mistika yunon alkimyogarlari tomonidan o'tkazilgan bo'lib, arablar tomonidan boshqa asarga berilgan Zumrad planshet Hermes Trismegistos, turli alkimyoviy, okkultik va ilohiyotshunoslik asarlarining mashhur ellinistik muallifi. "Yuqoridagi narsa pastdagiga o'xshaydi va pastdagisi yuqoridagiga o'xshaydi" iborasi qisqa, nazariy va astrolojik. "Uch marta buyuk" Germes (Trismegistos) - Misr xudosi Totning yunoncha versiyasi va miloddan avvalgi 150 yilda qayd etilgan astrolojik falsafaning asoschisi. The Zumrad planshetammo, deb nomlangan katta ishdan keladi Yaratilish siri kitobiLotin va arab qo'lyozmalarida mavjud bo'lib, musulmon kimyogari ar-Raziy tomonidan Xalifa al-Mo'min davrida (813–833 e.) yozilgan deb o'ylagan, garchi u 1-asrdagi butparastlarga tegishli bo'lsa. mistik Tyana Apolloniy.

Ba'zi olimlar arab alximiyasi g'arbiy Osiyo maktabidan, yunon alximiyasi esa Misr maktabidan kelib chiqqan deb taxmin qilishgan. Ma'lumki, Osiyo maktabi xitoy yoki hind emas edi. Ma'lumki, arab alximiyasi Suriyaning ma'lum bir shahri - Xarran bilan bog'liq edi, bu shahar alximik tushunchalarning bulog'i edi. Ehtimol, distillash mafkurasi va uning matbuot kotibi Mariya, shuningdek Agathodaimon - Aleksandriyaga ko'chib o'tgan va Zosimos alximiyasiga qo'shilgan Xarran alximiyasini ifodalagan bo'lishi mumkin.

Ning mavjud versiyalari Yaratilish siri kitobi ular faqat VII yoki VI asrlarga ko'chirilgan, lekin ba'zi odamlar Apolloniyning yozganlari emas, balki ancha oldingi yozuvlarni ifodalaydi deb ishonishadi. U qadimiy tarjimai hol mavzusidir, u алхimiya haqida hech narsa demaydi, lekin bu ham emas Zumrad planshet na qolganlari Yaratilish siri kitobi. Boshqa tomondan, ularning tabiat nazariyalarida alximik halqa bor va Kitob alximiyaning xarakterli materiallarini, shu jumladan G'arbda birinchi marta ammiakni eslatib o'tadi. Bu arablar uchun muhim kitob edi, aksariyat taniqli faylasuflari kimyo haqida eslatib o'tdilar, garchi ba'zida yoqtirmasalar ham. Bu bilan shug'ullanganlar, yunonlarga qaraganda, aniqroq oltin ishlab chiqarishga qiziqishgan. Eng yaxshi tasdiqlangan va ehtimol eng buyuk arab alximigi Ar-Razi edi.v. 850–923/924) - Bag'dodda yashagan fors shifokori. Eng mashhuri Jobir ibn Xayyan edi, endi bu nom Bag'dodda ilmga qarshi ilohiy reaktsiyadan so'ng ishlab chiqarilgan "er osti yozuvlari" to'plamiga qo'llanilgan. Qanday bo'lmasin, Jabiriy yozuvlari ar-Roziynikiga juda o'xshash.

Ar-Roziy kimyogar tomonidan ishlatilgan materiallarni "jismlar" (metallar), toshlar, vitriollar, borakslar, tuzlar va "ruhlar" deb tasniflab, ikkinchisiga o'ta muhim materiallar (simob, oltingugurt, orpiment va realgar (mishyak sulfidlari) va ammiakli sal. Ko'p narsa ammiakdan qilingan, ularning reaktiv kuchlari G'arb alximiyasiga yangi hayot bag'ishlaganga o'xshaydi. Ar-Roziy va Jabiriy yozuvchilari, chindan ham, iksirning katalitik harakati orqali oltin ishlab chiqarishga harakat qilishgan. Ikkalasi ham oxir -oqibat mineral kislotalarning kashfiyotiga olib keladigan "kuchli suvlar" ning qo'shilishi haqida ko'p narsa yozishgan, lekin talabalar arab alximiklarining yozuvlarida bu kashfiyotning dalillarini topa olishmagan. Xitoy va Hindistondan. Arablarning kuchli suvlari faqat korroziyali tuzli eritmalar edi.

Ar-Roziyning yozuvi arab alximiyasining apogeyini ifodalaydi, shuning uchun ham kimyo talabalari uning keyinchalik tasavvufiy yoki yarim diniy maqsadlarga yo'naltirilganligini isbotlamaydi. Bundan tashqari, u mustaqil bo'lib qolgan tibbiyotga murojaat qilmaganga o'xshaydi. Ammo arab tibbiyotida avvalgi yunon va arab shifokorlarining asosiy dorilari bo'lgan minerallarga ko'proq e'tibor berishga moyillik bor edi. Natijada eliksirlar emas, balki kelib chiqishi noorganik bo'lgan va ar-Raziy iksirlaridan unchalik farq qilmaydigan maxsus dorilarning farmakopeyasi paydo bo'ldi. Bu yangi farmakopeyani Bag'dodda o'qigan, Afrikalik Konstantin Evropaga olib keldi, u 1087 yilda Monte Kassinoda (Italiya) xristian rohib sifatida vafot etdi. Farmakopeya ham XI asrda Ispaniyada paydo bo'lgan va u erdan Lotin Evropasiga o'tgan, arab alximik yozuvlari bilan birga XII asrda lotin tiliga tarjima qilingan.


Tarkibi

Rongorongo yozuvlarning zamonaviy nomi. Rapa Nui tilida bu "o'qish, rad etish, qo'shiq aytish" degan ma'noni anglatadi. [1 -eslatma]

Skriptning asl nomi yoki ehtimol tavsifi shunday bo'lgan kohau motu mo rongorongo, "kuylash uchun chizilgan chiziqlar", qisqartirilgan kohau rongorongo yoki "kuylash uchun chiziqlar". [2] Shuningdek, ularning mavzusiga asoslangan matnlar uchun aniqroq nomlar berilgan. Masalan, kohau tau ("yillar qatori") yilnomalar edi kohau aka ("baliq qatorlari") urushda halok bo'lganlarning ro'yxati edi (aka "baliq" bir xil yoki "urush qurbonlari" uchun majoziy ma'noda ishlatilgan) va kohau ranga "Qochoqlar qatori" urush qochqinlarining ro'yxati edi. [1 -eslatma]

Ba'zi mualliflar buni tushunishdi tau ichida kohau tau dan farqli alohida yozish shakliga murojaat qilish rongorongo Barthel "Orolliklar boshqa yozuvga ega edi" deb yozgan.tau "Ssenariy"), ularning yilnomalari va boshqa dunyoviy masalalarni yozib olgan, lekin bu yo'qolgan. " [3] Biroq, Fisherning yozishicha, " tau dastlab bir turi edi rongorongo yozuv 1880 -yillarda bir guruh oqsoqollar "skript" lotinini ixtiro qildilar tau ular bilan savdo qiymatini oshirish uchun o'ymakorlikni bezash. Bu ibtidoiy taqlid rongorongo. "[4] Uchinchi skript da'vo qilingan onam yoki vafo 20-asrning ba'zi nashrlarida tasvirlangan "XX asr boshlarida geometrik [dekorativ] ixtiro" bo'lgan. [5]

Gliflarning shakllari tirik organizmlarning standart konturlari va taxminan bir santimetr balandlikdagi geometrik dizaynlardir. Yog'ochdan yasalgan planshetlar notekis shaklga ega va ko'p hollarda yivli (planshetlar) B, E., G, H, O, Qva, ehtimol T), planshetlar uzunligidagi sayoz kanallarda o'yilgan gliflar bilan tasvirlangan. G o'ngda. Noqonuniy va tez -tez nuqsonli yog'och bo'laklari orolda yog'och kamligi sababli to'rtburchaklar shaklida ishlatilgan deb o'ylashadi. [6]

