Sigir boshi tafsiloti, Kumush Lira, Ur

Sigir boshi tafsiloti, Kumush Lira, Ur


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Ajoyib asboblarning ochilishi

Vulli qadimgi Ur shahrini qazishni boshlaganda, uning qancha bebaho boyliklari borligini bilmas edi. O'nlab xizmatkorlari o'z hukmdorlari bilan dafn etilgan shoh qabrlari jumbog'i, dafn marosimi madaniyati haqidagi eng dahshatli qadimiy hikoyalardan biridir.

Leonard Vulli Shumer malikasi lirasining qotib qolgan gipsli qolipini ushlab turibdi, 1922 yil. Jamoat domeni )

Lyres - bu tor ovozli asboblar bo'lib, ular ilgari tanlab yoki qo'l bilan tinch ovoz chiqarardi. Bu asbob samoviy musiqani ijro etishi uchun siz xotirjam va muloyim bo'lishingiz kerak. Bu Shumer shohlari saroyida juda mashhur bo'lgan va ularning ko'pchiligi bu yoqimli ovozli musiqani oxiratga olib ketishni xohlashgan. Shuning uchun Ur qirollik qabristonida ko'plab liralar topilgan. Ular dastlabki sulola III davriga (miloddan avvalgi 2550 - 2450 yillar) to'g'ri keladi. Tadqiqotchilarning taxmin qilishicha, ularda 11 ta tor bor edi.


Zira

Har xil turdagi asboblar bugungi kunda barcha qit'alarda qo'llaniladigan cholg'ular toifasiga kiradi. Burchak yuzasi va uzun, tor shakli bo'lgan Xitoy, Yaponiya va Koreyaning uzun qoziqlari Tinch okeani, Janubi -Sharqiy Osiyo va Afrikaning janubi -sharqidagi idiokordik bambuk zaytunlar bilan bog'lanishini ko'rsatadi. Osiyoda bambukning musiqa uchun ahamiyati tom ma'noda Java tilida afsonaviy bo'lib, musiqa tasodifan bambuk naychasiga kirishi natijasida paydo bo'lgan deb taxmin qilinadi. Xitoyda musiqa asboblari konstruktiv materialiga ko'ra tasniflanadi, bambuk - bu sakkizta moddadan biri, xitoyliklar sharq, bahor fasli va tog 'hodisalari bilan bog'liq. Xitoyliklar zheng, zayt, o'z ideografiyasida "bambuk" degan tub ma'noni o'z ichiga oladi. Qadimgi zitlarning ideografiyasi - qin va se- ammo talqin qilish qiyinroq. Ma'lumki, bu turdagi chayqalishlar Shang davrida mavjud bo'lgan (v. Miloddan avvalgi 1600–1046) zheng birinchi marta Qin davrida (miloddan avvalgi 221–207) hujjatlashtirilgan. VIII asrga kelib, bu asbob Yaponiyada joriy qilingan, u erda 13 simli koto sifatida bugungi kunda gullab-yashnamoqda. Koto, xuddi shunga o'xshash zheng, tez -tez ayollar o'ynaydi, garchi koto gildiyasining boshi odatda erkak.

Xitoy zitlar spektriga nisbatan yangi kelgan - bu yangqin ("Xorijiy zaytun"), prototipi Min sulolasi davrida (1368–1644) bir paytlar Erondan Xitoyga etib kelgan, bu Sharqiy Osiyodagi quti zaytunining yagona vakili. Indoneziyaning sundan kamerali musiqasi ko'pincha a dan foydalanadi kacapi, odatda 18-20 ta torli va harakatlanuvchi ko'prikli quti zayt. Bu turdagi xordofonning tarixi haqiqatan ham noma'lum, ammo juda eski bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan umumiy shakldagi ikkita asbob - bu afrikalik sal va taxtali naychalar. Sal chig'anoq idiochordik printsip asosida qurilgan, lekin u diametri yarim dyuym (1,5 sm) bo'lgan bir nechta tayoqlardan foydalanadi, ularning har biri o'z sirtidan ko'tarilgan bitta ipdan iborat bo'lib, keyin barcha tayoqlar bir -biriga bog'lab qo'yilgan. Taxtadan yasalgan qoziq ichi bo'sh taxtadan yasalgan bo'lib, uning ustiga bir qator torlar biriktirilgan. Bu oxirgi asbob, ayniqsa Sharqiy Afrikaning ayrim hududlarida uchraydi, ehtimol uning qurilish tamoyili savdogarlar tomonidan Yaqin Sharqqa olib borilgan.

O'rta asr arab mualliflari (shu jumladan, Ibn Xaldon) trapetsiyali yirtilgan jirtni eslatadilar. qann (yunon tilidan olingan kanōn, "Qoida"). Hozirgi asbob har bir pog'onada uchta torli uchta oktavali diapazonga ega bo'lib, uning murakkab torlari turli xil tarozilarga nozik va tez qaytarilishi mumkin. Forscha kelib chiqishi bilan chambarchas bog'liq sanṭūr, ikkita yengil bolg'a bilan urilgan yana bir trapezoidal zayt. Bu jayroning versiyalari Xitoyda uchraydi ( yangqin), Gretsiya (santouri) va Sharqiy Evropa (cimbalom). Bu trapezoidal gitaralar G'arbiy Evropaning keyingi klaviatura asboblari uchun prototiplardir qannIkki plektra bilan chalinadi, klaviatura qo'shilganda, klaviatura simbasi klaviatura qo'shilishi bilan pianinoga aylanadi. O'rta asrlarda klaviatura bir nechta asboblarga biriktirilgan, shu jumladan lute, shov-shuvli va skandinaviyalik turli xil cholg'ular, shvedlar. nigelharpa omon qoladi. Tajriba haqiqatan ham muvaffaqiyatli o'tdi, ammo faqat klavixordda, klapsikordda va keyinchalik skripkadagi pianinoda u har doim periferik ahamiyatga ega edi.


Ur shahridan ikkita Lyres

147 sahifalar | 5 1/2 x 8 1/2 | 25 ta rang, 44 b/w illus.
Mato 2002 | ISBN 9780924171888 | $ 29.95t | Amerika tashqarisida va funt 22.99
Pensilvaniya universiteti arxeologiya va antropologiya muzeyi uchun tarqatilgan
Mundarija jadvalini ko'rish

1928-29 yillar davomida Ur shahrida, Qirollik qabristonining Buyuk o'lim qudug'ida, C. Leonard Vulli ikkita ajoyib musiqa asbobini va kumush qayiq shaklidagi Lyra va oltin varaqdan yasalgan buqaning boshi va lapisli ajoyib lirani topdi. soqolli soqol. Bu kitobda ularning tarixi, asrab -avaylanishi va qayta saqlanishi haqida hikoya qilinadi. O'tgan asrning boshlarida uchinchi ming yillik o'rtalarida Mesopotamiya arxeologiyasi haqida kam narsa ma'lum bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, shumerlar hashamatli tovarlar bilan kuchli savdo-sotiqni rivojlantirgani aniq edi, iqtisodiyoti yuqori tuzilmali hukumatni talab qiladi, uning rahbarlari boy va puxta qabrlarni boshqarishi mumkin edi. musiqa asboblarining to'liq yig'ilishi.

An'anaviy usullar, yangi rentgen va elektron tasvirni tekshirish usullaridan foydalangan holda, Maude de Schauensee universitet muzeyida saqlanadigan ikkita liraning qurilishini tekshiradi va tahlil qiladi, shu bilan birga iqtisodiy, tarixiy va sotsiologik kontekstni yaxshilaydi. ularni tushunish. U dekorativ motiflarni, bu asboblar quruvchilarining materiallari va texnikasini o'rganadi. Tasvirlar va mdash10 ta chiziqli san'at asarlari, 25 ta fotosurat, 6 ta CAT-skanerlash, 5 ta rentgen nurlari va 24 ta rangli plitalar va qo'shimcha tafsilotlar. Bu kitob birinchi marta yangi ma'lumotlar va tabiatni muhofaza qilish tavsiflarini taqdim etadi. Musiqashunoslar, san'atshunoslar, Yaqin Sharq olimlari va arxeologlari va keng kitobxonlar ushbu kitobda qadimiy madaniyat asboblarining yangi tahlili katta qiziqish uyg'otadi.

Maude de Schauensee, Hasanlu nashrlari turkumi muharriri va Pensilvaniya universiteti arxeologiya va antropologiya muzeyining yaqin sharq bo'limi sobiq qo'riqchisi, Hasanluda bronza bilan ishlangan maqolalar, ot tuzilmalari va Ossuriya relyeflari va Eronning shimoli -g'arbiy mavzularining muallifi.

Savatni ko'rish | Arxeologiyada Penn Press sarlavhalarini ko'rib chiqing Bizning pochta ro'yxatimizga qo'shiling


Sigir boshi tafsiloti, Kumush Lira, Ur - Tarix

Materiallar Xudo tomonidan aniq belgilangan. Har qanday burilish aniq o'limga olib keladi.

Shuni esda tutish kerakki, Isroil xalqi Misrdan Xudoning xalqi sifatida chiqqan. Ular birinchi ibroniy Ibrohimning avlodlari edi. Xudo Ibrohim bilan ahdni buzayotganda qasam ichganini yodda tutish kerak:

Ibtido 15: 13-14: U Ibromga dedi: & quot; Bilingki, sizning avlodlaringiz o'zlari bo'lmagan yurtda musofir bo'lib, ularga xizmat qiladi va ularga to'rt yuz yil azob beradi. & quotAgar men ular xizmat qilayotgan xalqni hukm qilsam, ular katta mol -mulk bilan chiqib ketadilar.

Va ular haqiqatan ham katta mol -mulk bilan chiqib ketishdi, aytilganidek:

Chiqish 3: 20-22 & quot; Shunday qilib, men qo'limni cho'zaman va Misrni o'z mo''jizalarim bilan uraman va shundan keyin u seni qo'yib yuboradi. & quot; Men bu xalqqa misrliklar oldida yaxshilik beraman va siz borganingizda quruq qolmaysiz. & quot; Lekin har bir ayol o'z qo'shnisidan, ya'ni o'z uyining yonida yashaydigan, kumush, oltin va kiyim -kechak so'raydi, siz ularni o'g'illaringizga va qizlaringizga taqib oling. Shunday qilib, siz misrliklarni talon -taroj qilasiz

Chiqish 12: 35-36: Isroil o'g'illari Musoning so'zlariga binoan qildilar va misrliklardan kumush, oltin va kiyim-kechak so'rashdi. Egamiz xalqqa misrliklarning nazarida rahm -shafqat ko'rsatdi, shunda ular xohlagan narsalarini bajo keltirdilar. Shunday qilib, ular misrliklarni talon -taroj qilishdi.

Isroilliklar Sinay tog'iga kelishganida, Rabbiy ularga chodirni qurish uchun irodasi (o'z-o'zidan va ixtiyoriy sovg'a) sifatida nima olib kelishni buyurdi. Xudo O'zining muqaddas chodiri haqida nima deganiga e'tibor bering: (juda muhim oyatlar)

Chiqish 25: 1-9: Egamiz Musoga shunday dedi: & quot; Isroil xalqiga gapiring, ular menga qurbonlik olib kelishadi. Buni chin yurakdan berganlarning hammasidan, siz mening qurbonligimni qabul qilasiz. & quot; Bu - oltin, kumush va bronzadan & quot; ko'k, binafsha va qip -qizil iplar, mayin zig'ir va echkilarning sochlari va qizil rangga bo'yalgan bo'rsiq terisi, akatsiya daraxti va kvotil uchun oladigan qurbonlik. moy va yog'li ziravorlar, xushbo'y tutatqilar va kotoniklar uchun toshlar va efod va ko'krak nishoniga qo'yiladigan toshlar. & quot; Meni muqaddas joyga aylantirsinlar, shunda men ular orasida yashayman. & quotSiz ko'rsatgan hamma narsaga ko'ra, ya'ni chodirning namunasi va uning barcha jihozlarining namunasi, siz ham shunday qiling.

Bu materiallar Xudo ko'rsatganidek ro'yxatga olingan (boshqa hech narsa emas), chunki ularning har biri samoviy chodir va Iso Masih bilan bog'liq ramziy ma'noga ega bo'ladi. Hech narsa tasodifan yoki odamning tasavvurida qoldirilishi mumkin emas, chunki agar Rabbimiz bu erda yashab, odamlarga o'z chodirini tikmoqchi bo'lsa, demak, inson Unga O'z yo'liga yaqinlashishi kerak va bundan mustasno emas. Uning qurilishi tafsilotlari vaqtinchalik tarzda tasvirlanadi, Xudo bir kun Iso Masih orqali abadiy qiladi. Muqaddas chodir Iso orqali Xudoga qanday kelishimizning ko'rinadigan modeliga aylanadi. Keling, chodirni qurishda ishlatiladigan materiallarni ko'rib chiqaylik va shuni yodda tutingki, biz ramziylikni ibroniy fonda o'rganishimiz kerak. Eski Ahd ibroniycha Injil kontekstidan kelib chiqqan holda talqin qilinishi mumkin bo'lgan majoziy til bilan to'ldirilgan:

Materiallar (Xudo buyurgan)

Ex 38 ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, ular 2800 funt berishgan. oltindan. Muqaddas Yozuvlarda "Oltin" ilohiylik haqida gapiradi, uni inson qayta ishlab chiqara olmaydi. Oltin Xudo tomonidan yaratilgan va Xudodan tushgan. Oltin Iso Masihning xudosi haqida gapiradi. Bu Rabbimiz Isoning ilohiy ulug'vorligini "Xudoning O'g'li" va "Xudo O'g'li" deb belgilaydi. Ex 38 ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, ular 2800 funt berishgan. oltindan.

Iso tanada Yahovadan boshqa hech kim emas edi. U & quot; Malach Yawah & quot; Yahova Shoh. Ishayo Yangi Ahdda Yuhannoni Rabbiyning yuksakligini ko'rdi va shoh sifatida yuksaldi, bizga Iso ko'rganini aytdi:

Yuhanno 12:41 Ishayo O'zining ulug'vorligini ko'rib, U haqida gapirganda aytdi.

Kumush 9,600 funtga keldi. Muqaddas Yozuvlarda kumush majoziy ma'noda qutqarilish haqida gapiradi. U har doim to'lash uchun pul sifatida ishlatilgan:

Chiqish 30:16 ... Va siz Isroil o'g'illarining qutqaruv pullarini olib, o'zingizni poklanish uchun Isroil xalqi uchun Egamiz oldida yodgorlik bo'lishi uchun yig'ilish chodiriga tayinlang. . & quot

Chodir kumush rozetkalarda turardi. Yusuf ham, Iso ham kumushga sotilgan. Yahudo Muqaddas Yozuvlarda aytilganidek, kumush bilan to'langan. Kumush - bu qutqarish puli. Kumush - faqat Iso Masih va U orqali keladigan qutqarishning ramzi. Bu gunohkorlar uchun to'lov sifatida Masihning azizligini ko'rsatadi. E'tibor bering, osmonda kumush yo'q. Odamlar allaqachon qutqarilgan bo'ladi.

Mark 10:45 & quot; Hatto Inson O'g'li ham xizmat qilish uchun emas, balki xizmat qilish uchun kelgan va O'z hayotini ko'pchilik uchun to'lov sifatida bergan.

Hammasi bo'lib 6,700 funt. bronza g'ayrioddiy kuch va issiqlikka chidamliligi muhim bo'lgan joylarda foydalanish uchun berilgan. Bronzaning erish nuqtasi 1985 daraja. Bu kuchli issiqlik bo'lgan qurbongohda muhim edi. Ular jez emas, bronza olib kelishdi. Guruch mis va qalay aralashmasidan keladi, bu erda bronza mis va ruxdan keladi.

Bronza hukmni ifodalaydi. Muso bronza ilonni ko'targanda, Xudoning O'g'lining tirilishi orqali hukm qilinayotgan ilonning kuchi haqida gapirdi:

San 21: 9 Shunday qilib, Muso bronza ilon yasab, ustunga qo'ydi va agar ilon kimni tishlagan bo'lsa, xuddi bronza ilonga qaraganida, tirik edi.

Bronza gunoh qurbonligiga aylanib, Xudoning g'azabi, muqaddasligi va adolat olovini olgan Masihning ilohiy xarakterini ifodalaydi.

2 Kor 5:21 Chunki U gunohni bilmagan odamni biz uchun gunoh qilib qo'ydi, shunda biz Unda Xudoning adolati bo'lamiz.

Matto 27:46: Taxminan soat to'qqizlarda Iso baland ovoz bilan baqirdi: "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" Ya'ni, "Xudoyim, Xudoyim, nega meni tashlab ketding?"

Zig'irdan to'qilgan yoki kashta tikilgan ko'k, binafsha va qip -qizil iplar edi. Ibroniycha "ko'k" so'zi qisqichbaqasimonlar degan ma'noni anglatadi. Bu mollyuskadan ajoyib bo'yoq ajralib chiqdi. Bu yorqin rang har doim birinchi bo'lib tilga olinadi. Odamga osmon haqidagi fikrni taklif qilish uchun biror narsa kerak edi, bu erdan Xudo O'zini to'liq ochib beradi. Shuning uchun ko'k rang osmonni, osmon rangini ifodalaydi. Moviy chodirda odamlarga uning boradigan joyi jannat ekanligini va bizning Qutqaruvchimiz tufayli biz Xudoning huzurida bo'lishimizni eslatish uchun muqaddas chodirda doimo tilga olingan. Moviy yuqoridan tushadigan narsa haqida gapiradi (& quot; yuqoridan & quot; yahudiylarning osmon haqidagi iborasi). Esingizda bo'lsin, ayol Isoning kiyimining ko'k etagiga tekkanida? Biz ko'k rangning go'zalligini Rabbimiz Iso Masihning hayotida ko'ramiz, u nafaqat kelib chiqishi samoviy, balki tabiati va uslubida ham bo'lgan.

Yuhanno 3:31 & quot; Yuqoridan kelgan kishi, hamma narsadan ustun, er yuzidan bo'lgan va er haqida gapiradigan. Osmondan kelgan hamma narsadan ustun.