Yozish vositalarini tahrirlash

Tosh bilan kesilgan bir nechta gliflardan tashqari (qarang petrogliflar), saqlanib qolgan barcha xavfsiz matnlar yog'ochga yozilgan. An'anaga ko'ra, planshetlar toromiro yog'ochidan qilingan. Biroq, Orliac (2005) etti ob'ektni (planshetlarni) tekshirdi B, C, G, H, K, Qva reimiro L) stereo optik va skanerlovchi elektron mikroskoplar yordamida va ularning barchasi Tinch okeani atirgul daraxtidan qilinganligini aniqladi.Thespesiya populnea) planshet uchun ham xuddi shunday identifikatsiya qilingan M 1934 yilda. Bu 15 metrli daraxt, uning rangi uchun "Tinch okeani gul daraxti" nomi bilan tanilgan va shunday nomlangan makoꞌi Rapanuida, sharqiy Polineziya bo'ylab muqaddas bog'lar va o'ymakorliklar uchun ishlatilgan va, ehtimol, birinchi ko'chmanchilar tomonidan Pasxa oroliga olib kelingan. [7] Biroq, yog'ochlarning hammasi ham mahalliy emas edi: Orliak (2007) bu planshetlarni aniqlagan N., P.va S Janubiy Afrika Yelvuddan qilingan (Podocarpus latifolius) va shuning uchun yog'och G'arb aloqasi bilan kelgan. Fisher tasvirlab beradi P. xuddi "buzilgan va qayta shakllangan Evropa yoki Amerika eshkaklari" sifatida A (bu Evropadagi kul, Fraxinus excelsior) va V G'arbiy qayiq qulab tushgan yog'och ko'plab planshetlar uchun ishlatilgani aytilgan va ikkalasi ham P. va S Rapanui kanopi uchun qayiq taxta sifatida qayta ishlangan, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, o'sha paytga kelib planshetlar orolliklar uchun matn sifatida ahamiyatsiz edi. [8] Bir nechta matnlar, shu jumladan O, yaltiroq daraxtlar ustida o'yilgan. [9] Orol aholisi yog'ochdan yasalgan yog'ochni yozib qo'ygani va yog'ochdan juda tejamli foydalanganligi, skriptning tuzilishiga, masalan, ligaturalarning ko'pligi va potentsial telegraf yozuv uslubiga ta'sir qilishi mumkin edi. matn tahlilini murakkablashtiradi. [10]

Uilyam J. Tomson qabrdan topilgan va "o'yilgan planshetlardagiga o'xshash ierogliflar bilan qoplangan", hozir yo'qolgan kalabash haqida xabar berdi. 1864 yilda boshlangan birinchi missionerlik davrida, ayollar tirik qolganlardan birining parchasi "ramzlar" bilan bezatilgan po'stloq mato kiygani va rongorongo bo'lib tuyuldi.

Og'zaki urf -odatlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, yog'och qimmatbaho bo'lgani uchun uni faqat tajribali ulamolar ishlatgan, o'quvchilar esa banan barglariga yozishgan. Nemis etnologi Tomas Bartel, banan barglari yoki suyak qalamchasi bo'lgan banan magistralining qobig'ining oldingi bosqichiga asoslanib, skript evolyutsiyasida ikkinchi darajali rivojlanish deb hisoblagan va barglar muhiti nafaqat saqlanib qolgan. darslar uchun, lekin yog'och planshetlarning matnlarini rejalashtirish va tuzish. [11] U eksperimental ravishda gliflar banan barglarida aniq ko'rinib turganini aniqladi, chunki ular kesilgan joydan paydo bo'lgan va yuzasida quritilgan. Biroq, barglar quriganida, ular mo'rt bo'lib, uzoq yashamas edilar. [12]

Barthel, banan bargi hatto planshetlar uchun prototip bo'lib xizmat qilgan bo'lishi mumkin, deb taxmin qildi, planshetlarning chayqalgan yuzasi bargning tomirli tuzilishini taqlid qildi:

[Pasxa orolida] mavjud bo'lgan materiallar bilan o'tkazilgan amaliy tajribalar shuni ko'rsatdiki, banan daraxtining yuqorida aytib o'tilgan qismlari nafaqat ideal yozish materiali, balki yozish chizig'ining balandligi bilan masofa o'rtasida to'g'ridan-to'g'ri yozishmalar mavjud. banan daraxtining barglari va poyalaridagi tomirlar orasida. Klassik yozuvlarni chiziqlar balandligiga qarab (10-12 mm) ikki guruhga bo'lish mumkin va boshqalar 15 mm) bu banan poyasida (o'rtacha daraxtning pastki qismida o'rtacha 10 mm) yoki banan bargida ([.] Maksimal 15 mm) tomirlarning tabiiy joylashishiga to'g'ri keladi.

Yozish yo'nalishi Tahrir

Rongorongo gliflari teskari boustrofedonda, chapdan o'ngga va pastdan yuqoriga yozilgan. Ya'ni, o'quvchi planshetning pastki chap burchagidan boshlanadi, chiziqni chapdan o'ngga o'qiydi, so'ngra keyingi satrda davom etish uchun planshetni 180 gradusga buradi. Bir satrni o'qiyotganda, yuqoridagi va pastdagi chiziqlar teskari ko'rinadi, buni chapdagi rasmda ko'rish mumkin.

Biroq, yozuv planshetning ikkinchi tomonida davom etadi, u birinchi tugagan joyida, shuning uchun agar planshetlarda bo'lgani kabi, agar birinchi tomonida toq sonli chiziqlar bo'lsa K, N., P.va Q, ikkinchisi soatidan boshlanadi yuqori chap burchak va yozish yo'nalishi yuqoridan pastga siljiydi.

Kattaroq planshetlar va tayoqlar, agar o'quvchi teskari o'qiy oladigan bo'lsa, burilmasdan o'qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. [13]

Yozish yo'nalishi chiziq yo'nalishi o'zgarganda aylanadigan gliflar, matn oxiriga sig'adigan gliflar va ma'lum bir planshetda bunday maslahatlar bo'lmaganida - planshetlar orasidagi parallel parchalar orqali aniqlanadi.

Yozish asboblari Tahrirlash

Og'zaki an'anaga ko'ra, ulamolar obsidian po'stlog'idan yoki kichik akula tishlaridan foydalanganlar, ehtimol, hali ham Polineziyada yog'och o'ymakorligi, planshetlarni flütlash va jilolash, keyin gliflarni kesish uchun ishlatilgan. [14] Gliflar, odatda, chuqur silliq kesmalardan tuzilgan, garchi yuzaki chiziqlar ham topilgan. O'ng tomondagi rasmda, glif ikki qismdan iborat bo'lib, bu soch turmagi bilan bog'langan, bu shakl uchun odatiy shart. Bir nechta tadqiqotchilar, shu jumladan Barthel, bu yuzaki kesmalar obsidian tomonidan qilingan va matnlar ikki bosqichli o'yilgan, avval obsidian bilan chizilgan, so'ng chuqurlashtirilgan va eskirgan akula tishi bilan tugatilgan deb hisoblashadi. [15] Qolgan soch turmagi ham xatolar, dizayn qoidalari (o'ngdagi kabi) yoki dekorativ bezaklar edi. [2-eslatma] Masalan, vertikal chiziqlar yoki pastillalar, sochlarning kesilishi bilan bog'liq, buni planshetning bir uchi yaqinida takroran ko'rish mumkin. B pastda Biroq, Barthelga aytdiki, oxirgi savodli Rapanui qiroli Ngarara baliq suyagi bilan ishlangan gliflarni chizib, keyin ularni akula tishi bilan o'yib yozgan. [17]

Planshet N., boshqa tomondan, akula tishlarini ko'rsatmaydi. Xaberlandt, bu matnning gliflari o'tkir suyak bilan kesilgan ko'rinadi, buni yivlarning sayozligi va kengligi tasdiqlaydi. [18] N. Shuningdek, "tugallangan kontur chiziqlaridagi detallarni ishlab chiqish uchun obsidian po'choqlari bilan ikkinchi darajali ishlashni ko'rsatadi. Boshqa yo'q rongo-rongo yozuv bunday isrofgarchilikni ochib beradi ". [19]

Boshqa planshetlar po'latdan yasalgan pichoq bilan kesilganga o'xshaydi. Chelik pichoqlar ispaniyaliklar kelganidan keyin mavjud bo'lsa -da, bu planshetlarning haqiqiyligiga shubha uyg'otadi. [3 -eslatma]

Gliflarni tahrirlash

Gliflar stilize qilingan odam, hayvon, o'simlik va geometrik shakllar bo'lib, ko'pincha birikmalar hosil qiladi. Boshi borlarning deyarli hammasi boshini yuqoriga qaratgan va yozilgan yo'nalishda yoki o'ngda, yoki yuzida ko'rinadi. Glifni boshga yoki chapga burishning qanday ahamiyati borligi noma'lum. Boshlarning yon tomonlarida xarakterli proektsiyalar mavjud bo'lib, ular ko'zlar bo'lishi mumkin (quyida dengiz toshbaqasi glifida, aniqrog'i dengiz toshbaqalari petrogliflarida), lekin ular ko'pincha quloqqa o'xshaydi (keyingi bo'limda antropomorfik petroglifda bo'lgani kabi). Qushlarning ko'pchiligi oliy xudo Makemake bilan bog'liq bo'lgan frigatebirdga o'xshaydi. [21] [4 -eslatma] Boshqa gliflar baliq yoki artropodlarga o'xshaydi. Ulardan bir nechtasi butun orol bo'ylab topilgan petrogliflarga o'xshaydi.