Ibroniylar bu rangni ko'k va qirmizi ranglarni aralashtirishdan olishgan. Bu qip-qizil binafsha rang qirollik rangi edi (Kingly).

Hukm 8:26: Midiyon shohlarida bezaklar, marjonlar va binafsha liboslar, shuningdek, tuyalarining bo'ynidagi zanjirlar.

Binafsha rang Isoni shoh podshohi va xo'jayin Rabbiysi deb ataydi, lekin yana bir muhim haqiqat bor. Ko'k va qirmizi ranglarning aralashishi. Moviy yuqoridan tushadigan narsa haqida gapiradi va qizil, biz ko'rib turganimizdek, qon va o'limni, qurbonlikni anglatadi. Binafsha rang - bu ikkalasining kombinatsiyasi bo'lib, u Masihni ham Xudo, ham inson, osmondan o'lish uchun kelgan odam deb aytadi. U qandaydir sirli tarzda gunohkor tana qiyofasini oldi.

Ishayo 33:17: Sizning ko'zingiz Podshohni go'zalligida ko'radi, ular uzoqdagi erni ko'rishadi.


"Qizil ip" (qurbonlik)

Qizil rang ma'lum daraxtlarga zarar etkazadigan sharqiy hasharotlardan (qurt) olingan. U yig'ilib, maydalangan, quritilgan va porloq qip -qizil rang hosil qilgan kukunga maydalangan. Skarlet qurbonlik haqida gapiradi va azoblarida Masihni tasvirlaydi. Xochga mixlangan Zabur 22, Isoning so'zlaridan iqtibos keltiradi: "Men qurtman". Xudo qandaydir yo'l bilan tanani va qonni tanasiga oldi va keyin Xudoning adolat tegirmonlarida ezilib, hammamiz uchun to'lov sifatida O'z hayotini qurbon qildi.

Efes 5: 2: Masih ham bizni sevgani uchun va O'zini biz uchun berganidek, Xudoga xushbo'y hid uchun qurbonlik va qurbonlik berganidek, muhabbat bilan yuring.

Ibroniylarga 9:26: U dunyo yaratilgandan buyon tez -tez azob chekishi kerak edi, lekin hozir, asrlar oxirida, O'zining qurbonligi bilan gunohni yo'q qilganga o'xshaydi.

Choyshab eng qiziqarli edi. Misr zig'ir matosidan yasalgan, u nozik to'qilgan, ajoyib oq rangga ega bo'lib, o'ziga xos nomga ega edi. Bu material qirollik va martabali kishilar uchun kiyimlar uchun ishlatilgan va fir'avnlar qabrlaridan topilgan. Bitta qabrdagi zig'ir matoning bir dyuymida 152 ip va to'quvda bir dyuymga 72 ip borligi aniqlandi. Oq zig'ir har doim poklik va solihlik haqida gapiradi:

Vahiy 15: 6 Va ma'baddan etti o'latli, toza zig'ir kiyingan va ko'kragiga oltin tasmalar bilan bog'langan etti farishta chiqdi.

Vahiy 3: 5 & quot; Yenggan kishi oq kiyimda bo'ladi, men uning nomini hayot kitobidan o'chirmayman, lekin Otam oldida va farishtalari oldida uning ismini tan olaman.

Vahiy 19:14: Osmonda oq va toza zig'ir kiyingan qo'shinlar Uning orqasidan oq otlar bilan ergashdilar.

Yupqa ipli, oq zig'ir solihlik haqida gapiradi va Inson O'g'li beg'ubor, pok va gunohsiz Isoga xosdir.

I Yuhanno 3: 3-5 Va Undan umidvor bo'lgan har bir kishi poklanadi, xuddi U pok bo'lgani kabi. Siz bilasizki, U bizning gunohlarimizni olib tashlash uchun namoyon bo'lgan va Unda gunoh yo'q.


"Echki sochlari" (la'natlangan gunoh qurbonligi)

Echkilar o'sha paytlarda sut, go'sht, terilari, masalan, suv idishlari va boshqalar uchun ishlatilgan, sochlari juda uzun, qorong'i va burmali bo'lib, matoga to'qilgan. Echki qurbonlik qiladigan hayvon edi. Echki sochlari birinchi bo'lib chodir pardasi tepasida edi. Bu rang bizga Isoning kamtarligi va qashshoqligi haqida gapiradi. Echki terisini kambag'allar kiyib yurishgan va Muqaddas Kitob davomida o'ta qashshoqlikni ifodalagan.

Ibr 11:37: Ular toshbo'ron qilindi, ikkiga bo'lindi, vasvasaga tushdi, qilich bilan o'ldirildi. Ular qo'y va echki terisida adashib, iztirob chekishdi, azob chekishdi,

Luqo 9:58 Iso unga dedi: "Tulkilarning teshiklari bor, osmon qushlarining uyalari bor, lekin Inson O'g'lining boshini qo'yadigan joyi yo'q".

Va sochlar Masihni ajratilgan deb aytadi, xuddi echki sochidan ajratilganidek, Masih ham boshqalarga qopqoq berish uchun o'z qoplamasini qurbon qilishi kerak edi.

Echki haqidagi yana bir qiziq jihat shundaki, u Poklanish kuni ishlatilgan. Bosh ruhoniy muqaddaslarga qon sepishni tugatgandan so'ng, u chodirning hovlisiga kirib, gunohkorning boshiga qo'llarini qo'yib, odamlarning barcha gunohlarini tan olardi. Keyin echkini, tayyor turgan bir kishi cho'lga olib ketdi va u erda Xudo kechirgan Isroil gunohlarining olib ketilishini bildirish uchun qo'yib yubordi. Bu bizga gunohlarimizni unutish yurtiga olib ketishimiz uchun kamtar va kambag'al Isoni eslatadi.

2 Kor 5:21 Chunki U gunohni bilmagan odamni biz uchun gunoh qilib qo'ydi, shunda biz Unda Xudoning adolati bo'lamiz.


"Qo'chqor terilari qizil rangga bo'yalgan" (almashtirish qurbonligi)

Qo’chqor - bu qo’y bo’yli va suruv boshi. Cho'pon bir xillikni targ'ib qilish uchun qo'ylar qo'yida bir yoki ikkita qo'chqor bo'lishi mumkin. Qo'chqor yahudiylarning nazarida abadiy o'rnini bosuvchi hayvon bo'lib, o'limgacha sodiq qoladi. Bu, albatta, chunki Xudo Ibrohimning imoni ochilgan kuni Is'hoqning o'rniga qo'chqor berdi.

Ibtido 22: 12-13 Va u aytdi: "Yigitga qo'lingizni qo'ymang va unga hech narsa qilmang, hozircha bilaman, siz Xudodan qo'rqasiz, chunki siz o'g'lingizni, yolg'iz o'g'lingizni Mendan ayirmadingiz." Ibrohim ko'zlarini ko'tardi va qaradi, uning ortida shoxlari bilan tog'da tutilgan qo'chqor bor edi. Ibrohim borib, qo'chqorni olib, o'g'lining o'rniga kuydiriladigan qurbonlik qildi.

Qo'chqorning terilari qizil rangga bo'yalgan va uning o'rnini bosuvchi qurbonlik qilingan. Shunday qilib, Iso insoniyatning boshi, oxirgi Odam Ato, Unga ishonadiganlarning o'rnini egallab, o'z hayotini qurbon qildi.

Ibr 2: 9 Lekin biz farishtalardan bir oz pastroq bo'lgan Isoni, Xudoning inoyati bilan hamma uchun o'limni tatib ko'rish uchun, shon -sharaf va toj kiygan o'lim azoblari uchun ko'ramiz.

Ibroniylarga 2:17: Shunday qilib, U hamma narsada birodarlariga o'xshatilishi kerak edi, shunda u Xudoning ishlarida rahmdil va sodiq oliy ruhoniy bo'lib, odamlarning gunohlari uchun qurbonlik qildi.

Yuhanno 1:29 Ertasi kuni Yuhanno Isoning yoniga kelayotganini ko'rib: «Mana! Dunyoning gunohini olib tashlaydigan Xudoning Qo'zisi!


"Porsuq terilari" (tashqi ko'rinishi yoqimsiz)

Porsuq terilari - hamma ko'rgan oxirgi qoplama, tashqi qoplama. Ular qattiq va qat'iyatli va tashqi ko'rinishida juda aniq edi. Lekin bu qanday qilib Masih haqida gapiradi? Bu Masihning odamlarga bo'lgan munosabati haqida gapiradi. Muqaddas chodirda tashqi go'zallik yo'q edi, shuning uchun Masih erga kelganida, O'z chodirini odamlar orasiga o'rnatganida edi. Payg'ambar bashorat qilganidek:

53: 1-2 Bizning hisobotimizga kim ishondi? Egamizning qo'li kimga vahiy qilingan? Chunki U Uning huzurida yumshoq o'simlik bo'lib, quruq erdan chiqqan ildiz bo'lib o'sadi. Uning shakli yoki xushbo'yligi yo'q va biz Uni ko'rganimizda, Unga intilishimiz kerak bo'lgan go'zallik yo'q.

Yahudiylar uchun Iso nima edi? kursdan boshqa narsa emas, qattiq bo'rsiq terisi. Iso bugun dunyo uchun nima? kursdan boshqa narsa emas, qattiq bo'rsiq terisi. Lekin qalbimizni Unga ochgan biz uchun, U bundan ham ko'proq. U & quot; Birgalikda sevimli & quot;, u & quot; Sharon atirguli & quot;, & quot; Vodiy nilufar & quot; Agar kimdir tashqi tanadan tashqariga qarashni xohlasa, Masihning ulug'vorligining o'zgarishini ko'radi. & quot; Nosiradan biron yaxshi narsa chiqa oladimi? & quot; Iso shunday deydi: & quot; Keling va ko'ring & quot.

Yuhanno 1: 10-14 U dunyoda bo'lgan va dunyo U orqali yaratilgan va dunyo Uni tanimagan. U O'ziga keldi, lekin o'z xalqi Uni qabul qilmadi. Lekin Uni qabul qilganlarning hammasiga, U Xudoning farzandlari bo'lish huquqini, Uning ismiga ishonganlarga berdi: ular qondan, tana irodasi bilan emas, inson irodasi bilan tug'ilganlar. lekin Xudodan. Va Kalom tanaga aylandi va oramizda yashadi, va biz Uning ulug'vorligini, Otaning yagona inoyatidagi ulug'vorligini ko'rdik, inoyat va haqiqatga to'la.


"Acacia Wood" (buzilmas insoniyat) Shittim yog'och deb ham ataladi

Shittah daraxti Sinay va O'lik dengiz atrofidagi cho'llarda o'sgan. Yog'och qattiq, juda og'ir, hasharotlar tomonidan buzilmaydi va mayda, chiroyli donga ega. U quruq joylarda juda ajoyib edi, ba'zan balandligi yigirma futga etdi. U chiroyli sariq gullarga ega edi va hasharotlarga chidamli akatsiya yog'ochidan mumiyadan qutilar tayyorlashda foydalanilgan. Bu Akasiya daraxti, shubhasiz, Masihning buzilmas insonligi haqida gapiradi, chunki bizga Uning insoniyati hech qachon buzuqlikni ko'rmasligini aytishadi.

Zabur 16:10 Chunki sen mening jonimni Sheolda qoldirmaysan va Muqaddas Xudoning buzuqlikni ko'rishiga yo'l qo'ymaysan.

U chinakam insoniy, "Masih Iso Masih" edi. Muqaddas Kitob uni, & quot; Maryamning o'g'li & quot; va odamning & quot; Uning uchun jasad tayyorlandi:

Ibroniylarga 10: 5: U dunyoga kelganida shunday dedi: & quot; Qurbonlik va qurbonlikni siz xohlamadingiz, balki Men uchun tayyorlagan tanani.

Va u tanaga hali ham ulug'vor shaklda ega. & quotBu o'sha Iso & quot; hozir osmonda va bir kun biz uchun qaytib keladi va bizni ulug'laydi:

1 Yuhanno 3: 2 Sevgilim, endi biz Xudoning farzandlarimiz va hali qanday bo'lishimiz hali ma'lum emas, lekin bilamizki, U vahiy qilinganida, biz ham Unga o'xshab qolamiz, chunki biz Uni qanday bo'lsa, shunday ko'ramiz.

Rim 8: 18-21: Menimcha, hozirgi azob-uqubatlarni bizda ochiladigan ulug'vorlik bilan solishtirish mumkin emas. Yaratilishni chin dildan kutish, Xudoning o'g'illarining ochilishini intizorlik bilan kutadi. Chunki ijod befoydalikka o'z xohishi bilan emas, balki umid bilan bo'ysundirgani uchun, chunki yaratilishning o'zi ham Xudoning farzandlarining ulug'vor erkinligi buzuqlik qulligidan qutqariladi.


"Yog '" (ruhlarni moylash)

Yog 'erning zaytun mevalarini maydalash natijasida olingan. Biz bilganimizdek, moy Eski Ahd davrida payg'ambar, ruhoniy va shoh moylanganida ishlatilgan suyuqlik edi. Va shunga o'xshash oyatlar tufayli:

1 Yuhanno 2: 20-21 20 Lekin sizda Muqaddas Xudoning moylanishi bor va siz hamma narsani bilasiz.

1 Shohlar 16:13 ... Shomuil moy shoxini oldi va uni birodarlarining o'rtasida moyladi. O'sha kundan boshlab Dovudga Egamizning Ruhi tushdi. Shomuil o'rnidan turib, Ramaga yo'l oldi.

Mana 32:15 Bizga yuqoridan Ruh tushguncha, sahro serhosil dalaga aylanadi va mevali maydon o'rmon sanaladi.

Biz moyni Muqaddas Ruhning bir turi sifatida ko'rish uchun Muqaddas Kitob vakolatiga egamiz. Muqaddas Kitobda zaytun daraxti ko'p narsalarning ramzi hisoblanadi:

Xos 14: 6 Uning shoxlari yoyiladi, uning chiroyi zaytun daraxtiga, xushbo'yligi esa Livanga o'xshaydi.

Zabur 52: 8 Lekin men Xudoning uyidagi yashil zaytun daraxtiga o'xshayman, Xudoning rahm -shafqatiga abadiy ishonaman.

Hukm 9: 9 Ammo zaytun daraxti ularga dedi: "Men semizligimni tashlab ketishim kerakmi? Xudo va odam, va daraxtlar ustida ko'tarilish uchun bormoqchimisiz?

Muqaddas Ruh, zaytun moyi kabi, inson hayoti va xudojo'yligi uchun kerak bo'lgan hamma narsaga ega. Boylik, unumdorlik va go'zallik - hamma narsa Unikidir. Iso Xudo tomonidan payg'ambar, ruhoniy va shoh sifatida moylangan. Masih qilgan har bir narsa boylik, hosildorlik va go'zallikka to'ldi, chunki u Muqaddas Ruhning ma'badi edi va hamma to'liqlik bilan to'lgan:

Yuhanno 3:34 & quot; Xudo yuborgan Xudoning so'zlarini gapiradi, chunki Xudo Ruhni o'lchov bilan bermaydi.

Qizig'i shundaki, zaytun kaltaklanmagan yoki bosilmagan, balki ezilgan. Shunday qilib, Iso Getsemaniya bog'ida ezib tashlandi (Ibron yog'i matbuoti), so'ngra Xudoning g'azabi bilan Rim xochida, Muqaddas Yozuvlarda aytilganidek:

53:10 Ammo Egamiz uni ezishi uni xafa qildi; agar siz uning gunohini qurbonlikka aylantirsangiz, u o'z urug'ini ko'radi, umrini uzaytiradi va Egamizning mamnunligi gullab -yashnaydi. uning qo'lida.

Yog 'moyi faqat chodirdan foydalanish uchun cheklangan, buyruqni buzgan har bir kishi o'limga mahkum etilgan. Zaytun moyi toza bo'lishi kerak edi, chunki u Masihning Muqaddas Ruhini anglatadi. & Quot; Masih & quot Bu so'zma -so'z "moy bilan" surtish "degan ma'noni anglatadi. Yog ', shuningdek, Muqaddas chodirni va uning mebellarini moylash va oltin chiroqni yoqish uchun ishlatilgan.


"Yog 'va tutatqi uchun ziravorlar" (Xudoga xushbo'y hid)

Xushbo'y va yog'ga uchta ziravor qo'shilishi kerak edi:

Chiqish 30:34 ... Egamiz Musoga dedi: & quot; Shirin ziravorlar, stak, onixa va galban va toza xushbo'y tutatqilarni har biridan teng miqdorda oling.

Mirra butasining qobig'idan topilgan xushbo'y qatronlarning qotib qolgan tomchilaridan olingan kukun. Bu so'z & kvotani tushirish & quot degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Qizil dengizda topilgan mollyuskaning mollyuskasining shoxli qobig'idan olingan kukun. Yonganda, bu kukun ichkariga kiruvchi hid chiqaradi. Ibroniycha so'z "quaromatik qobiq" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Qizil dengiz - Hind okeanining izolyatsiyalangan iliq suvli cho'ntagi va mollyuskalarning o'ziga xos kichik turlari bilan mashhur.

Ferula o'simlikining poyasining pastki qismidan chiqadigan jigarrang o'tkir o'tkir qatron. Bu o't o'simlik O'rta er dengizida joylashgan bo'lib, qalin poyalari, sariq gullari va fernga o'xshash yashil barglari bor. U shilimshiq, o'tkir hidga ega va qimmatli, chunki u aralash atirning hidini saqlaydi va uni uzoq vaqt tarqatishga imkon beradi.

Bu ziravorlar yoki atir -upalarda biz Isoni Otaning yuragiga quvonch keltiradigan xushbo'y hid sifatida ko'ramiz. Zaytun moyi bilan aralashtirilganda, biz Masih Ruhining yoqimli nurlantiruvchi ishini ko'ramiz va ochiq tutatqi bilan aralashganimizda, biz Xudoning burun teshigidan va xushbo'y hidli ibodatning shirinligini ko'ramiz. Bu atirlar Masihga ishora qiladi.