Og'zaki urf -odatlarga ko'ra, Hotu Matuꞌa yoki Rapu Nui afsonaviy asoschisi (lar) Tuꞌu ko Iho o'z vatanidan 67 ta planshet olib kelishgan. [23] Xuddi shu asoschi toromiro kabi mahalliy o'simliklarni olib kelgani bilan ham mashhur. Biroq, Polineziyada yoki hatto Janubiy Amerikada yozish an'anasi bo'lgan vatan yo'q. Shunday qilib, rongorongo ichki rivojlanish bo'lganga o'xshaydi. Agar 1870 -yillarda orolda qolgan Rapanui aholisidan bir nechtasi gliflarni o'qiy oladigan bo'lsa, ehtimol, oz sonli xalqlar savodli bo'lishgan. Darhaqiqat, erta kelganlarga savodxonlik hukmron oilalar va ruhoniylarning imtiyozi ekanligi aytilgan, ularning hammasi Peru qullik bosqinlarida o'g'irlangan yoki ko'p o'tmay epidemiyada vafot etgan. [24]

Planshetlar bilan tanishish Edit

To'g'ridan -to'g'ri uchrashish deyarli amalga oshirilmadi. Pasxa orolida qishloq xo'jaligi uchun o'rmonlarni tozalash va shu tariqa kolonizatsiya boshlanishi sanaga to'g'ri keldi taxminan 1200, [25] 13 -asrdan oldin rongorongo ixtiro qilingan sanani nazarda tutadi. Planshet Q (Kichik Sankt -Peterburg) - uglerod sanasi yozilgan yagona narsa, ammo natijalar faqat 1680 yildan keyinroq sanani cheklaydi. [5 -izoh] Glif 67 () Pasxa orolining yo'q bo'lib ketgan palma palatasini ifodalaydi, [6 -eslatma] orolning polen yozuvidan g'oyib bo'ldi. taxminan 1650, bu skriptning o'zi hech bo'lmaganda eski ekanligini ko'rsatadi. [26]

Matnlar A, P.va V Evropaning eshkaklariga yozilganligi sababli 18 yoki 19 -asrga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin. Orliak (2005) planshet uchun yog'och ekanligini ta'kidladi C (Mamari) balandligi 15 metrga yaqin bo'lgan daraxt tanasidan kesilgan [7 -eslatma] va Pasxa oroli uzoq vaqtdan buyon shunday daraxtlar bilan kesilgan. Ko'mirni tahlil qilish shuni ko'rsatadiki, o'rmon 17 -asrning birinchi yarmida yo'q bo'lib ketgan. 1722 yilda Pasxa orolini kashf etgan Roggeven, orolni "katta daraxtlar yo'q" deb ta'riflagan va 1770 yilda Gonsales de Ahedo: "15 sm uzunlikdagi taxtani bera oladigan bironta daraxt topilmasligi kerak. kengligida ". Forster 1774 yildagi Kuk ekspeditsiyasi bilan "orolda balandligi 3 metrdan oshadigan daraxt yo'qligini" aytdi. [28]

Bu usullarning hammasi yozuvlarni emas, balki yog'ochni sanaladi. Tinch okeani atirgullari bardoshli emas va Pasxa oroli iqlimi sharoitida uzoq yashay olmaydi. [26]

1770 yil Ispaniya ekspeditsiyasi Tartibga solish

1770 yilda Ispaniya kapitan Gonsales de Ahedo boshchiligida Pasxa orolini qo'shib oldi. Imzolash marosimi bo'lib o'tdi, unda ko'pchilik boshliqlar qo'shilish to'g'risidagi bitimni "o'ziga xos ssenariy shaklida ba'zi belgilarni belgilab" imzoladilar. [30] (O'ngda ko'paytirish.)

Bir qancha olimlarning fikricha, rongorongo ushbu tashrif va anneksiya bitimining imzolanishidan ilhomlangan bo'lishi mumkin. [31] Dalil sifatida ular hech qanday tadqiqotchi 1864 yilda Evgen Eyrodan oldin skript haqida xabar bermaganligini ta'kidlashadi [9 -eslatma] va boshliqlar Ispaniya shartnomasini imzolagan belgilar rongorongoga o'xshamaydi degan fikrda. Bu tadqiqotchilarning gipotezasi rongorongoning o'zi lotin alifbosining nusxasi yoki boshqa yozuv shakli emas, balki tushuncha yozish jarayoni antropologlar tomonidan "madaniyatlararo diffuziya" atamasi orqali etkazilgan, bu keyinchalik orol aholisini o'z yozuv tizimini yaratishga ilhomlantirgan. Agar shunday bo'lsa, rongorongo paydo bo'ldi, gullab -yashnadi, unutildi va yuz yildan kamroq vaqt ichida unutildi.

Biroq, ingliz tilidagi gazetalarning kuchini ko'rgandan so'ng, Sequoyaning Cherokee bo'g'inini ixtiro qilishi yoki Uyaqukning Yugtun yozuvini xristian yozishmalaridan ilhomlanib ixtiro qilish kabi yozuvlarning tarqalishining ma'lum holatlari, imzo chekishdan ko'ra ko'proq aloqani o'z ichiga oladi. yagona shartnoma. Gliflarni rongorongo qo'pol tarzda yozish mumkin edi, chunki Rapa Nui vakillari qog'ozda yangi qalam asbobi bilan yozishgan. Orolda kam vaqt o'tkazgan dastlabki tadqiqotchilar tomonidan skript boshqacha tarzda kuzatilmaganligi, bu tabularning tabu bo'lganligini aks ettirishi mumkin. tangata rongorongo (ulamolar), Rapanui jamiyati Evropaning qul bosqinlari va epidemiyalardan keyin qulab tushdi, shuning uchun Eyraud kunida planshetlar yanada keng tarqaldi. [33] Orliakning ta'kidlashicha, C plansheti Ispaniya tashrifidan kamida bir asr oldin paydo bo'lgan.

Petrogliflarni tahrirlash

Pasxa oroli Polineziyada petrogliflarning eng boy assortimentiga ega. [34] Deyarli har bir mos sirt o'yilgan, shu jumladan ba'zi uylarning tosh devorlari va bir nechta mashhurlari oyim haykallar va ularning qulab tushgan tugunlari. To'rt mingdan ziyod glifli mingga yaqin saytlar katalogga qo'yilgan, ularning ba'zilari botiq yoki cho'kib ketgan, ba'zilari qizil va oq rangga bo'yalgan. Dizaynerlar orongo, kimning tantanali markazi, kimerik qush-odam figuralari kontsentratsiyasini o'z ichiga oladi tangata manu ("qush-odam") yaratilish xudosining sig'inish yuzlari: Makemake dengiz hayvonlari: toshbaqalar, orkinoslar, qilich baliqlari, akulalar, kitlar, delfinlar, qisqichbaqalar va sakkizoyoqlar (ba'zilarining yuzlari) xo'rozlar kanolari va besh yuzdan ortiq komari (vulva). Petrogliflarga ko'pincha qoyada o'yilgan divotlar ("kuboklar") hamroh bo'ladi. O'zgaruvchan urf-odatlar qushbo'ronlarda saqlanib qolgan, ular oddiy shakllarda o'yilgan va o'z navbatida komari. Garchi petrogliflarni to'g'ridan-to'g'ri sanash mumkin bo'lmasa-da, ba'zilari qisman mustamlakadan oldingi tosh binolar bilan qoplangan, bu ularning nisbatan eski ekanligini ko'rsatadi.

Antropomorfik va hayvon shaklidagi petrogliflarning bir nechtasi rongorongoda o'xshashliklarga ega, masalan, ikki boshli frigatebird (glif) 680) yiqilgan oyim topknot, bu raqam o'nlab planshetlarda ham uchraydi. [10 -eslatma] Makloflin (2004) Li petroglif korpusi bilan eng mashhur yozishmalarni tasvirlab beradi (1992). [10-eslatma] Biroq, bu asosan izolyatsiya qilingan gliflar bo'lib, petrogliflar orasida bir nechta matnga o'xshash ketma-ketlik yoki ligatura topilgan. Bu rongorongo yaqinda yaratilgan bo'lishi mumkin, degan fikrni keltirib chiqardi, ehtimol petroglif dizaynidan yoki individual petrogliflarni logogramma sifatida saqlashdan ilhomlangan (Macri 1995), lekin petroglif an'analariga qo'shilgani uchun etarlicha yosh emas. Petroglif rongorongoga eng murakkab nomzod gliflarning qisqa ketma -ketligi bo'lib, ulardan biri g'or devoriga o'yilgan ligatura. Biroq, ketma -ketlik bir qo'lda o'yilmaganga o'xshaydi (o'ngdagi rasmga qarang) va g'or o'sha uyning yonida joylashgan. Poike planshet, rongorongoga qo'pol taqlid, shuning uchun Ana yoki Keke petrogliflar haqiqiy bo'lmasligi mumkin.

Kashfiyotni tahrirlash

Pigpus yig'ilishining oddiy ruhoniysi Evgen Eyraud 1864 yil 2 -yanvarda Valparaysodan ketganining 24 -kuni Pasxa oroliga qo'ndi. U Pasxa orolida to'qqiz oy qolishi va uning aholisiga xushxabar berishi kerak edi. U o'sha yili planshetlarni kashf qilgani haqida u erda bo'lganligi haqida hisobot yozdi: [35]

Har bir kulbada bir nechta turdagi ieroglif belgilar bilan qoplangan yog'ochdan yasalgan planshetlar yoki tayoqlar topiladi: ular orolda noma'lum bo'lgan hayvonlarning tasviri bo'lib, mahalliy aholi o'tkir toshlar bilan chizishadi. Har bir figuraning o'z nomi bor, lekin ular bu planshetlarga unchalik e'tibor bermasliklari, bu belgilar, ba'zi ibtidoiy yozuvlarning qoldiqlari, endi ular uchun odatiy amaliyot bo'lib, ular ma'nosini izlamasdan davom etishini o'ylashga undaydi. [11 -eslatma]

Uning hisobotida planshetlar haqida boshqa hech narsa aytilmagan va kashfiyot e'tiborga olinmagan. Eyraud 11 oktabr kuni Pasxa orolidan, sog'lig'i juda yomon edi. 1865 yilda ruhoniy etib tayinlangan, u 1866 yilda Pasxa oroliga qaytib keldi, u erda 1868 yil avgustda 48 yoshida sil kasalligidan vafot etdi.

Yo'q qilish tahriri

1868 yilda Taiti yepiskopi Florentin-Etien "Tepano" Yaussen Pasxa orolining yaqinda katolik dinini qabul qilganlardan sovg'a oldi. Bu uzun sochli odam sochlari, ehtimol baliq chizig'i, ieroglif yozuvi bilan qoplangan kichik yog'och taxta atrofida o'ralgan edi. Bu kashfiyotdan hayratga tushib, u Pasxa orolidagi otasi Gippolit Russelga barcha planshetlarni yig'ish va ularni tarjima qilishga qodir mahalliy aholini topish uchun xat yozdi. Ammo Russel faqat bir nechtasini sog'aytira olardi va orol aholisi ularni qanday o'qishni kelisha olmasdi. [36]

Eyraud to'rt yil oldin yuzlab planshetlarni ko'rgan. Yo'qolgan planshetlar bilan nima bo'lgani - bu taxmin. Eyraud, ularning egalari ularga qanchalik qiziqmasligini payqadi. Bu haqda Stefen Chauvet xabar bermoqda.

Bishop Rapanui donishmandini, donishmand Tekakining o'g'li Ouroupano Xinapotedan so'radi [u aytganidek, u o'zi kerakli tadqiqotlarni boshlagan va akulaning tishi bilan qahramonlarni o'yishni bilgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, orolda qahramonlarni o'qishni biladigan hech kim qolmagan, chunki peruliklar barcha donishmandlarning o'limiga olib kelgan va shuning uchun yog'och bo'laklari ularni yoqib yuborgan mahalliy aholi uchun endi qiziq emas. o'tin sifatida yoki ularning atrofida baliq ovlash chiziqlarini o'rab oling!

A. Pinart 1877 yilda ham ko'rdi. [U] bu planshetlarni sotib ololmadi, chunki mahalliy aholi ularni baliq ovlash liniyalari uchun g'altak sifatida ishlatgan!

Orliak, planshet rektosining 5 va 6 -satrlarida, uzunligi taxminan 10 santimetr (3,9 dyuym) bo'lgan chuqur qora chuqurlik borligini payqadi. H bu planshetni ko'rsatadigan, olov tayog'ining ishqalanishidan yasalgan oluk H olov yoqish uchun ishlatilgan. [37] Tabletkalar S va P. u tashlangan planshetlardan kanoeda qayiq yasagan Niari ismli odamning hikoyasiga mos keladigan qayiq uchun taxtali kesilgan edi. [38]

1870-yillarga kelib, Evropada joriy qilingan kasalliklar va Peru qullari tomonidan uyushtirilgan reydlar, shu jumladan 1862 yildagi halokatli reyd va undan keyingi chechak epidemiyasi, Rapa-Nui aholisini ikki yuzga kamaytirgan bo'lishi mumkin. Eyraud planshetlarni 1866 yilda kashf qilgan. [12 -izoh].

1868 yilda Yaussen faqat bir nechta planshetni qaytarib oldi, yana uchta planshetni chililik korvet kapitan Gana sotib oldi. O'Higgins 1870 yilda. 1950 -yillarda Bartel g'orlardan dafn qilingan kontekstdan yarim tabletkalarning chirigan qoldiqlarini topdi. Biroq, hech qanday gliflarni qutqarib bo'lmaydi. [42] [13 -izoh]

Omon qolgan 26 ta umumiy qabul qilingan matnlardan faqat yarmi yaxshi holatda va haqiqiyligi shubhasizdir. [44]

Antropologik hisoblar tahrirlash

Britaniyalik arxeolog va antropolog Ketrin Routlend orol san'ati, urf -odatlari va yozuvlarini kataloglashtirish uchun eri bilan Rapa Nuyiga 1914–1915 yillarda ilmiy ekspeditsiya uyushtirdi. U ikkita keksa ma'lumotchi - Kapiera va Tomenika ismli moxov bilan suhbatlashishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, ular go'yoki rongorongo haqida ma'lum bo'lgan. Mashg'ulotlar unchalik samarali bo'lmadi, chunki ikkalasi ko'pincha bir -biriga zid edi. Ulardan Routledge rongorongo-bu tilni, boshqacha aytganda, proto-yozuvni to'g'ridan-to'g'ri ifodalaydigan idiosinkratik mnemonik qurilma, degan xulosaga keldi va gliflarning ma'nolarini har bir yozuvchi qayta tuzdi, shuning uchun kohau rongorongo ushbu matnni o'qimagan kishi o'qiy olmaydi. Matnlarning o'zi u ruhoniy-ulamolar uchun maxsus uylar bo'lib, alohida uylarda alohida va qat'iy saqlangan tapu, bu orol tarixi va mifologiyasini yozib oldi. [45] [14 -eslatma] Keyinchalik etnografik hisoblar paydo bo'lgunga qadar, masalan, Metraux (1940), Routledge o'z yozuvlarida yozganlarining ko'p qismi unutilgan va og'zaki tarix mashhur nashr qilingan hisoblardan kuchli tashqi ta'sir ko'rsatgan.

Harf kodlari bo'lgan 26 rongorongo matnlari yog'och buyumlarga yozilgan bo'lib, ularning har birida 2 dan 2320 gacha oddiy gliflar va murakkab gliflar komponentlari jami 15000 dan oshadi. Ob'ektlar, asosan, uzun bo'yli yog'och planshetlardir, bundan mustasno MenSantyago shtabi deb nomlanuvchi, ehtimol muqaddas boshliqning tayog'i J va L, yozilgan reimiro elita kiygan pektoral bezaklar X, a ning turli qismlariga yozilgan tangata manu ("qushchi") haykalchasi va Y, rongorongo planshetidan kesilgan qismlardan yig'ilgan yevropalik naycha. Planshetlar, pektorallar, haykalchalar va tayoqlar singari, san'at asarlari va qimmatbaho narsalar edi va aftidan, Yangi Zelandiyadagi jade bezaklari singari individual nomlar berilgan. [46] Ikkita planshet, C va S, Hujjatlangan missionerlikdan oldin kelib chiqishi bor, lekin boshqalar yoshi kattaroq bo'lishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, rongorongo bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan bir nechta izolyatsiya qilingan gliflar yoki qisqa ketma -ketliklar mavjud. [47]

Klassik matnlarni tahrirlash

Bartel alifbo harfi bilan haqiqiy deb qabul qilingan 24 ta matnning har biriga murojaat qildi va o'shandan beri korpusga ikkita matn qo'shildi. Tabletkalarning ikki yuzi qo'shimchalar bilan ajralib turadi r (to'g'ri) yoki v (aksincha) o'qish ketma -ketligini aniqlash mumkin bo'lganda, unga muhokama qilinayotgan qator qo'shiladi. Shunday qilib Pr2 element hisoblanadi P. (Buyuk Sankt -Peterburg plansheti), rekto, ikkinchi qator. O'qish ketma -ketligini aniqlab bo'lmaganda, a va b yuzlar uchun ishlatiladi. Shunday qilib Ab1 element hisoblanadi A (Tahua), yon b, birinchi qator. Snuff Boxning olti tomoni yon sifatida yozilgan a ga f. Deyarli barcha nashrlar Bartel konventsiyasiga amal qilishadi, lekin Fisherning mashhur kitobida o'ziga xos raqamlash tizimi ishlatilgan.