Yuhanno 8:29 va Meni yuborgan Men bilan. Ota meni yolg'iz qoldirmadi, chunki men doimo Unga ma'qul keladigan ishlarni qilaman

Efes 5: 2: Masih ham bizni sevgani uchun va O'zini biz uchun berganidek, Xudoga xushbo'y hid uchun qurbonlik va qurbonlik berganidek, muhabbat bilan yuring.

2 Kor 2: 15-16 15 Chunki biz Xudoga najot topayotganlar va halok bo'lganlar orasida Masihning xushbo'y hidisiz. 16 Kimgadir biz o'limga olib keladigan o'lim xushbo'yi, ikkinchisiga hayotga olib keladigan hayotning xushbo'y hidi. Va bu narsalarga kim etarli?

& quot; Meni muqaddas joyga aylantirsinlar, shunda men ular orasida yashayman & quot; Chiqish 25: 8

Qonunning maqsadi va yuragi - Sodiq xabar

Qadimgi Isroil chodirlari Muso payg'ambarga namuna sifatida berilgan va Isroil bolalari tomonidan qurilgan muqaddas joy edi. Xudoning va'dasi shundaki, U Ahd sandig'ining rahm -shafqatli o'rindig'ining muqaddas joyida yashaydi.

Nega chodirni o'rganish kerak?

A) 50 ta bobda chodir haqida eslatib o'tilgan

Chunki Muqaddas Kitobdagi kamida 50 bobda (13-Chiqish, 18-Lev, 13-Rum, 2-Deut, 4-Ibron) qurilish, marosim, ruhoniylik, chodirning ko'tarilishi va ma'nosi haqida aytilgan. hammasi. Shuningdek, Muqaddas Yozuvdagi boshqa ko'p joylar chodir haqida majoziy tilda gapiradi. Ko'pgina Injil tadqiqotlarida bu mavzu e'tiborga olinmaydi va ahamiyatsiz deb hisoblanadi.

B) pardaning yirtilishi

Xudoning O'zi, pardaning yirtilishidan ko'rinib turibdiki, turning ahamiyati haqida juda ko'p o'ylardi:

Matto 27: 50-51: Iso yana baland ovozda baqirib, ruhini berdi. Mana, ma'bad pardasi yuqoridan pastgacha ikkiga bo'lindi va yer qimirladi, qoyalar bo'lindi.

Agar biz Muqaddas Kitobdagi muqaddaslik va pardaning ma'nosini tushunmasak, gunohkor insonlar uchun Masihning o'limi nimani anglatishi haqida o'ta muhim ma'lumotlarni yo'qotamiz.

C) Chodir - bu Masihning bir turi:

Kalom nima deganini eslang, & quotall Muqaddas Yozuvlar Xudoning ilhomi bilan berilgan. & quot Muqaddas Kitobni o'qiganimizda, u butunlay Xudo tomonidan berilganligini yodda tutishimiz kerak. Har bir so'zga nazar tashlaganimizda, har bir so'z Xudo tomonidan berilganini eslashimiz kerak. Bu Muqaddas Yozuvlarga kelganda Masihning nuqtai nazari edi, bu havoriylarning nuqtai nazari edi va bu bizning nuqtai nazarimiz bo'lishi kerak. Bu Xudoning Kalomi. Bu faqat Xudoning Kalomini o'z ichiga olmaydi yoki diniy tajribaga ishora qilmaydi, bu Xudoning Kalomi.

Muqaddas chodir haqidagi har bir tafsilot va so'z ma'naviy ahamiyatga ega ekanligi ajablanarli emasmi? Muqaddas chodirning tuzilishi va uning o'ziga xos qutqaruv mebellariga qaraydigan bo'lsak, unda ajoyib ramziylik va tipologiya mavjud. Esingizda bo'lsin, hamma narsa Masihga ishora qilgan barmoq edi. Muqaddas chodir, Xudo tomonidan maxsus va batafsil ishlab chiqilgan, Masih xizmatining xarakteri va jihatlariga ishora qiladi. Biz chodir bilan qanchalik ko'p tanishsak, Masih va U biz uchun nimani anglatishini bilib olamiz. Muqaddas chodir haqida Muqaddas Yozuvlar bilan tanishish uchun qanday ajoyib sabab.

Heb 10:20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh,

Col 2:17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

D) It is a Representation of the True Tabernacle in Heaven:

The Lord wants us to be aware of His nature and character. Even the angels don't fully understand the nature and character of God but they learn from watching His dealings with His church (Eph 3). Things are really happening in the heavenly dimension and the Lord wants to reveal to us what took place in heaven after the resurrection of Christ. There is a real tabernacle in the heavenlies and Christ really appeared before the throne of heaven as the Lamb of God (Rev 5). There is no doubt that some of these things are a mystery but the more we draw close to God and His Word the more He draws close to us.

Heb 9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

E) The Presence Within the Holy of Holies Dwells Within the Believer in Jesus:

Jesus said I am the temple (Mishkan) of God. When the glory (Heb. Sh'chinah) would come down like a tornado or funnel right through the roof of the holy of holies and the Presence would manifest on the mercy seat between the cherubim after the blood was sprinkled, that was the mishkan. That Presence was what Jesus said dwelt within Him. And in fact Paul said about the church, "Know ye not that you are the temple (Mishkan) of God?" We, as the body of Christ, have the same Presence dwelling within us. God doesn't dwell in buildings now but within His people.

1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

F) Its teaching covers in type almost all of New Testament truth.

The study of the tabernacle is so rich in meaning to the Christian and so pregnant with Messianic significance that we can spend a lifetime in the study of it and only begin to understand the riches and the depth of truth that lies within the study of the tabernacle.

Rom 15:4 "Whatever things that were written before were written for our learning."

G) Studying the Tabernacle will absolutely strengthen our faith in the Bible.

Be assured that anyone who has delved into the wonderful details of the tabernacle will confess that the Bible is more than just a book. No man could have thought of this. The Bible is the Word of God.

"all Scripture is given by inspiration of God. & quot


Nanna/Suen/Sin (god)

Mesopotamian moon god. He was called Nanna in Sumerian, and Su'en or Sin in Akkadian. The earliest writings of both are roughly contemporary, and occur interchangeably. An additional name, which is only attested in literary texts, is Dilimbabbar. The true etymologies of both Nanna and Su'en remain unclear (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-64).

Vazifalar

Possible depiction of the god Nanna, seated on a temple-like throne, on a fragment of the Stele of Ur-Namma at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (object number B16676.14) (ca. 2100 BCE). The stele was excavated at Ur. © Penn Museum.

The ziggurat  TT  , or temple tower, of Nanna at Ur. It was built by king Ur-Namma of Ur (r. about 2112-2095 BCE), the founder of the Ur III dynasty. The monumental temple tower is built of solid bricks. © Penn Museum.

The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirmed in the text Nanna-Suen's Journey to Nippur (ETCSL 1.5.1: 18), when Nanna brings the "first fruit offerings" to Enlil, the head of the early Mesopotamian pantheon (Black et al. 2004: 147).

The primary symbol of the moon god was as a bull, the result of the horizontal crescent of the waxing moon appearing similar to the horns of that animal. This symbolism led to a consideration of the moon god as a cowherd, which is celebrated most clearly in the composition The Herds of Nanna (ETCSL 4.13.06), the longest section of which enumerates the cattle in Nanna's herd.

An association with fertility may come from the moon god's connection to cattle, and also, perhaps, from the clear link to the menstrual cycle, roughly similar to the timing of the moon's transformations. The connection with fertility is demonstrated in the Old Babylonian (early second-millennium) birth incantations (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367 Veldhuis 1991). The magical-medical text A Cow of Sin relates the story of the moon god's beautiful and pregnant cow, Geme-Sin. The birthing-pains of Geme-Sin are eased by Sin, and the incantation ends with a 'supplication: "may this woman give birth as easily as Geme-Sin" suggesting this text's role in human child-birth (Veldhuis 1991: 1).

Other literature makes much of the moon as an astronomical feature. The deity is referred to in terms characteristic of the celestial body, e.g., radiant, shining, and much is made of the moon's path and cycle, which were also keenly observed for omens of the future, for example in the first-millennium series šumma Sin ina tāmartišu, "If the moon at its appearance" (Hunger and Pingree 1999: 21 ff.).

The Akkadian literature evokes some of the other functions of the moon god. A prayer to Su'en details his role in divination (Foster 2005: 758-9). No doubt this divinatory role was also connected to the moon god's ability to illuminate darkness (Foster 2005: 760-1). Both the moon god and the sun god are praised together in a further text in which they are associated with issuing laws and verdicts, the determination of destinies, and the announcements of omens (Foster 2005: 762). This judicial role was already obvious in the text of the Early Dynastic 'Stele of the Vultures', where oaths are taken in the presence of Su'en, and in his epithet "diviner of fates", which is used across the Near East (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367).

Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

In the Sumerian myth Enlil and Ninlil (ETCSL 1.2.1), the moon god is described as the first-born son of Enlil and Ninlil, and the moon god's three brothers are listed: Nergal-Meslamtaea, Ninazu (both underworld deities) and Enbililu (who was responsible for irrigation). There has been some suggestion that this position as the 'first born son of Enlil' might reflect the importance of Ur during the Ur III period. There are also occasional references to a paternal/fillial relationship between An and the moon god (Klein 2001: 295-7), but such are probably general references to An in his role as father of all the gods (Krebernik 1993-98b: 364-5).