Bartel
kod
Fisher
kod
Taxallus / tavsif Manzil Eslatmalar
A RR1 Tahua (eshkak) Rim 91 sm uzunlikdagi Evropa yoki Amerika eshkak pichog'iga yozilgan 1825 glif. Ash yog'och.
B RR4 Aruku kurenga Atirgul daraxtining 41 sm uzunlikdagi planshetida 1135 ta glif.
C RR2 Mamari 29 sm uzunlikdagi pushti daraxtli planshetda 1000 ta glif. Boshqa matnlarga qaraganda ko'proq kalendar ma'lumotlarini o'z ichiga oladi.
D RR3 Echancrée Pape 30 sm uzunlikdagi ochilmagan planshetda 270 ta glif. Planshet birinchi bo'lib Jaussenga soch tolasi uchun g'altak sifatida berilgan. Ikki tomon har xil qo'llarda yozilgan. Yellowwood?
E. RR6 Keyti (Leuven) 39 sm o'lchamdagi planshetda 822 ta glif. Birinchi jahon urushida olov bilan vayron qilingan.
F RR7 Chauvet fragmenti Nyu -York [15 -eslatma] 12 sm uzunlikdagi bo'lak, 51 ta qo'pol ravishda bajarilgan gliflar. (Ba'zi gliflar yorliq bilan qoplangan) Palma daraxti?
G RR8 Kichik Santyago Santyago Atirgul daraxtining 32 sm o'lchamli planshetida 720 glif. Verbo nasl -nasabni o'z ichiga olishi mumkin va boshqa matnlarning naqshlariga o'xshamaydi.
H RR9 Katta Santyago 44 sm uzunlikdagi pushti daraxtli planshetda 1580 ta glif. Deyarli dublikatlar P. va Q.
Men RR10 Santyago xodimlari 1220 sm boshliqning tayog'iga 2920 ta glif yozilgan. Eng uzun matn va tinish belgilariga ega bo'lgan yagona matn. Boshqa matnlarning naqshlari orasida u faqat o'xshash Gv va Ta.
J RR20 Katta reimiro London 73 sm uzunlikdagi ko'krak bezaklari 2 ta glif bilan bezatilgan. Eski bo'lishi mumkin.
K RR19 London 163 qo'pol tarzda bajarilgan gliflar Gr 22 sm pushti daraxtli planshetda.
L RR21 Kichik reimiro 41 sm uzunlikdagi ko'krak bezaklari 44 ta glif chizig'i bilan bezatilgan. Eski bo'lishi mumkin. Rosewood.
M RR24 Katta Vena Vena 28 sm uzunlikdagi atirgul daraxti yomon ahvolda. Yon b yo'q qilingan, yon tomonda 54 ta glif ko'rinadi a. Erta translatsiya matnning ko'p qismini saqlaydi.
N. RR23 Kichik Vena 172 murakkab o'yilgan gliflar, bo'shashmasdan Ev, 26 sm uzunlikdagi sariq daraxtda.
O RR22 Berlin Berlin Yonida 90 ta o'qiydigan glifli 103 sm uzunlikdagi yivli yog'och a. Yomon holatda, gliflarning hech biri yon tomonda emas b aniqlash mumkin.
P. RR18 Katta Sankt -Peterburg Sankt -Peterburg 63 sm Evropa yoki Amerika eshkak pichog'iga yozilgan 1163 ta glif. Yellowwood. Plankalash uchun ishlatilgan. Deyarli dublikatlar H va Q.
Q RR17 Kichik Sankt -Peterburg 44 sm gulchambar daraxt tanasida 718 glif. Deyarli dublikatlar H va P.. Yakuniy rasm 3-7 -chorak ma'lumotlar qutisida ko'rsatiladi.
R RR15 Kichik Vashington Vashington 357 ta glif, deyarli hammasi boshqa matnlarda takrorlangan iboralarda, 24 sm.
S RR16 Katta Vashington 63 sm uzunlikdagi sariq yog'ochda 600 ta o'qiydigan glif. Keyinchalik taxta uchun kesilgan.
T RR11 Tugilgan Honolulu Honolulu 31 sm lik naychali planshetda 120 ta o'qiydigan glif. Yomon holatda, yon tomondan b o'qib bo'lmaydigan.
U RR12 Honolulu nurlari 70 sm uzunlikdagi Evropa yoki Amerika nurida 27 ta o'qiydigan glif. Yomon holatda. Ikki tomon har xil qo'llarda yozilgan.
V RR13 Honolulu eshkak eshishi 72 sm uzunlikdagi Evropa yoki Amerika eshkak pichog'idagi 22 ta aniq glif. Yomon holatda. Yon tomonda bitta satr matn, shuningdek, alohida gliflar juftligi a yon tomonda matn izlari b.
V RR14 Honolulu parchasi Ta'riflangan bir tomonida 8 glifli 7 smli bo'lak.
X RR25 Tangata manu
(Nyu -York qushi)
Nyu York 33 sm balandlikdagi qushlar haykalchasi, 37 ta yuzaki yozilgan gliflardan iborat bo'lib, ular yetti qisqa tarqoq matnda ajratilgan.
Y RR5 Parij snuffbox Parij Planshetning 3 ta bo'lagidan kesilgan va birlashtirilgan 7 smli quti 85 ta xom glifdan iborat. Driftwood?
Z T4 Poike eng zo'r Santyago Driftwood? 11 sm. Ko'rinib turibdiki, eng fischer Fischer matnning aniq qatlamini haqiqiy deb hisoblamaydi.

Bir nechta tosh buyumlar va boshqa yog'ochdan yasalgan buyumlarda qo'pol gliflar topilgan, lekin ularning aksariyati erta sayyohlik bozori uchun yaratilgan soxta narsalar deb hisoblanadi. Yog'ochdan yasalgan 26 ta matndan bir nechtasi noma'lumligi sababli gumon qilinmoqda (X, Yva Z), sifatsiz hunarmandchilik (F, K, V, V, Yva Z) yoki po'lat pichoq bilan o'yilganK, Vva Y), [3 -eslatma] va shuning uchun, garchi ular haqiqiyligini isbotlasa -da, ularni hal qilishga urinishda ishonmaslik kerak. Z Buustrofedon bo'lmagan ko'plab soxtakorliklarga o'xshaydi, lekin bu haqiqiy, ammo hozir o'qib bo'lmaydigan matnning eng yaxshi ko'rinishi bo'lishi mumkin. [48]

Qo'shimcha matnlarni tahrirlash

In addition to the petroglyphs mentioned above, there are a few other very short uncatalogued texts that may be rongorongo. Fischer reports that "many statuettes reveal rongorongo yoki rongorongo-like glyphs on their crown." He gives the example of a compound glyph, , on the crown of a moꞌai pakapaka statuette. [49] [note 16] Many human skulls are inscribed with the single 'fish' glyph 700 , which may stand for îka "war casualty". There are other designs, including some tattoos recorded by early visitors, which are possibly single rongorongo glyphs, but since they are isolated and pictographic, it is difficult to know whether or not they are actually writing. In 2018, a possibly authentic ink-on-barkcloth sequence dating from 1869, dubbed the "Raŋitoki fragment", was recognized.

Glyphs Edit

The only published reference to the glyphs which is even close to comprehensive remains Barthel (1958). Barthel assigned a three-digit numeric code to each glyph or to each group of similar-looking glyphs that he believed to be allographs (variants). In the case of allography, the bare numeric code was assigned to what Barthel believed to be the basic form (Grundtypus), while variants were specified by alphabetic suffixes. Altogether he assigned 600 numeric codes. The hundreds place is a digit from 0 to 7, and categorizes the head, or overall form if there is no head: 0 and 1 for geometric shapes and inanimate objects 2 for figures with "ears" 3 and 4 for figures with open mouths (they are differentiated by their legs/tails) 5 for figures with miscellaneous heads 6 for figures with beaks and 7 for fish, arthropods, etc. The digits in tens and units places were allocated similarly, so that, for example, glyphs 206, 306, 406, 506, and 606 all have a downward-pointing wing or arm on the left, and a raised four-fingered hand on the right:

There is some arbitrariness to which glyphs are grouped together, and there are inconsistencies in the assignments of numerical codes and the use of affixes which make the system rather complex. [note 17] However, despite its shortcomings, Barthel's is the only effective system ever proposed to categorize rongorongo glyphs. [50]

Barthel (1971) claimed to have parsed the corpus of glyphs to 120, of which the other 480 in his inventory are allographs or ligatures. [note 18] The evidence was never published, but similar counts have been obtained by other scholars, such as Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007).

Published corpus Edit

For almost a century only a few of the texts were published. In 1875, the director of the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Rudolf Philippi, published the Santiago Staff, and Carroll (1892) published part of the Oar. Most texts remained beyond the reach of would-be decipherers until 1958, when Thomas Barthel published line drawings of almost all the known corpus in his Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift ("Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island script") which remains the fundamental reference to rongorongo. He transcribed texts A orqali X, over 99% of the corpus the CEIPP estimates that it is 97% accurate. Barthel's line drawings were not produced free-hand but copied from rubbings, which helped ensure their faithfulness to the originals. [52]

Fischer (1997) published new line drawings. These include lines scored with obsidian but not finished with a shark tooth, which had not been recorded by Barthel because the rubbings he used often did not show them, for example on tablet N.. (However, in line Gv4 shown in the section on writing instruments above, the light lines were recorded by both Fischer and Barthel.) There are other omissions in Barthel which Fischer corrects, such as a sequence of glyphs at the transition from line Ca6 ga Ca7 which is missing from Barthel, presumably because the carving went over the side of the tablet and was missed by Barthel's rubbing. (This missing sequence is right in the middle of Barthel's calendar.) However, other discrepancies between the two records are straightforward contradictions. For instance, the initial glyph of I12 (line 12 of the Santiago Staff) in Fischer [53] does not correspond with that of Barthel [54] or Philippi, [55] which agree with each other, and Barthel's rubbing (below) is incompatible with Fischer's drawing. Barthel's annotation, Original doch 53.76! ("original indeed 53.76!"), suggests that he specifically verified Philippi's reading:

In addition, the next glyph (glyph 20, a "spindle with three knobs") is missing its right-side "sprout" (glyph 10) in Philippi's drawing. This may be the result of an error in the inking, since there is a blank space in its place. The corpus is thus tainted with quite some uncertainty. It has never been properly checked for want of high-quality photographs. [56]

As with most undeciphered scripts, there are many fanciful interpretations and claimed translations of rongorongo. However, apart from a portion of one tablet which has been shown to have to do with a lunar Rapa Nui calendar, none of the texts are understood. There are three serious obstacles to decipherment, assuming rongorongo is truly writing: the small number of remaining texts, the lack of context such as illustrations in which to interpret them, and the poor attestation of the Old Rapanui language, since modern Rapanui is heavily mixed with Tahitian and is therefore unlikely to closely reflect the language of the tablets. [57]

The prevailing opinion is that rongorongo is not true writing but proto-writing, or even a more limited mnemonic device for genealogy, choreography, navigation, astronomy, or agriculture. Masalan, Atlas of Languages states, "It was probably used as a memory aid or for decorative purposes, not for recording the Rapanui language of the islanders." [58] If this is the case, then there is little hope of ever deciphering it. [note 19] For those who believe it to be writing, there is debate as to whether rongorongo is essentially logographic or syllabic, though it appears to be compatible with neither a pure logography nor a pure syllabary. [59]

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 14 15 16
22 25 27AB 28 34 38 41 44 46 47 50 52 53
59 60 61 62 63 66 67 69 70 71 74 76 91
95 99 200 240 280 380 400 530 660 700 720 730 901
This basic inventory of rongorongo, proposed by Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007), accounts for 99.7% of the intact texts, except for the idiosyncratic Staff.

The Unicode Consortium has tentatively allocated range 1CA80–1CDBF of the Supplementary Multilingual Plane for encoding the Rongorongo script. [60] An encoding proposal has been written by Michael Everson. [61]

  1. ^ abEnglert defines rogorogo as "recitar, declamar, leer cantando" (to recite, declaim, read chanting), and tagata rogorogo (rongorongo man) as "hombre que sabía leer los textos de loskohau rogorogo, o sea, de las tabletas con signos para la recitación" (a man who could read the texts of the kohau rongorongo, that is, of the tablets bearing signs for recitation). Rongorongo is the reduplication of rongo "recado, orden o mandato, mensaje, noticia" (a message, order, notice) tagata rogo is a "mensajero" (a messenger). [2]Kohau are defined as "líneas tiradas a hilohausobre tabletas o palos para la inscripción de signos" (lines drawn with a string (hau) on tablets or sticks for the inscription of signs). [2] The Rapanui word rongo /ɾoŋo/ has cognates in most other Austronesian languages, from Malaydengar /dəŋar/ to Fijianrogoca /roŋoða/ and Hawaiianlono /lono/ , where these words have such meanings as "to listen", "to hear", va boshqalar.
  2. ^ Barthel tested this experimentally, and Dederen (1993) reproduced several tablets in this fashion. Fischer comments, [16]

On the Large St. Petersburg ([P]r3) [. ] the original tracing with an obsidian flake describes a bird's bill identical to a foregoing one but when incising, the scribe reduced this bill to a much more bulbous shape [. ] since he now was working with the different medium of a shark's tooth. There are many such scribal quirks on the "Large St. Petersburg" [tablet P]. The rongorongo script is a "contour script" (Barthel 1955:360) [. ] with various internal or external lines, circles, dashes or dots added [. ] Often such features exist only in the hair-line pre-etching effected by obsidian flakes and not incised with a shark's tooth. This is particularly evident on the "Small Vienna" [tablet N.].


Books and reading are in the throes of a revolution

Not everyone is happy about this. Book lovers, publishers and booksellers alike are watching the book-v-ebook sales battle with great interest, and when Tom Tivnan of The Bookseller reported recently that ebook sales had dipped for the first time, he sounded almost relieved: “For those who predicted the death of the physical book and digital dominating the market by the end of this decade, the print and digital sales figures […] for 2015 might force a reassessment.” Physical books may have the upper hand for now, but the debate is a long way from being settled.

Book lovers, publishers and booksellers alike are watching the book-v-ebook sales battle with great interest (Credit: Getty Images)

The odd thing is that the current angst over the book’s changing face mirrors a strikingly similar episode in history. Two thousand years ago, a new and unorthodox kind of book threatened to overturn the established order, much to the chagrin of the readers of the time.

Scroll with it

Rome in the 1st Century CE was awash with the written word. Statues, monuments and gravestones were inscribed with stately capital letters citizens took notes and sent messages on wax-covered wooden writing tablets and the libraries of the wealthy were stocked with books on history, philosophy and the arts. But these were not books as we know them – they were scrolls, made from sheets of Egyptian papyrus pasted into rolls anywhere from 4.5 to 16 metres (14.76ft to 52.49ft) in length. For all their ubiquity, however, they were not without their flaws.

Ancient Rome was awash with the written word – but with scrolls made of sheets of Egyptian papyrus rather than books (Credit: John Clark, The Care of Books)

For one thing, it took both hands to read a scroll properly. Unless the reader was seated at a desk (in which case paperweights or wooden pegs could be used to pin down the springy papyrus), the only way to read a scroll was to unwind it carefully from the right hand and, passing it to the left, to roll it up again. Writers and copyists usually wrote in columns a few inches wide, so that the bulk of the fragile papyrus in the scroll could be kept safely rolled up. Even so, archaeologists have found scrolls whose bottom edges have been worn away where they rubbed against the reader’s clothing.

This, then, was the second major problem with scrolls: papyrus was not an inherently long-lived material, especially if removed from its hot, dry Mediterranean comfort zone. Having taken a liking to a historian who shared his name, Tacitus, emperor from 275 to 276, had to send out new copies of the historian’s works each year to replace those that had rotted away in Gaul and Germania. Papyrus will also crack and tear if it is folded too often, leading naturally to the gently curved shape of the scroll itself – and so to the fact that most scrolls carried writing only on one side. Only if the text on the front of a scroll was no longer needed would its owner flip it over and use the other side a double-sided scroll was just too difficult to read otherwise.

Shrouded in mystery

Sometime in or before the First Century CE a new kind of book appeared that promised to address the scroll’s shortcomings. The evidence is sparse but telling: archaeologists have discovered a few key scraps of papyrus whose text unexpectedly continues from the front to the back, and whose neat margins one might expect to find in a paged book. And that is exactly what these fragments are: they are leaves from the first paged books the world had ever seen. We know that the Romans called this new kind of book the codex (dan caudex or tree trunk, because of its similarity to their wooden writing tablets), but how the codex came to be in the first place is shrouded in mystery. The first written mention of the codex appears in the words of a Roman poet named Martial, who encouraged his readers to buy his books in this new, paged format:

“You who long for my little books to be with you everywhere and want to have companions for a long journey, buy these ones which parchment confines within small pages: give your scroll-cases to the great authors – one hand can hold me.”

Written between 84 and 86 CE, Martial’s sales pitch tells us not only that paged books were known of in the First Century CE but also that some of them, at least, were made from a new material called parchment. This alternative to papyrus, invented in a Greek city-state some centuries earlier, was made from cleaned, stretched animal skins by means of a bloody and labour-intensive process, but its smoothness and strength made it an ideal writing material. Archaeologists have since confirmed Martial’s claims via fragments of parchment codices dated to the First Century – and yet, these few tantalising finds aside, we still know very little about where or why the codex was invented, or who might have done so. Even the question of whether the first codices were made of papyrus or parchment has never been satisfactorily answered.

A model of a ‘Nag Hammadi’ codex, made in the style of a cache of 4th Century books found in Egypt in 1945 (Credit: Irina Gorstein (book model), Adam Kellie (photography))


The Legend of Tayos

The legend lies in the large megalithic blocks of stone—which are polished and cut with laser-like precision—that make up some of the rooms of the cave and the numerous mysterious metallic plates engraved with ideographic writing of which Hungarian-Argentine researcher Juan Moricz spoke about in the sixties.

The best evidence of the mysterious metallic places can be traced to Italian Salesian Carlos Crespi Croci, who had explored the area in the 1940s and acquired from the Shuar Indians some of the objects they allegedly removed from the cave.

Various pieces were given to father Crespi as thanks for members of the Shuar community and were kept in the Private Museum of Carlos Crespi Croci in Cuenca (Ecuador). Of these objects, only a few photographs and videos remain, since most of them were sold and others stolen after a fire in 1962. After the fire, nothing was left in the museum, not even pieces of ceramics which would have surely resisted the fire.