The moon god's wife is the goddess Ningal (Akk. Nikkal) and their children are Inana and Utu (Edzard 1965: 102). The god list AN = Anum also names Ningublaga as the son of the moon god, and Amarra-azu and Amarra-he'ea as his daughters. Another child of the moon god known from Old Babylonian sources is Numušda (Hall 1985: 742). Nanna's vizier was Alammuš. In the first millenium Nuska, a vizier of Enlil, was thought of as a son of Su'en (specifically the Su'en of Harran) - a relationship which is possibly a result of contact/conflation with Aramaic religious beliefs (Krebernik 1993-98b: 365-8).

Cult Places

From the earliest periods, Nanna/Su'en was the patron deity of the city of Ur [

/images/Ur.jpg] . The name of his main sanctuary in Ur was é-kiš-nu-gál, the name also used for the moon god's sanctuaries in Babylon [

/images/Nippur.jpg] (George 1993: 114). From the Akkadian period until the middle of the Old Babylonian period, the daughter of the reigning king was appointed to be the high-priestess of the moon god at Ur (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367-9). The most famous of these is Enheduanna, who is the purported author of several Sumerian literary works (e.g. the Temple Hymns, ETCSL 4.80.1 and Inana B, ETCSL 4.07.2). However, Enheduanna's authorship has been seriously questioned (Civil 1980 Black 2002 Rubio 2009 Lion 2011). Other Mesopotamian cult places for the moon god include Ga'eš, a place in the neighbourhood of Ur [

/images/Urum.jpg] , modern Tell `Uqair located east of Babylon, where the moon god was honoured as Dilimbabbar. Beyond the alluvial plains of Mesopotamia, a cult centre of Nanna/Su'en is attested at Harran [

/images/Harran.jpg] , south-east of modern Urfa [

/images/Urfa.jpg] , from the Old Babylonian period onwards, where the temple name was é-húl-húl "House of Rejoicing" (Krebernik 1993-98b: 368). At Harran a long inscription was found on a stele, which commemorates Adda-guppi, the mother of Nabonidus, and which celebrates her reverence of the moon god. Another stele inscription from Harran describes Nabonidus' accession to the throne, which is here described as being at the will of Su'en, and that he rebuilt the é-húl-húl temple (Gadd 1958).

Time Periods Attested

The earliest attestation of this name dates back to the very beginning of written documentations. In personal names the moon god is attested from the Late Uruk period until the very end of the cuneiform tradition. Not only is he frequently attested in personal names, a testimony to personal piety, he is also frequently invoked in royal names from the earlier to the late periods, for example: Naram-Sin (Old Akkadian) Amar-Su'en, Šu-Sin, Ibbi-Sin (all Ur III) Sin-iddinam (Old Babylonian), Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sin-ahhe-eruba – from the Neo Assyrian period) (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360 Hall 1985: 56-91).

Not surprisingly it is from the Third Dynasty of Ur that come the greatest number of attestations and clearest indications of worship. Many dedicatory inscriptions of canals, buildings and objects record the worship and patronage of Su'en, most during Ur-Namma's reign. The perhaps most obvious of these is the temple tower ( ziggurat  TT  ) at Ur, built under Ur-Namma. The year names continue to record events related to the moon god, most commonly the installation of the high-priestesses of the moon god at Ur, and for Nanna-Karzida at Gaeš (Hall 1985: 130-2), while offerings are very commonly attested (Hall 1985). The royal hymns, particularly those to Šulgi often include subscripts to Nanna, for example Šulgi D (ETCSL 2.4.2.04 Klein 2001: 285). Among this literature are the 15 hymns to Nanna, which include A Balbale to Suen (ECTSL 4.13.01) and A tigi to Su'en (ECTSL 4.13.09).

Worship of the moon god continued throughout the Old Babylonian period, as attested in both personal names and royal names as well as numerous building inscriptions, year dates and offerings (Hall 1985 Collon 1992: 20).

The moon god seems to have fallen out of favour somewhat in the period of 1500-1000 BCE (Foster 2005: 758-62), but experienced a revival during the first millennium, in particular in personal names of the Neo-Assyrian period (Radner and Baker 1998-2011). Su'en often appears second, after the pre-eminent deity Aššur, among the gods invoked to bless the king (SAA 1, 133 line 1). Some scholars have argued that the Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus promoted the moon god within the pantheon of Babylonia, but more recently it has been suggested that this is an over-interpretation of the evidence available (Kuhrt_1995: 600). Nevertheless, Nabonidus also reconstructed the temple of Sin at Ur and reinstated the position of the high-priestess priestess of the moon god at Ur.

Iconography

While the moon god is commonly attested in the literature and texts of Mesopotamia, he is not as commonly reflected in the visual iconography. Anthropomorphic representations are known from the Ur III period royal iconography, but second millennium BCE images are rare, which is surprising given that Nanna/Su'en formed the most popular theophoric element in Old Babylonian names. A painting of the moon god is attested at Mari (Room 132), and these relatively rare figurative images continue down to the Neo-Assyrian period, for example Sennacherib's rock relief at Maltai. By far the most common images of this deity appear on cylinder seals, known from across Mesopotamian history (Collon 1992: 22, 27).

The moon god is most frequently represented by his symbol, the crescent moon (Sumerian u4-sakar, Akkadian u/ašqāru). This iconography is already known form Early Dynastic seals, and continues throughout Mesopotamian history and across the Ancient Near East. The crescent shape had an impact on other symbols which came to be associated with Nanna/Suen, primarily the moon god's association with the bull (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360). Additionally, Nanna/Su'en is often attested in connection with a boat. Other iconographic symbols include a rather enigmatic tripod, and it is now thought that many of the motifs once thought to be solely associated with the sun god - such as rays, gates and a god-figure rising between mountains, might now also be considered iconographic characteristics of the moon god. Such similarities should not be surprising given that the moon provided the light of the night-time, as the sun did for the day (Krebernik 1993-98b: 374-7).

Name and Spellings

Nanna: In the Early Dynastic period: d ŠEŠ.NA (with the sign NA acting as a phonetic complement) later d ŠEŠ.KI or d ŠEŠ+KI, syllabically: na-an-na (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360).

Su'en/Sin: first attested at Ebla from ca. 2400 BCE spelled d EN.ZU, but read Su'en in Sumerian names, and Sin in Akkadian names. For discussions of this rebus-writing, see Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-2. From the Old Babylonian period onward: (d) 30, clearly related to the close connection between the moon and the month (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-1).

Dilimbabbar (previously read Ašimbabbar): An alternative name or epithet. The logographic writing DIL-im2-babbar suggests two possible, and perhaps not mutually exclusive interpretations. The Sumerian word pronounced 'dilim' (written DILIM2) can refer to a bowl, a possibly valid metaphor for the quarter-moon, and the use of DI, might have been a play upon the meaning of this term as 'unique', while babbar is the Sumerian for "white" (Cohen 1996: 11 n.20).


Category Archives: Ur-Zababa

A long while ago, I wanted to write about Ku-Baba, the only woman on the Sumerian King List. I went first to my go-to source on anything Sumerian, Sumerian Shakespeare, and found that Jerald Starr, the brain behind the site, had not mentioned Ku-Baba at all. It was as if I was just imagining this rather intriguing figure.

Nonetheless, I wrote to Starr with the hope he would have some information about Ku-Baba, or at least a good source he could point me toward. His response, which was basically doubt that she existed at all, left me feeling like I was at a dead end at the time, so I abandoned the idea of writing about her.

Fast forward to today, and Starr has changed his mind. “I had to revise my opinion,” he wrote to me in a surprise email. He also included a link to a new post on his website, in which he explains in detail how he arrived at the conclusion that Ku-Baba might have existed after all.

“For a long time I doubted that Ku-Baba even existed,” he writes in the post. “I believed the reference was a sly mean-spirited joke by the scribe who wrote the King List.”

What changed Starr’s mind was an alabaster statue at the Louvre from Girsu, with a little too much eye makeup to be just your run-of-the-mill Sumerian priestess, as he had initially believed. “When I first saw the statue, I believed it was a Sumerian priestess because she seems to be wearing a circular headband,” he writes, “. . .although for a priestess I thought she was a bit heavy-handed with the makeup.”

From the eyes, Starr traveled back up to the head, where it became clear to him that it was no headband this statue was wearing–that it was a hat he’d never seen on a Sumerian woman before. “The hat on the statue most closely resembles a shepherd hat, the crown of a Sumerian king,” he writes.

And from there, Starr writes as only he can about the minutest details to put Ku-Baba, the first woman ruler in history, back into the realm of possibility, giving me a chance to write about Ku-Baba like I had originally wanted.

The First Woman Ruler

Ku-Baba, Kug-Bau in Sumerian, is the only female monarch on the Sumerian King List. She ruled between 2500 BC and 2330 BC. On the list itself, she is identified as:

… the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish, became king she ruled for 100 years.