Since his death in 1982, nothing is known of the plates, only the testimony and limited writings and images of Crespi with objects.

In 1973, Erich Von Daniken wrote about the enigmatic structure where books were made out of metal, and that the region near the cave—and the cave itself—were evidence of an extremely advanced—if not extraterrestrial civilization.

Author Juan Moricz is said to have found signs of an extremely developed ancient civilization inside the Cave. In a signed affidavit dated 8 July 1969, he spoke about his meeting with the Ecuadorian president, where he received a concession that allowed him total control over this discovery—provided he could produce photographic evidence and an independent witness that corroborated the discovery of the underground network. Several newspapers reported on the expedition that Moricz had organized writes author Philip Coppens.

According to Moricz, the Metallic Library of the Cave of the Tayos records an ancient history that took place on Earth which goes back in time to 250,000 years.

In 1972, Moricz met with von Däniken and took him to a secret side entrance through which they could enter into a large hall within the labyrinth. Apparently von Däniken never got to see the library itself, just the tunnel system.

Von Däniken included the event in his book The Gold of the Gods:

“The passages all form perfect right angles. Sometimes they are narrow, sometimes wide. The walls are smooth and often seem to be polished. The ceilings are flat and at times look as if they were covered with a kind of glaze… My doubts about the existence of the underground tunnels vanished as if by magic and I felt tremendously happy. Moricz said that passages like those through which we were going extended for hundreds of miles under the soil of Ecuador and Peru.”

As a result of the claims published in von Däniken’s book, an investigation of Cueva de los Tayos was organized by Stan Hall from Britain in 1976. One of the largest and most expensive cave explorations ever undertaken, the expedition included over a hundred people, including experts in a variety of fields, British and Ecuadorian military personnel, a film crew, and former astronaut Neil Armstrong. Why would Neil Armstrong—who had returned from the moon not long ago then—travel with an expedition to a remote cave in the Ecuadorian amazon?

Neil Armstrong inside the cave in 1976.

The team also included eight experienced British cavers who thoroughly explored the cave and conducted an accurate survey to produce a detailed map of the cave. There was no evidence of Von Däniken’s more exotic claims, although some physical features of the cave did approximate his descriptions and some items of zoological, botanical and archaeological interest were found. The lead researcher met with Moricz’s indigenous source, who claimed that they had investigated the wrong cave and that the real cave was secret

The British expedition extracted 4 large sealed wooden crates without exposing to the owners (the Shuar) their content, the matter ended (according to a Spanish researcher) with shots fired between the Shuar and the English expedition.

The oldest traces of habitat in the caves date from the upper Paleolithic period (48 000—12 000 BC) where the cave provided protection during the end of the glaciation.

Approximately 9000 BC, the civilization leaves the cave thanks to the improvement of Earth’s climate and they move towards the south towards parts of Peru and the north of Chile.

In the Neolithic age, the cave is believed to have been inhabited from 3000 BC. by a Pre-Shuar civilization, which was already using ceramic artifacts, evidence of which we can find at the University of Munich which even performed radiocarbon dating. Approximately around 1500 BC. the first Shuar begin to settle in the area and merge with the natives of the cave. The Shuar guard the cave with great respect and believe that there rest the spirits of their ancestors.

To date, there is no reliable evidence of the veracity of this metal library.

The only things recovered from the cave—which are found resting in the Catholic University of Quito—are several archaeological pieces and remains of a so-called spondylus shell, that was especially valuable for the primitive cultures of the Ecuadorian coast.

Interestingly, architect and historian Melvin Hoyos, Director of Culture and development in the Municipality of Guayaquil had some very interesting things to say about the cave:

“To begin with, I think that the cave of the Tayos is not a cave, but a work of the hand of man, there is nothing in nature that can resemble the Cave of the Tayos. It has the ceiling completely cut flat with a 90-degree angle to the wall. It is very similar to other tunnels of similar characteristics and age in other parts of the world, which leads us to think that before the Wisconsin glaciation there was a network of tunnels on the planet, but to accept this we would need to accept the existence—before said Glaciation—of a highly developed civilization. “


More and More Tunnels

  • A couple from Bishop, California discovered a circular hole in the ground while exploring for petroglyphs. They climbed down the hole which bottomed out to a horizontal corridor. On one of the walls was carved a face out of the mouth of which poured water. Suddenly the water started to gush out of the face and from other openings, and the couple was forced to abandon the tunnel. Later, both recalled that they heard music down there.
  • In West Virginia, workers found some caverns with strange hieroglyphics written on the walls. They also claimed to hear faint voices and what sounded like machinery coming from beyond the walls of the cavern.
  • Two men searching for bat guano (which has some value as fertilizer) at the foot of Mount Lassen found a deep cave. They followed it inside for a mile or two and noticed that the floor was worn smooth, as if it had been used for a road. Eventually they met three strange "men" who asked if they are "surface people," and then took them deeper in the cave on an electromagnetically powered hovercraft. The story gets stranger from there.
  • Travelers Ferdinand Ossendowski and Nicholas Roerich claim to have discovered a subterranean society below central Asia, which they referred to as Agharta or Agharti. They say it is home to 20 million people, and their civilization extends throughout all the subterranean passages of the world.
  • A 12-man speleological team broke into an ancient tunnel system in northern Arkansas and encountered the inhabitants of the subsurface world.
  • Exploring another cave in Arkansas, just north of Batesville, explorers found a tunnel illuminated by a greenish phosphorescence where they met a race of beings who stood 7 to 8 feet tall and had bluish skin. The beings, who have advanced technology, told the explorers they are the direct descendants of Noah.

Brazil is said to have many entrances to an underground world. Several people claim to have proof:


Steps [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

  • Interact with the entrance of xolo city
  • Excavate and restore a lingam stone from the Moksha device hotspot.
  • Interact with the entrance of xolo city with the restored lingam stone in your inventory. This consumes the stone and gives you access to the city.
  • Excavate and restore a 'Raksha' idol and a gold dish from the Saurthen debris hotspot.
  • Place the restored gold dish on top of the xolo temple pyramid to the south of the room.
  • Place the restored 'Raksha' idol on top of the xolo building just to the west of the pyramid.
  • Return to the Archaeology Campus and interact with the mysterious monolith.

A Gentleman’s Ring

“Hey, a chunk of iron!” exclaims Margaret Dawson, a nurse and volunteer excavator, as she sorts through black earth at a site on Hatteras Island called Cape Creek. She and her husband Scott, a local teacher, founded the Croatoan Archaeological Society—named after the island’s native inhabitants—in 2009 and have sponsored Horton’s annual digs ever since.

Hidden in a live oak forest close to Pamlico Sound, Cape Creek was the site of a major Croatoan town and trade hub. Under Horton’s supervision, volunteers are busy searching through fine-mesh screens filled with mud from a nearby trench. The Dawson’s two young daughters are quick to spot tiny Venetian glass beads.

During a two-day excavation in July, the sieves produced ample Native American as well as European materials, including deer and turtle bones, homemade and imported brick, Native American pottery, hunks of European iron, parts of a 16th century gun, and a tiny copper eyelet that may have been used in clothing.

In 1998, archaeologists from East Carolina University found a ten-carat gold signet ring here engraved with a prancing lion or horse, an unprecedented find in early British America. The well-worn object may date to the 16th century and was almost certainly owned by an English nobleman.

Like most of the European finds at Cape Creek, however, the artifact was mixed in with objects that date to the mid-17th century, a full lifetime after the Roanoke colony was abandoned.

Horton argues that members of the lost colony living among the Croatoan may have kept their few heirlooms even as they slowly adopted Indian ways.

One of the most unusual recent discoveries is a small piece of slate that was used as a writing tablet, along with a lead pencil. A tiny letter “M” can just be made out on one corner. A similar, though much larger, slate was found at Jamestown.

“This was owned by somebody who could read or write,” Horton says. “This wasn’t useful for trade, but was owned by an educated European.”

Another artifact unearthed recently at Cape Creek is part of the hilt of a rapier, a light sword of a type used in England in the late 16th century. In addition, a large copper ingot, a long iron bar, and German stoneware show up in what appear to be late 16th century levels. These may be signs of metallurgical work by Europeans—and possibly by Roanoke settlers—since Native Americans lacked this technology.

“There are trade items here,” Horton says, gesturing at the artifacts. “But there is also material that doesn’t come from trade.” Were these the personal possessions of the colonists?


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Marcel Proust (1871�) is a titan of twentieth century European literature. The stories that make up The Mysterious Correspondent were written when the author was still in his twenties. Having been discovered by the late Proust specialist Bernard de Fallois in the 1950s, they were held back from publication in France until 2019.

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Georgia Guidestones — mysterious instructions for the post-apocalypse

The American Stonehenge

On a barren field in Georgia, US, five granite slabs rise in a star pattern. Each of them weighs over 20 tons and on top of them, there is a capstone. Nobody knows who built it or why they were placed there, but one popular opinion that their purpose is to guide humanity after a predicted post-apocalyptic event that will come in the not so distant future. The huge blocks send a message out to the world in eight different current languages, as well as four extinct ones (ancient Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphs for example). The set of ten guidelines has baffled people around the world, with descriptions ranging from perfect and utopian to satanic or quirky. But no matter what the case, these ten commandments should definitely get you thinking:

Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.