Every source I came across in my research, including Starr, questioned how a woman who was a tavern-keeper became king. They then went on to explain that tavern keeping was one of many occupations Mesopotamian women could hold. Now, aside from Starr, said sources all described tavern keeping as a well-respected occupation, even while some mentioned that taverns in Sumer were pretty much brothels. This complicates further the rationale of a woman tavern-keeper becoming king, but in her About.com article titled, “Kubaba, A Queen Among Kings,” Carly Silver writes, “Regardless of what kind of show they were running, women often ran taverns, holding perhaps one of the only independent female positions of power in ancient Sumer.”

Silver drives home the rather high status of the tavern-keeper profession by mentioning Siduri, the female tavern-keeper Gilgamesh meets in the Underworld in his quest for immortality in the epic of his namesake. In it, the tavern-keeper gives Gilgamesh, a powerful god-king, sage advice about the nature of human life, how short it is, and how one ought to enjoy it.

“So, in what was probably a very important epic even in antiquity,” she writes, “a female tavern-keeper was seen as a guide along perilous paths and a figure worthy of veneration.”

Conversely, Starr’s description of the status of a tavern-keeper, or barmaid, is one that is very different from Silver’s. He writes, “Throughout history, a barmaid was typically considered to be a woman of loose morals, freely available to the patrons of the tavern, and little better than a common prostitute.”

So, how can this be? Several sources commend tavern keeping as a respectable occupation, almost making it sound like it was a foot in the door for Ku-Baba to become queen in her own right, while one all but ascribes it to prostitutes.

It helps that Starr does mention a distinction between a mere barmaid who slings drinks and provides patrons with her company, and someone who owns the establishment where this business takes place, a distinction other sources do not mention. Starr also classifies an owner of a tavern as “middle class,” while iterating that the employee slinging the drinks is “a commoner, and a lowly commoner at that.”

Furthermore, in order to see more clearly how tavern keeping relates to Ku-Baba’s rise to royalty, it helps to look at the picture in a different way.

According to Starr, even though there is no question Ku-Baba was a commoner, she might not have been a tavern-keeper. Starr states in his post that it was her parents who were tavern-keepers, a nugget he says her enemies distorted and used against her to tarnish her reputation and legacy. “I believe Ku-Baba was unfairly characterized as a bawd (the usual description of a female barkeeper) for propaganda reasons,” Starr writes. “I believe it was a deliberate attempt to sully her reputation. It is the kind of thing her enemies would say about her.”

Bottom line, we must let go of the idea that Ku-Baba was a tavern-keeper to get to the bottom of how she became a queen in her own right, because everything is questionable when you have an enemy, which she did, according to Starr.

And who was that enemy, you ask? Sargon of Akkad, our favorite baby in a basket here at AllMesopotamia.

Again, I point you toward Starr’s article for a more comprehensive telling of this story and presentation of the case involving Ku-Baba’s previous profession, but Sargon of Akkad usurped the throne of Kish from Ur-Zababa, Ku-Baba’s grandson, 31 years after her death, serving as background for Starr’s conclusion.

But how did Ku-Baba take the throne?

In her article titled “Ku-Bau, the First Woman Ruler,” Darci Clark writes, “In general, other women in Mesopotamian society would only be able to exert any political influence through their relationships to the king.”

Starr echoes Clark’s statement: “Sumerian queens were always the wives of kings. They never governed on their own.”

Okay, but would a king marry a commoner?

“Although it is highly unlikely that a king would marry a commoner,” Starr explains, “it is certainly within the realm of possibility.”

It’s possible Ku-Baba married a king, but there is no mention of such a thing happening in ancient texts. Nevertheless, a king was involved. According to Clark, Ku-Baba became lugal of Kish after performing an act of kindness. It seems that a king–Puzur-Nirah, king of Akshak, namely–awarded Ku-Baba her kingship for a “pious deed.”

Researching this further, I came across an article on the website History Hustle, titled “Kubaba, the Bartender Who Became the First Woman Ruler in History,” which pointed me toward the Weidner Chronicle, an interesting ancient Babylonian religious text, where the deed and its reward are described:

In the reign of Puzur-Nirah, king of Akšak . . . Kubaba gave bread to the fisherman and gave water, she made him offer the fish to Esagila. Marduk the king, the prince of Apsu, favored her and said: “Let it be so!” He entrusted to Kubaba the tavernkeeper, sovereignty over the whole world. (Lines 43-45, Weidner Chronicle)

A Feminine Legacy

Very little is known about Ku-Baba’s reign. We do know that she made Kish strong, and that she reigned for 100 years. It is easy to conclude then that she was a successful monarch. Really, there’s no way she could have not been.

Starr writes, “Any female pretender to the throne who didn’t do an excellent job would quickly find herself in the middle of a coup d’état. She was capable enough, and respected enough, to stay in power and establish a dynasty.”

That dynasty, the 4th Dynasty of Kish, lasted for two generations, ending with the above-mentioned Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Suen, son of Ku-Baba. Not bad for a woman living in a man’s world, and a man’s world it was.

Carly Silver writes that Ku-Baba’s was remembered by later generations as an improper usurper. They would also refer to Ku-Baba when describing things that are not as they should be–women taking on men’s roles has never been popular. “By taking on the duties of a man – a king – Kubaba was seen to have crossed a boundary and transcended gender divisions in an improper fashion,” Silver writes.

Ku-Baba was also referenced when a lung didn’t look so good, or a child was born with both male and female genitalia. “Combining male and female genitalia in an individual would echo her reign as lugal, or king, which the ancients saw as violating the natural order of things,” Silver writes.

Nonetheless, Ku-Baba lived in people’s memories until Babylonian times, becoming a goddess. “But she was still a barmaid,” Starr explains. “She is portrayed as a kindly woman in all of the stories about her . . . Ku-Baba never lost the ‘common touch’. Queen Ku-Baba was always ‘the people’s queen’.”

Whether her legacy when she was an actual memory was a positive or negative one, today, in 2017, Ku-Baba’s legacy is that of (written) history’s first woman ruler, one who could only be slandered by a past that might have been falsified by her enemy, and one whose ascendancy to the throne was built upon kindness.


One Lyre for humanity

When the Baghdad Museum was looted and vandalized in April 2003, most of us could only stand by and watch in horror as part of the world’s history and humanity was lost. And after the initial shock wore off, and for some it never did, some great people got to work right away to restore what was lost.

I’m unfortunately not one of those people, but I’m going to tell you about two such men, one, a pioneer of Mesopotamian archaeology, and the other a musician with passion, both of who do in the most legitimate way possible qualify as members of that elite of humanity.

Before I do that, I will tell you about this, the Golden Lyre of Ur:

The Golden Lyre of Ur on display at the Baghdad Museum before the looting.

This Golden Lyre of Ur was one of thousands of items that fell victim to the looters that awful day in 2003. It is believed to be as much as 4,750 years old. If I may take a moment to put into perspective just how old 4,750 years old is: the Golden Lyre of Ur predates Christianity, Judaism and the construction of the Great Pyramid in Egypt…

Originally excavated with more than a dozen other stringed instruments in 1929 by British archaeologist, Sir Leonard Woolley from the Royal Graves of Ur, the Golden Lyre of Ur was found in the grave of Queen Pu’abi. Queen Pu’abi is believed to have died in 2600 BC.

Queen Pu’abi’s crowned and jewel-adorned body was found along with 74 other bodies, 68 of who were female. The males and females found were all wearing the same type of clothing and each holding a vessel believed to have contained the poison they all drank for their mass suicide. This was part of their duty to their queen as sacrificial victims.

One of those unfortunate females was the Golden Lyre player, whose hand bones were found placed over where the strings would have been.

Sir Leonard Woolley holding a Lyre like the one found in Queen Pu'abi's grave.

The wooden sections of the Golden Lyre had decayed over the centuries, so Woolley used careful methods to avoid damaging the ancient find any further, which aside from wood, was also made of gold, lapis lazuli, gulf shell, pink limestone and bitumen. Before removing the fragile ancient find from the ground, Woolley poured plaster of Paris to fill in the deteriorated parts of the wood and then covered the whole thing with strips of waxed cloth to hold it all together.

If it weren’t for Woolley’s care in excavating such a fragile and ancient piece of humanity’s history, I definitely would not be sitting here writing about the details of the Golden Lyre of Ur, and the wonderful project I’m about to tell you about might not have ever been completed, or even thought of.

Up until Andy Lowings, a harp enthusiast from England, felt a calling to recreate the Golden Lyre of Ur using all the materials used all those thousands of years ago, the instrument was unplayable. And now, after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in April 2003, the Golden Lyre of Ur is not even displayable, as it lies in broken pieces.

The Golden Lyre of Ur after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in 2003. Lowings said at a conference at the Library of Congress in March 2009: "It was vandalized and found broken in the car park."

Enter Lowings and an amazing network of people who care about the history of humanity formed a partnership of sorts that kept growing in size and contributions from universities across the globe, South African gold mines, the Royal goldsmith of Prince Charles, and even the British Royal Air Force, among other unlikely contributors– and a playable and as-close-to-authentic-as-possible Golden Lyre of Ur is now in existence.

You can read the details of how the Sumerian scenes were etched onto the Lyre with lasers and laser engineers at the University of Liverpool in this document.