Guide reproduction wisely – improving fitness and diversity.

Unite humanity with a living new language.

Rule passion – faith – tradition – and all things with tempered reason.

Protect people and nations with fair laws and just courts.

Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court.

Avoid petty laws and useless officials.

Balance personal rights with social duties.

Prize truth – beauty – love – seeking harmony with the infinite.

Be not a cancer on the earth – Leave room for nature – Leave room for nature

While some of them are clearly noble and laudable (like having fair laws and avoiding petty ones), some of them have stirred controversy — especially “Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature”, and “Guide reproduction wisely – improving fitness and diversity”. If we were to apply these now, we’d have to kill over 90% of the planet.

However, this is a perfect example of a misinterpretation, because it has to be kept in mind that these “commandments” have to be applied keyin the alleged apocalyptic event. It’s not clear why “they” settled on 500 million, but the bottom line is that even though we hate to admit it — the world is overpopulated right now it’s way overpopulated. We are indeed finding better and better ways to manage our resources and use sustainable or renewable forces, but in just the last 50 years, the population of the Earth has more than doubled, and if we keep this up, the prognosis is pretty dire indeed. But back to our Georgia Stones.

Georgia Guidestones humanity commandment.

The construction of a post-apocalyptic monument

Whoever built them definitely knew what they were doing: the slabs stand proud and sturdy and will endure through the centuries with minimal damage. They also have a remarkable set of other features. For example, they feature a built-in channel that indicates the celestial pole, a horizontal slot that shows the annual travel of the sun as well as a system that marks noontime throughout the year. But why they have these features and lack others that would apparently be more useful for dazed survivors is still a mystery.

It all started on a Friday in June 1979. An elegantly dressed gray-haired man showed up in Elbert County and introduced himself as R. C. Christian — a reference to Christian Rosenkreuz — or Christian Rose Cross in English, and said he represents a small group of loyal Americans. Rosenkreuz is a legendary character that founded the Order of the Rose Cross. He quickly became one of the most important and mysterious figures of the time, by blending Christianity with some teachings of Arab and Persian sages. R. C. Christian admitted this is not his real name, but refused to reveal anything about his identity. Joe Fendley, president of the company that specializes in granite construction, didn’t care too much about this — that is, until he found out what monument R. C. Christian had in mind.

He explained that it would be a compass, calendar, and clock and also be engraved with a set of “guides” written in 8 of the world’s languages. Fendley believed he was dealing with a crazy man and wanted to get rid of him, so he explained that a large number of tools and machines would be required, but Christian just nodded. He then quoted a price several times greater than the real one, but again, Christian seemed indifferent, so Fendley sent him to Wyatt Martin, president of the Granite City Bank. Martin is probably one of the people who have seen and spoken to the mystery man the most.

Ten guides, a clock, a calendar, and a compass

The astrological specifications were incredibly complex, so the construction company had to employ the help of an astronomer from the University of Georgia. The complex indicates the day of the year, equinoxes, and solstices among others. But the main feature is the 10 guides engraved in the several languages.

The mission statement raises the first few questions marks: let these be Guidestones to an age of reason. But controversy started even before the monument was finished — many claiming it to be the devil’s work. By 1980, when they started building the monument, Martin remembers that people started telling him to stop and accused him of being part of an occult movement.

The main problem is that the commandments engraved on the stones are quite eccentric, to say the least. It didn’t take a lot to compare the first two commandments to the practices of Nazis, among others, but again, this doesn’t mean that a large part of mankind has to disappear – the guides apply in a post-apocalyptic event, where the population is undoubtedly very small this can be very hard to digest, but seeing things from their point of view is quite interesting, and any comparison with the Nazis or far right ideology is unreasonable. I mean, if a horrendous tragedy happens, and somehow the world population is reduced to just a few hundred million then yes, it would be a good idea to have some care regarding the number of humans.

Guide number 3 instructed people to use a common language — which would, of course, greatly reduce numerous difficulties throughout today’s world achieving such a task is, however, impossible at the moment due to evident practical reasons. This is the part that bothered annoyed the Christians, who quoted the bible saying that a common tongue is the mark of the Antichrist — yeah, makes a lot of sense for me, too. Same thing with RULE PASSION—FAITH—TRADITION—AND ALL THINGS WITH TEMPERED REASON — for some, faith has to be the alpha and omega with nothing else in between. For others, yours truly included, finding a sustainable balance is a much nobler goal.

The structure, sometimes referred to as an “American Stonehenge”, sure stirred a lot of controversies, but it got us thinking — which means that at least a part of its objective was achieved. Even ignoring the more controversial commandments, the final 6 should definitely be worth achieving. After all, what’s wrong with avoiding unnecessary officials and prizing truth?

Prize truth – beauty – love – seeking harmony with the infinite va Be not a cancer on the earth – Leave room for nature – Leave room for nature. There’s a really powerful vibe in here.


More On This.

"The Gabriel Stone is in a way a Dead Sea Scroll written on stone," said James Snyder, director of the Israel Museum. The writing dates to the same period, and uses the same tidy calligraphic Hebrew script, as some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of documents that include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of Hebrew Bible texts.

The Gabriel Stone made a splash in 2008 when Israeli Bible scholar Israel Knohl offered a daring theory that the stone's faded writing would revolutionize the understanding of early Christianity, claiming it included a concept of messianic resurrection that predated Jesus. He based his theory on one hazy line, translating it as "in three days you shall live."

His interpretation caused a storm in the world of Bible studies, with scholars convening at an international conference the following year to debate readings of the text, and a National Geographic documentary crew featuring his theory. An American team of experts using high resolution scanning technologies tried -- but failed -- to detect more of the faded writing.

Knohl, a professor of Bible at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, eventually scaled back from his original bombshell theory but the fierce scholarly debate he sparked continued to reverberate across the academic world, bringing international attention to the stone. Over the last few years it went on display alongside other Bible-era antiquities in Rome, Houston and Dallas.

Bible experts are still debating the writing's meaning, largely because much of the ink has eroded in crucial spots in the passage and the tablet has two diagonal cracks the slice the text into three pieces. Museum curators say only 40 percent of the 87 lines are legible, many of those only barely. The interpretation of the text featured in the Israel Museum's exhibit is just one of five readings put forth by scholars.

All agree that the passage describes an apocalyptic vision of an attack on Jerusalem in which God appears with angels on chariots to save the city. The central angelic character is Gabriel, the first angel to appear in the Hebrew Bible. "I am Gabriel," the writing declares.

The stone inscription is one of the oldest passages featuring the archangel, and represents an "explosion of angels in Second Temple Judaism," at a time of great spiritual angst for Jews in Jerusalem looking for divine connection, said Adolfo Roitman, a curator of the exhibit.

The exhibit traces the development of the archangel Gabriel in the three monotheistic religions, displaying a Dead Sea Scroll fragment which mentions the angel's name the 13th century Damascus Codex, one of the oldest illustrated manuscripts of the complete Hebrew Bible a 10th century New Testament manuscript from Brittany, in which Gabriel predicts the birth of John the Baptist and appears to the Virgin Mary and an Iranian Quran manuscript dated to the 15th or 16th century, in which the angel, called Jibril in Arabic, reveals the word of God to the prophet Mohammad.

"Gabriel is not archaeology. He is still relevant for millions of people on earth who believe that angels are heavenly beings on earth," said Roitman. The Gabriel Stone, he said, is "the starting point of an ongoing tradition that still is relevant today."

The story of how the stone was discovered is just as murky as its meaning. A Bedouin man is said to have found it in Jordan on the eastern banks of the Dead Sea around the year 2000, Knohl said. An Israeli university professor later examined a piece of earth stuck to the stone and found a composition of minerals only found in that region of the Dead Sea.

The stone eventually made it into the hands of Ghassan Rihani, a Jordanian antiquities dealer based in Jordan and London, who in turn sold the stone to Swiss-Israeli collector David Jeselsohn in Zurich for an unspecified amount. Rihani has since died. The Bible scholar traveled to Jordan multiple times to look for more potential stones, but was unable to find the stone's original location.

Israel Museum curators said Jeselsohn lent the stone to the museum for temporary display.

Lenny Wolfe, an antiquities dealer in Jerusalem, said that before the Jordanian dealer bought it, another middleman faxed him an image of the stone and offered it for sale.

"The fax didn't come out clearly. I had no idea what it was," said Wolfe, who passed on the offer. It was "one of my biggest misses," Wolfe said.

What function the stone had, where it was displayed, and why it was written are unknown, said curators of the Israel Museum exhibit.

"There is still so much that is unclear," said Michal Dayagi-Mendels, a curator of the exhibit. Scholars, she said, "will still argue about this for years."


Videoni tomosha qiling: ШОШИЛИН КЕЧА ТОШКЕНТДА СИРЛИ ҒАЛАТИ ТОВУШ ЭШИТИЛДИ