The project began in 2003, shortly after the original Lyre was destroyed, and Lowings wanted every detail to be recreated, from the golden bullhead, to the Iraqi cedar wood used in the body of the Lyre. The project took three years to complete, and a labor of love–a love of music, of history, of humanity.

You can watch and hear Andy Lowings describe the three years of The Golden Lyre of Ur Project in his warm and compelling way of speaking in this video, recorded at a seminar at the Library of Congress in Washington DC, in March of 2009.

Listen to this piece of music from the strings of Lowings’s reconstructed Golden Lyre of Ur and you might want to ask Lowings to bring this instrument (valued at $50,000) to your next educational event:

Today, Lowings’s project has brought with it a CD of the Lyre’s music and a group that will go wherever they are needed to perform and educate the world about the cradle of civilization, and one of the many tools it gave us to explore our humanity.


10 Medieval Torture Devices

­The period known as the Middle Ages stands out as one­ of ­the most violent eras in history. This epoch, lasting roughly 1,0­00­ years, from the 5th century to the 15th­, was a time of great inequality and brutality in much of Europe.

What really sets this time apart is the ghoulish inventiveness that gave rise to a plethora of torture methods. There were many grounds for torture during the Middle Ages -- religious fervor and criminal punishment come to mind -- but why would a person take the time to invent a device designed to maim?

In his 1975 b­ook "A History of Torture in England," L.A. Parry attempted to explain this bizarre phenomenon:

­". What strikes us most in considering the mediaeval tortures, is not so much their diabolical barbarity … as the extraordinary variety, and what may be termed the artistic skill, they displayed. They represent a condition of thought in which men had pondered long and carefully on all the forms of suffering, had compared and combined the different kinds of torture, till they had become the most consummate masters of their art, had expended on the subject all the resources of the utmost ingenuity, and had pursued it with the ardour of a passion."

In this article, we will explore a collection of the most heinous torture devices ever invented. We begin on the next page.

­The Brazen Bull was a hollow brass statue crafted to resemble a real bull. Victims we­re placed inside, usually with their tongues cut out first. The door was shut, sealing them in. Fires would then be lit around the bull. As the victim succumbed to the searing heat inside, he would thrash about and scream in agony. The movements and sounds, muted by the bull's mass, made the apparatus appear alive, the sounds inside like those of a real bull. This effect created additional amusement for the audience, and served the added benefit of distancing them from the brutality of the torture, since they couldn't directly see the victim.

Legend has it that this device was invented by a Greek named Perillus (Perilaus in some sources) for a tyrant named Phalaris of Agrigentum. Expecting a handsome reward for his creativity, Perillus instead became the first person placed inside the Brazen Bull. By some reports, Phalaris himself became an eventual victim of the bull when his subjects grew tired of his mistreatment [source: Gallonio].

Some courts used torture to determine if someone accused of a crime was truly guilty. This torture would take strange forms: Someone's arm would be forced into boiling water, and the verdict would be based on how well the arm healed days later. Other courts simply tortured people to get them to confess to the crime. The courts themselves even recognized, in their twisted way, that a confession given under torture held no legal meaning. Such a confession had to be confirmed by the victims while not being tortured within 24 hours. If they refused, however, they were simply tortured until they confessed again [source: Innes].

­Thumbscrews represent a very insid­ious form of torture. You weren't likely to die from their use, but they created unendurable agony. The device consisted of three upright metal bars, between which the thumbs were placed. A wooden bar slid down along the metal bars, pressing the thumbs against the bottom. A screw pressed the wood bar downward, crushing the thumbs painfully. The thumbscrews were an elaboration of an earlier device known as the pilliwinks, which could crush all 10 fingers and resembled a nutcracker [source: Parry].

Thumbscrews supposedly originated with the Russian army as a punishment for misbehaving soldiers. A Scottish man brought a set home with him and introduced them to the United Kingdom [Kellaway and Parry].

Up next, a very old and very familiar medieval torture device, plus some variations on a theme.

Torture was often included as part of a judicial sentence against a criminal. Authorities responded to increases in crime rates by enacting excruciating tortures upon convicted criminals, usually in a very public manner. The horrifying nature of the punishment was meant to deter other criminals. While the most serious offenses (high treason, mass murder) resulted in severe torture, children were sometimes hanged for stealing food, so not everyone who visited the torturer's chamber was a hardened criminal.

The rack was used throughout Eu­rope for centuries. It came in many forms, but here's the basic idea: The victim is tied down while some mechanical device, usually a crank or turning wheel, tightens the ropes, stretching the victim's body until the joints are dislocated. Continued pressure could cause the limbs to be torn right off. Such torture was known as being "broken on the rack," "racked," or "stretched on the rack." It could be combined with other forms of torture to make things even more painful. In one story, a Christian youth was tied to a wheel and his joints destroyed by the stretching. A fire was lit beneath the wheel, adding to the torture. Eventually, the fire was extinguished by the downpour of blood as the victim's limbs were torn free [source: Gallonio].

One type of rack was known as the Horse. It was a wooden device that vaguely resembled an actual horse in shape. The victim was tied to a beam on the top (the horse's "back"), facing up. Pulleys below tightened ropes affixed to the victim's hands and feet. He or she was stretched until his or her joints dislocated, then left there or slackened and allowed to hang underneath the horse while an inquisitor or judge questioned the victim and tried to get a confession [source: Gallonio]. Torquemada, the infamous torturer of the Spanish Inquisition, was known to favor a stretching rack known as a potoro [source: Goldberg & Itzkowitz].

Wheels were adapted to many torturous u­ses. They could be part of a stretching rack, but medieval torturers were far too creative to leave it at that. Early torturers were fond of tying someone to a large wooden wheel, then pushing it down a rocky hillside. A more elaborate method involved a wheel mounted to an A-frame that allowed it to swing freely. The victim would be tied to the wheel, and then swung across some undesirable thing below -- fire was always a good choice, but dragging the victim's flesh across metal spikes also worked well. The wheel itself could also have spikes mounted on it, so the pain came from all directions. Instead of swinging, the wheel might turn on an axle. The difference was likely immaterial to the victims.

One of the most horrible wheel tortures was akin to crucifixion. The victim would have the bones in all four limbs broken in two places by strikes from an iron bar. Then, the shattered limbs were threaded through the spokes of a large wheel. Finally, the wheel would be attached to the top of a tall wooden pole and left out in the sun for days. The victim might be alive for hours, enduring the agony of his or her mangled arms and legs and the relentless sun, not to mention the attentions of crows [source: Hunt].

Next, we'll learn about two torture methods that were still used even after the Middle Ages had ended.

Bein­g burned at the stake was usually the last stop for torture victims, because this form of torture was invariably fatal. Conceptually, it's a very simple process -- create a pile of dry wood with a stake at the center to tie the victim to, and then light it. The fire does all the work. It usually took about a half an hour before the victim lost consciousness, but if it was windy and the fire was blowing away from the victim, he or she might have to endure up to two hours of being slowly burned to death [source: Bachrach]. Since the victims had usually been previously tortured with the rack or some other method, the pain must have been unimaginable. Despite the horror of simply being burned at the stake, the torturers of the Inquisition in the Netherlands developed a particularly cruel twist: Prior to being tied to the stake, the victim's tongue would be sandwiched between two hot iron plates. The scorched and swollen tongue would only allow strange, muffled screams of pain once the burning began, which supposedly added a great deal to the audience's entertainment.

The cruel irony of the Inquisition's practice of burning people at the stake was that it happened whether you confessed or not. Once accused of heresy, you would almost certainly be consumed by fire. However, if you confessed, you would be strangled to death before the fire was lit, supposedly sparing you the agony. This practice didn't die out at the end of the Middle Ages, however. Both women and men accused of witchcraft were burned at the stake in England, France and other locales well into the 17th century.

The pillory remained in use even later than the stake. A pillory is a­ set of two parallel wooden boards clasped together, with holes for the neck and wrists. When opened, the victim places his or her head and arms through the holes. Then the pillory is closed, and the victim can't possibly escape.

The pillory itself does no harm to the victim, though it's certainly not comfortable. The entire apparatus was usually placed on a stage in a public place -- the entire point was to humiliate and shame the victim for his or her crimes. The crowd would throw objects at the victim, such as rotten vegetables, dead animals or feces. Stones and other blunt objects were thrown as well, which could result in painful injuries or death.

While a spell in the pillory often only lasted an hour or two, usually during the busiest times of day, its effect really depended on the nature of the crime and the mood of the crowd. Four English men who had falsely accused others of crimes to get the reward (sending innocents to the hangman's noose) were beaten to death by the crowd. Others who won the crowd's favor by refusing to pay unjust taxes or mocking government officials were showered with flowers or rescued from the pillory outright [source: Kellaway]. For lesser crimes, the victim might instead be placed in stocks, leg irons that restrained the ankles. While the goal of public humiliation was the same, the stocks allowed victims to protect themselves from thrown objects.

Sometimes, the vengeful crowd was the least of the victim's concerns. The pillory could be accompanied by other punishments, such as flogging or mutilation. British authorities favored branding the face with a mark of shame, such cutting off one or both ears, or slicing the nose lengthwise [sources: Farrington and Parry].

The next section features one of the most infamous torture devices of all time, plus its lesser known cousin.


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